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History of Air Education 

Training Command 



IV -'I 






Thomas A. Manning 
Command Historian 

Dr Bruce A. Ashcroft 
Richard H. Emmons 

Ann K. Hussey 
Dr Joseph L. Mason 

Office of History and Research 

Headquarters, Air Education and Training Command 

Randolph Air Force Base, Texas 



For over sixty years, Air Education and Training Command has delivered unrivaled Air and Space training 
and education. The mission was and continues to be diverse, dynamic and crucial to the future of our Air Force. We 
develop America's Airmen today... for tomorrow, by recruiting the force, training the force and educating the force. 
The challenge to make this a reality is huge and demands extraordinary professionals to "make it happen." 
Fortunately, we are blessed in AETC with highly motivated, uniquely talented, and totally dedicated warriors who 
accept this challenge every day. 

In the dynamic world we confront today, with its ever-changing demands and threats, we will constantly be 
required to adapt our training and education to meet the Air Force's needs and requirements. This will require 
innovative thinking and flexible approaches to ensure we remain the recognized world center of excellence for 
training and education. 

This history of AETC teaches us how our predecessors responded to the challenges of World War II, 
Korea, Vietnam, and the many post-Cold War operations, including the Global War on Terror, as well as the day-to- 
day development of training methods and technology in peacetime. The pages of this book highlight significant 
events in the evolution of recruiting and military training, technical training, flying training, and education in AETC. 
It gives me great pleasure to present this history, which serves not only as a reference book, but also documents the 
valuable lessons we h»«r«iaBmed q>w the first sixty years of the command. 




A work of this scope, covering such a long span 
of years, can be done only with the help of a great 
many people. This hisior\ rests squarely on the 
foundational work of our predecessors in the Air 
Education and Training Command history office in 
their seminal book, the History of Air Training 
Command. I'J4}-I993. Former members of the 
history office. CMSgt Robert J. Davis and Dr Karl D. 
Preuss. wrote passages and contributed ideas in the 
early stages of that undertaking. Others, notably Mr 
Lawrence R. Benson. Dr Dennis F. Casey. Mr Lloyd 
H. Cornett. Jr.. Mr Jerome A. Ennels. Mr Jay E. 
Hines. Dr J. Dillard Hunley. Mr David W. Shurcliffe. 
Mr Edgar P. Sneed. and Mr Warren A. Trest. made a 
real contribution through the monographs and special 
studies they prepared while part of the .AETC history 
program. Mrs Edith J. Taylor spent hours looking at 
reels of microfilm and locating missing pieces to the 
puzzle in dusty storage boxes. Last but not least. Ms 
Patricia E. Parrish and Mr Dick J. Burkard took on 
the Herculean task of laying out the entire book. 
Without their countless hours of overtime, the first 
edition would ne\'er ha\e left the drafting table. 

Current members of the AETC history office, 
Dr Bruce A. Ashcroft and Mr Richard H. Emmons, 
wrote substantial sections of the first edition. 

A host of other people assisted in a \ariety ot 
v\ays. Mr Joe Lopez and Ms Lydia Rodriguez from 
Air Education and Training Command's manpower 
office pro\ ided the answers to innumerable questions 
about unit designations and the command's 
organizational structure. Mrs Susie Lealherwuod. a 
member of the cisil engineering staff, helped fill 
several gaps in the appendix dealing with AETC 
bases, and Mr Ollie Barker, from the logistics staff, 
was able to resolve our questions about trainer 

Mcdriff from the command's intelligence shop 
helped inimeasurabh \\ith the computer scanning of 
photographs and art work. 

The new photos for the second eiluion were 
more easily obtained from our collection of 
phott)graphs. digital photographs from the last decade 
of the command's histories, and official \w Force 

Updating the eariier edition was not a trivial 
matter. Dr Joseph L. Mason and S.Sgt Oscar M. Vega 
spent many weeks recovering and reformatting the 
outdated computer files and photos that comprised 
the earlier edition. In some instances, the old material 
has been altered or updated in this edition. 

All members of the AETC histor) office 
contributed to this edition. Dr Mason extensively 
used the research of historians .Ann K. Hussey. Dr 
Ashcrofi. and Mr Emmons to write the new material. 
Mr Thomas A. Manning. AETC Command Historian, 
edited the entire manuscript. 

This sixtieth anniversary history was therefore a 
collaborative effort by the staff of the History and 
Research Office. With the help of all those mentioned 
above, we did our best to get it right. Any errors of 
fact or interpretation are ours alone. 

Finding the right photograph was a continuing 
challenge. For the man\ old photographs in the first 
edition, we received help from scores of sources, 
ranging from the San Anfonio Express-News, to the 
public library in Fort Worth. Texas, to the historical 
society in Boca Raton. Ilorida. to the Eighth Air 
Force history office at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. 
We are also indebted to the National Archives and 
Records Administration, the National Air and Space 
Museum, and the Department of Defense Still Media 
Records Center for their extensive collections of 
aviation photos. Most of all the command's history 
offices repeatedly came up with the photos v\e 
needed. Similady, the folks in the 12th Flying 
Training Wing's media center at Randolph AFB were 
helpful in copying untokl lunuhers of prints and 
con\erting slides into photographs. SSgt Larry L. 




Air Education and Traniin<; 
Command (AETC) traces its lineage 
back to 23 January 1942. v\hen the War 
Department constituted and actnaicd 
the Army Air Corps Flying Trainnig 
Command. The purpose of this \olume 
is to recount and commemorate the first 
60 years of AETC history, but the 
history of aviation training in the United 
States military began much earlier. On S 
October 1909. Wilbur Wright began 
instructing Lieutenants Frank P. Lahm 
and Frederic E. Humphreys on Signal 
Corps Airplane No. I, which the Army 
had recently purchased from the Wright 
brothers. Each of the two men recei\ed 
a little over three hours training before 
soloing on 26 October 1909. 

With his <;iouiid i:re«. Lt Benjamin D. Foulois (second from 
right) stands in front of the W right Type B airplane at Fort Sam 
Houston, Texas. The Army had mo\ed flyin}; operations from 
College Park, Mars land, to Fort Sam Houston for the winter. On 
2 March 19H), Foulois made his First solo llighl, and by 
September he had made 61 practice llights. 


Flyinii training in the Army remained on this small scale until the outbreak of World W;u- 1. During the course of 
that uar. appro\imatel> 23.000 \olunteers entered Hying cadet training. Eight private and state universities offered 
pretlight (ground school) training. Primary and advanced training were more of a problem because, in .-^pril 1917 
when the United States entered the war. the Army had fewer than 100 flying officers and only three flying fields-- 
Mineola. New York; Essington. Pennsylvania: and San Diego. California. Because it would take a long time to con- 
struct adequate training facilities in the United States. Canada provided Hying bases during the summer of 1917 so 
that several hundred American cadets could begin primary tlving training. By Christmas 15 US training bases were 
available, a number expanded to 27 in the United States and 16 in Europe b\ the end ot the war. Here cadets 
underwent six to eight weeks of primar\ pilot training, including 40-.^() hours in the air. usualls in a Curtiss JN-4. 

Of the 23.000 who had begun preflight 
training during World War I. oxer 1 1.000 
received their wings and were 
commissioned before entering four weeks 
of advanced training either in the United 
States or Europe. Bombing instruction 
occurred primarily at Ellington Field. 
t^;^'^ — U jBM| ^ -^^mB Texas. Taliaferro Field. Texas, among 

P^ Trr^.,.^- '~**^ JSlKr^^^rP '"h^"' locations, provided observation 

training, while pursuit (lighter) courses 
were restricted to France because ol a lack 
of necessary equipment in the United 
States. Brooks Field. Texas, contained the 
jirincipal instructor's school. Because the 
United States was in World War I only lor 
a vear and a half antl entered it so 
unprepared, only about 1.000 of the 
11.000 aviators trained during the war 
were actually involved in operations 
against the enemy. Most of these 
operations consisted of artillery 
observation or air-to-air combat, American annien conlunied 491 "kills" of Cierman aircraft, of which 462 were 
credited to 63 pilots officially classified as aces. In addition, there were .^7 confirmed losses of enemy balloons as a 


In World War I, aviation cadets at Kellv Field. Ie\as, learned 
to n\ the hi-v\ing ( urtiss .IN-4 ".lennv." Alter completing 
training, graduates went to France for pursuit instruction 
before reporting to their combat units. 


result of American action. Although there were some criticisms of pilot training during World War 1. on balance it 
appears that the pilot training program was no mean achievement. 

Rapid demobili/^ation followed the end of World War I. and despite the experience of that contlict. the Army's air 
arm remained quite small during most of the interwar period, although there was a five-year expansion program 
after 1926 in response to the outspoken agitation of airpower advocates. Meanwhile-after a hiatus in training during 

Brooks Field. Texas, was one of 27 flying fields the United States used for training pilots in 
World War I. Most fields were in the southern states, where (lying conditions were generally 
good all year round. 

|y|9-primary pilot instruction resumed on a small scale at March Field. California, and Carlstrom Field. Florida, in 
January 1920. Advanced training at that time included the Observation School at Post Field, Fort Sill. Oklahoma, 
and both pursuit antl bombardnieni instruction at Kelly Field. Texas. However, the administrative difficulties of 
training about 200 Hying cadets concurrently at such widely separated locations prompted a decision in 1921-1922 
to centralize all flying training in San Antonii>. Texas-considered to be an ideal location because of climate and 
other factors. 

Brooks Field became the center for primary training and Kelly for advanced training. Each phase of instruction 
lasted about six months initially, with advanced training later divided into three months each of basic and ad\anced 
instruction. In 1927 basic moved out of the advanced phase and combined with primary. At that point, primary-basic 
changed to eight months in length and ad\anced to four months. With the beginning of the five-year expansion 
program in 1926. the new Air Corps decided to eliminate one defect in this training arrangement-the fact that the 
two"^ fields operated as separate commands-by establishing the Air Corps Training Center in San Antonio with one 
of the Army's first tv\o pilots. Brig Gen (and later MaJ Gen) Frank P. Lahm. as its first commander ( 1 September 
1926-16 July 1930). The new command consisted of the primary and advanced schools plus the School ot 
Aviation Medicine at Brooks Field. As the new center began to carry out its mission of improving supervision of 
flying training, it disccnered that facilities in the San Antonio area were insufficient to accommodate the expanded 
nuinber of cadets entering primary training. Hence, in violation of the principle of geographic concentration, 
primary pilot training resumed ai March Field. California, from 1927 to 19.^1. 

* The organizational beginning of aviation in the Army occurred on I August 1907 with the establishment of the 
Aeronaut!' al Division in the Signal Corps (redesignated the Aviation Section on IS July 1914). On 24 May 1918. 
the Army • ated the Air Scr\ ice. followed on 2 Jul\ 1926 b\ the Air Corps. 

" He was succeeded by six other commanders, the last of whom was Brig Gen Barton K. ^ ount (4 August 1938- 
25 January 1939). Yount later served as the first commander of the Army Air Corps Flying Training Command. 


Flying cadets refuel an airplane under (he direction of an enlisted instructor at Brooks Field, 

Another problem for the training center was the growth ot the cit\ of San Antonio, uliich created hazards for 
training. ConsequentK. in June 1927 Genera! Lahni suggested the construction of a suigle large field outside of the 
cit> to house all n> ing training. Congress funded the new field's construction but not the purchase of the land, so the 
city of San Antonio borrowed the $546,000 needed to purchase the site selected for what became Randolph Field. 
By the fall of 1931. construction was essentially completed, so the Air Corps Training Center at Duncan Field, 
adjacent to Kelly, and the primary schools at Brooks and March moved to the new installation. Randolph Field was 
named in memory of Capt William M. Randolph, who was adjutant at Kelly and had died at Gorman. Texas, on 17 
February 1928. while taking off for a return llight to Kelly. The new lield. which constituted the largest construction 
project for the Army Corps of Engineers since the Panama Canal, came to be known initially as the "West Point of 
the Air" and then, following establishment of the United States Air Force Academy in \955. as the "Show place of 
the Air Force." Lieutenant Harold Clark, later a brigadier general who retired in San Antonio, laid out the design for 

Advanced training remained at Kelly because experience showetl ihal Randolph lieid would become quite 
congested with only primary and basic training located iheie. follow mg the 5-year expansion, the number of pilots 
in training declined until only 184 graduated in 1937. compared to an average of 257 per year during the expansion. 
But w ith the emergence of German) as a major threat, the Air Corps proposed another period of expansion to train 
4,500 pilots over a two-year period. Consequently, it contracted with nine civilian tlying schools to provide primary 
flying training beginning in 1939, while Randolph handled basic training, now completely separate from primary. 
Kelly Field, \vith Brooks as a subpost, took care of advanced flying training. In July 1939 the lull course of Hying 
instruction was shortened in length from a year to nine months-three for each phase. Primary training included 65 
hours of Hying instruction and basic and advanced training included 75 hours each--a total of 215 hours instead o\ 
the 279 under the year-long program. Subsequently, each phase was reduced further to ID and then 9 weeks before 
climbing back to 10 weeks in 1944. 

Meanwhile, the number of primaiA contract schools expamicd lo 41 In the time ot ihc .lapaiiese attack on Pearl 
Harbor and lo 60 at various times in 1943--the peak year for numbers ot pilots tiaincd -.ilthough not all of them 
were open at one time. (There were also other contract schools, including 23 for glider pilot training and 4 for basic 
training, but most basic ll\ing training was provided by acli\e tlut\ Hying units.) 


.•tlW ' 

.• • iw-Mit? 

This is an aerial view (looklnj; soutii) ol liaiuiolpli I ield, I t\as. taken In Detember 1931. Known for many 
years as the "West Point of the Air." Randolph's unique layout was designed by Lt Harold L. Clark. The field 
was named for Capt William M. Randolph, who was killed in an aircraft accident on 17 February 1928. 

In this aerial view of Randolph Field, you arc looking toward the installation's most famous 
landmark— the " laj Mahal." Randolph ^^as dedicated on 20 .lune 1930 as a fl\ln}; training base. 


Through most of the 1930s, the Air Corps conducted all primary and basic flying trainin" at Randolph. 
These PT-13s lined up at Randolph Field were the principal trainers used in the primary phase. 

As the flow of students from these primary schools to basic training at Randolph increased from 257 in the first 
class in 1939 to over 2.()()() per class at the end of 1941. basic trainins: expanded to other fields. Instruction began at 
Maxwell Field. Alabama, in September 1940. and by January 1944 there were 31 fields involved in basic training. 
Advanced training also expanded, adding tv\ in-engine instruction to the prewar single-engine format. The first field 
to offer single-engine training was Craig Field. Alabama, in August 1940. Soon after. Brooks and Kelly Fields 
began twin-engine training. 

Upon graduation from advanced irammg. sualcnts 
received their wings and licutonaiii bars and then went on 
to transition training in fighters, bombers, and transpiirts. 
The continental air forces conducted the latter training in 
the early years of World War II. but it became the 
responsibility of the new A.AF Flying Training Command 
in 1942. The organization of the rapidh expanding pilot 
training program also evolved. At the beginning of 1939. 
General Yount was still Commanding General, Air Corps 
Training Center, and he also held the title of Assistant 
Chief of the Air Corps for Training. The expansion of the 
A'lT Corps led its chief Maj Gen Henry H. (Hap) .Arnold, 
to transfer General Yount to Washington. D.C.. where he 
headed the Training Group, later redesignated the 
Training and Operations Division. 

On S ,luly 1940. the Air Corps redesignated its training 
center at Randolph as the Gulf Coast .Air Corps Training 
Center and established two additional training centers to 
manage the growing number of Hying schools. The 
Southeast Air Corps Training Center headquartered at 
Maxwell Field manageil those in ihe eastern third of the 
nation. The redesignated Gulf Coast Air Corps Training 
Center at Rantlolph handled those in the central sector, 
while the West Coast .Air Corps Training Center at 
Moffeit field. California (later moved to Santa Ana), managed those in the western tier. In July 1941 General "lount 
became the west coast center commander. Then, on 28 January 1942, he assumed command of the newly established 
Air Corps Flying Training Command, which was to he headquartered in Fort Worth. Texas. In July 1943 this 
command merized w ith the .AAF Technical Training Command to form the Army Air Forces Training Command. 

A re<iimenl of axialioii cadets is sIkhmi 
formation at Randolph Field in Ihe I94()s. 




Shown with IVlaj Gen B.K. Yount are seven of the 
eight men wh(» established the Air Corps' first nine 
contract primary schools: M. W. Balfour, O. L. 
Parl<s, H. S. Long. General V'ount, A. Hancock, 
C. C. Moseley, and E. W. Prudden (representing 
Claude Ryan). Not shown is E.S. Sias. 

In the late 1930s, the Air Corps conducted all pilot 
training in the vicinity of San Antonio. Texas. 
Randolph Field was the site of primary and basic 
training, while advanced training, took place across 
town at Kelly Field, with some training done at 
Brooks Field when necessary. This basing structure 
was sufficient for the small training program tliat 
graduated only 301 pilots in fiscal year 1938. 

Though Europe was on the verge of war, the 
pre\ailing viewpoint in the United States was 
isolationism. The American public (and many in 
government) did not want to get involved. In the 
absence of a firm political commitment to shore up 
the nation's defenses, military planners had to look for 
alternative ways to get the Job done. That caused Maj 
Gen Henry H. Arnold to investigate the possibility of 
using civilian Hying schools to supplement the Air 
Corps' few flying training schools. In September 
1938 he opened preliminary talks with three 
prominent Hying school operators. General Arnold 
then appointed a board of officers to examine the 
issue. Two months later the board recommended 
contracting with civilian schools to provide primary 
pilot training for 4,500 trainees in two years at a 
projected cost of S2() per fl\ ing hour. 

Following the board's recommcndaiion. the Air 
Corps established criteria for contract primary schools 
and began a search. It limited consideration to 
schools certified by the Civil Aeronautics Authority 

to conduct advanced private pilot training— roughly 
equivalent to Air Corps primary training. During 
the winter of 1938-39, officials inspected 14 
schools and chose nine to begin training on 1 July 
1939: Santa Maria, San Diego, and Glendale, 
California: Dallas, Texas: Tulsa. Oklahoma: East 
St Louis and Glenview, Illinois; Lincoln, 
Nebraska; and Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 

According to the contract, the government 
supplied students with training aircraft, flying 
clothes, textbooks, and equipment. The Air Corps 
also put a detachment at each school to supervise 
training. Schools furnished instructors, training 
sites and facilities, aircraft maintenance, quarters, 
and mess halls. From the Air Corps, schools 
received a flat fee of $ 1 , 1 70 for each graduate and 
$18 per flying hour for students eliminated from 

Following the fall of France in 1940, the Au- 
Corps upped its pilot production goal to 7,000 per 
year, too much for the nine contract schools to 
handle. To meet that goal, the Air Corps increased 
the capacity of its schools and added more contract 
primary schools. At one time or another during 
World War II. 64 contract schools conducted 
primary training, with a maximum of 56 schools 
operating at any one time. During the course of the 
war. the schools graduated approximately 250,000 
student pilots. 

The Lafayette, Louisiana, airport was one of 
several municipal airports that became 
contract living schools during World War IL 



Until the earK l^)3()s. pilots had been then- own 
navigators. Tiien as airlines began to make long- 
distance tlights. they added a navigator to the flight 
crew. The miliiai\. ho\\e\er. continued to treat 
navigation trainmg as part of pilot training. 
Consequentl\ when it. too. began to see a need for 
specialized navigators, in July 1940 the Army signed 
a contract with Pan American Airways. Incorporated, 
to provide training in navigation and meteorology to 
living cadets, an arrangement that continued until 
1944. In November 1940 the Air Corps opened its 
first navigator school at Barksdale Field, Louisiana. 
Cadres later went out from Barksdale to establish 
seven other schools across the country. 


Technical training developed almost as early as 
living training. The Armv air arm saw a need for 
skilled av iation mechanics and other technicians as it 
prepared for World War I. At first, men who already 
possessed some mechanical experience received 
training at civilian trade schools and state 
universities. The policy proved both expensive and 
unsatisfactorv . however, due to a lack of proper 
equipment and ct)mpetent instructors. The next 
expedient was to send the men to tlying fields for on- 
the-job training. Costly mistakes showed that this 
arrangement was also unsatisfactory. So the Army 
set up two mechanic schools, one at Kelly Field antl 
another in a large building in St Paul, Minnesota, that 
the War Department took ov er. 

Major Walter K. Weaver look charge ol the 
school at St Paul on 12 February 19 IS. Bv the end of 
World War I. his organization had graduated about 
5,000 men, nearly one-third of all mechanics trained 
during 1918 (including those trained in 34 civilian 
institutions). The school at Kelly Field had begun 
operations in October 1917, but did not function 
effectively until June 19 IS. when 1.000 students 
entered training. By Armistice Day, 1 1 November 
1918. Kelly had trained over 2,000 more mechanics. 
Though the school in St Paul closed after the war. 
Kellv remained in operation and trained some 5,000 
more mechanics before Januarv 1921. Then the Army 
decided to move a lepair depot from Dallas to 
consolidate it with a supply depot at Kelly, forcing 
the Air Service Mechanics School to move lo 
Chanute Field in Illinois. 

In the meantime, training in aerial photography 
for both officers and enlisted men began at Langlcy 

Field. Virginia, in 1917. The following year, the 
school sent students to Cornell University or the 
Easttnan Kodak Companv in Rochester, New York, 
for preliminary instruction before continuing with 
advanced training at Langley. Instruction in radio 
communication took place at an aviation instruction 
center near Tours, France, in 19 IS, and an Air 
Service Communications School was established at 
Fort Sill. Oklahoma, the follow ini; vear. 

' Later, as a major general. Weaver commanded the 
Army Air Forces Technical Training Command. 

In the late 19.^0s. photography trainin<; moved 
from ( hanutf Fiiki. Illinois, to Lo\>r\ Field, 
Colorado. I his photo taken in 1940 shows 
students usin<i 8-b>-l() inch \k'\\ canuras. 

The number of technical trainees declined after 
the war. The air service trained about 15.000 
technicians from 1920 to 1940. compared to roughly 
the same number of mechanics irainetl in a single 
year during World War II. 

In 1922 the photography school at Langley and 
the communications school at Fort Sill both joined 
the mechanics course at Chanute. congregating all 
technical training in the Air Service at that location. 
The three previously autonomous schools con- 
solidated to form the Air Service Technical School. 
redesignated the Air Corps Technical School in 1926. 
The former separate schools became departments, 
joined in I9.M) bv a Department of .Armament and 
three vears later by a Department of Clerical 
Instruction. In February 1938 Lowry Field. Colorado. 
came under the juristliclion of the Air Corps 
Technical School, still headquartered at Chanute. The 
Departments of Photography and Armament moved 
to Lowry, followed in September b\ the Department 
of Clerical Instruction. 

Scott lield, Illinois, came under the jurisdiction of 
the Chanute school in 1939. The Department of Basic 


Instruction, inaugurated in 1935 at Chanute. relocated 
to the new location. The department returned to 
Chanute. however, when Scott became a radio school 
in 1940. Subject matter from the basic course was 
incorporated into the various specialized programs at 
Scott, and four of the departments-mechanics, 
communications, photography, and armament-taught 
both officers and enlisted personnel. 

Keesler Field, Mississippi, was one of two new teclinical training bases the Air 
Corps established In 1941. Besides airplane and engine mechanic training, it also 
operated a basic trainins center. 

between 2,000 to 3.000 people. Technical trainmg 
bases, by contrast, ranged in size from 5,000 to as 
many as 30.000 people and required much more 
housing than flying training installations. Fortunately, 
many were located in or near urban areas where 
hotels and other housing facilities were available. 
Some hotels were even used for training. During the 
rapid expansion from February to October 1942, for 

example, the Army Air 
Forces took over a total 
of 452 hotels, as well as 
warehouses. theaters, 
convention halls, ath- 
letic fields, parking lots, 
and various other 
structures. The number 
of hotels at the peak of 
training included 337 in 
Miami Beach. Florida; 
62 in St Petersburg. 
Florida; 46 in Atlantic 
City. New Jersey; three 
in Chicago. Illinois; two 
in KnoUwood. North 
Carolina; and two in 
Grand Rapids. Mich- 

By mid- 1940 technical training started to expand 
more rapidly. Officer training came to include 
orientation for people directly commissioned from 
ci\ilian life, administrative officer candidate training, 
and mslruction in a \ariety of specialties including air 
intelligence, bombsight maintenance, engineering, 
and meteorology, in addition to the four mentioned 
above. Training for enlisted personnel also expanded 
to include such subjects as welding. Link training, 
parachute rigging. weather observation and 
forecasting, bombsight maintenance, and the 
maintenance of a variety of other technical equipment 
such as gunsights and power tuncts. 

By early November 1941. students were entering 
technical training at the rate of 1 lO.OOO per year, and 
after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the student 
flow rose sharply: 13.000 men entered technical 
training schools in January 1942 and 55.000 in 
December 1942. The peak occurred in March 1943, 
with 62.000 entrants. To accommodate the trainees, 
the AAF pressed civilian mechanics and factory 
schools into service, and many colleges and uni- 
versities offered training in certain specialties. 

JW number of military installations kept pace 
with 1 rapid increase in personnel. I.imiteil airspace 
and fl ; facilities restricted An in>j training fields to 

New technical 
training bases included 
Keesler Field. Mississippi, and Sheppard Field. 
Texas, both activated in 1941. Thereafter, the number 
of stations increased at a rapid pace. Already by 
October 1942. 15 AAF technical schools. 34 civilian 
contract mechanics schools. 7 basic training centers. 
5 universities, 5 commercial airline contract schools, 
and about 50 factory training schools provided 
technical training. In addition, there were other small 
technical training schiiols at various Flying Training 
Commanil and Sccimd Air Force bases. Because bad 
weather ilid not seriously hamper technical training 
the way it did flying training, many technical training 
bases were in the northern part of the country, 
whereas flying fields were concentrated in the south 
and along the west coast. 

The commandant of the Air Corps Technical 
School at Chanute had flnal authority for curricular 
development and supervised technical training in all 
Air Corps schools, hut he lacked command authority 
over the schools and the installations uhcrc they 
were located. To rectify this problem, the Air Corps 
established the Technical Training Command on 
26 March 1941 (redesignated Army Air Forces 
Technical Training Command in March 1942). The 
new command was responsible for the orientation, 
classification, basic, and technical training of enlisted 
men aiul the irainiiiL: of nonrated officers at officer 


candidate and officer trauiing schools and in 
technical suhjects like armanient. engineering, 
communications, and photographs. The headquarters 
of the new coniniand moved successively from 
Chanute to Tulsa. Oklahoma, in 1941. and then in 
1942 to Knollwood Field. North Carolina, until it 
merged with Flsing Training Command in 194.^. The 
first commander of Technical Training Command 
was Brig Gen (soon Maj Gen) Rush B. Lincoln, who 
became commandant of the Air Corps Technical 
School in October l^UO. On IS February 1942. he 
relinquished command to Maj Gen Walter R. 
Weaver, who remained the commander until the 
merger of the two component commands on 7 .liil\ 


Then in 1940 the War Department authorized the 
establishment of Air Corps enlisted re|ilacemenl 
centers lor the initial liaining of recruits. 

The Air Corps established the first of these centers 
at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, in the summer of 
1940. though formal activation did not occur until 
21 February 1941. That fall the Technical Training 
Command activated two more basic training centers 
at Keesler Field. Mississippi, and Sheppard Field. 
Texas, where the command already had mechanic 
schools. A group of officers and enlisted men from 
Scott Field became the initial staff for Jefferson 
Barracks, and it. in turn, provided cadres to staff the 
replacement training centers at Keesler antl Sheppard. 
These installations did the same for subsequent 
replacement training centers. 

Basic militar\ training was a major mission ot the 
Air Corps Technical School and. later. Technical 
Training Command. In the early days of technical 
training there was little emphasis on mihtars 
instruction. The iriechanic schools at St Paul and 
Kelly Field emphasized technical training, and for the 
following two decades, the amount of military 
training provided to new enlisted personnel 
undergoing technical instruction varied with their 
unit commanders, who had sole responsibility for the 
program. In 19.3.S efforts to change this arrangement 
began, but the real change occurred in 19.39 when the 
Army proposed that each component arm and service 
set up their own enlisted replacement centers. Air 
Corps policy had been to furnish initial basic training 
for recruits at established stations, followed by about 
a inonth's preparatory training at Scott Field, Illinois, 
before they went to Chanute for specialized training. 

At Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, basic traiiues took 
part in canioullajie traininj;. The aboM' pholo siiows a 
tliree-man niucliine "iin crew wearing camoutlage suits. 

riie basic (raining center 
ill \tlantic ( il\. Neu 
.lersej, included a rifle 
ran<;e >>lu're siiidenls 
learned inarksinanship 



Crowded conditions existed at all military training facilities. To handle the 
large number of trainees, schools housed students in open hay barracks like 
the one above at Sheooard Field. Texas. 

\N part of chemical warfare instruction, students donned gas masks and ran 
(he obstacle course. Ihe above photo sho«s (he rope climb at Keesler Field m 

Bv the time o\ the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Air contraction of the 

Corps had 21.()()() recruits at the three replacement 

training centers. The subsequently phenomenal 

growth of technical school quotas made these three 

cent inadequate to supply recruits for technical 

train so the number of basic training centers 

expanded to 12 (plus one 
provisional center) by the 
spring of 1943, including 
those at Miami Beach. St 
Petersburg, and Atlantic 
City. Shortly thereafter, the 
basic training mission de- 
clined in size because 
requirements for technical 
training centers were being 
met. Consequently, some of 
the 13 centers inactivated, 
while others moved to 
technical training centers 
such as AmariUo Field. 
Texas, that had previously 
not had replacement training 

The length of basic 
training varied over time. 
For more than a year after 
Pearl Harbor, it remained at 
four weeks, but then it 
increased to two months, 
with some exceptions. In 
1944 and 1945 there were 
further fluctuations in length 
from six to nine weeks. 
Sometimes, however, quotas 
for technical training caused 
enlisted men to be removed 
from basic training before 
they had completed it. As a 
result, continental air forces 
and commands had to 
provide basic training until 
replacement training centers 
were set up overseas to 
resolve the problem. 

The number of trainees at 
basic training centers 
increased to its peak ot 
135.795 ui February 1943. 
By December 1944 it had 
declined to 16.509-about 
4.500 below the level on 
7 December 1941. Because 
of the rapid expansion and 
then the almost equally rapid 
program, its quality \aried 
considerably, but given the numerous problems with 
facilities, qualified instructors, changes in cur- 
riculum, and the like, the centers made as much of a 
contribution to the war effort as could be expected 
under the circumstances. 




In World War I, partialis trained American pilots arrived in Europe unprepared to fight the Germans. They 
completed their training in French. British, antl Italian schools in aircraft not available in the United States. 

Mechanics, too. received training overseas. The British 
helped train US ground crews at their airfields and in their 
factories. So too. did France. Based on that foundation, the 
air arm of the US Army grew quickly and compiled a 
credible combat record during World War I. 

Two decades later, with World War II looming large, the 
United States had a chance to reciprocate. When the Lend- 
Lease Act became law on 1 1 March 1941. the British were 
isolated, facing a hostile continent. France had fallen in 
1940, the British had retreated from Dunkirk at the same 
time, and the Germans had not yet reneged on the Hitler- 
Stalin non-aggression pact of 1939. Only the Royal Air 
Force (RAF), by denying air superiority to the Liiftwaffe, 
had prevented a German invasion of the British Isles. 

at the 

Royal Canadian .\ir Force cadets 
Maxnell Field, .\labama. ad\anccd 
discuss flying after completing basic training 
at Gunter Field, .Vlabama 

Aware of the RAF's urgent need for additional training 
facilities. General Arnold offered the British over 500 
aircraft for use in the training of British pilots in the United States. Arnold also arranged for civilian contractors to 
set up schools exclusively for training British pilots. The schools would accept 50 RAF students every 5 weeks for a 
20-week course in order to produce 3.000 pilots a year. Known as the British Flying Training School program, it 
was unique among the programs the .Air Corps offered to Allied nations inasmuch as the British dealt directiv w ith 
the contractors and completely controlled all aspects of the living training process. Basically, the Wx Coips just 
helped the RAF and the contractors select the sites tor the schools and then supervised their construction. The 
schools were located at Mesa. Arizona: Lancaster. California; Clewision. Florida; Miami and Ponca City. 
Oklahoma; Terrell. Texas; and. brieflv. Sweetwater. Texas. 

Additionally, the Army Air Corps offered to devote one-third of its pilot training capacity to meet the British 
need for more pilots. Known as the Arnold Plan, this program pro\ ided RAF students with the same training the Air 
Corps provided its own students and had the potential to produce 4.000 pilots a year. The program inxohed 12 
schools, four of them operated by contractors and the rest 
run directly by the Air Corps. 

Together the two programs produced 11.291 pilots U)r 
the Royal Air Force during World War 11. The British 
Flying Training School program graduated 6.921 pilots, and 
the Arnold Plan program turned out 4.370. .A third example 
of Anglo-American cooperation was the navigator training 
program conducted by Pan American Airways at Coral 
Gables. Florida. Beginning in August 1940. the airline 
taught long-range navigation techniques, many of which it 
had originated, to Air Corps students. As it had done w iih 
the two programs noted above, the Air Corps made this 
training available to the British. For a while, as many as 
150 of the 200 spaces in each class were taken by the 
British. In all. 1,225 British students completed this 


'Ml; ii 




.\flcr processing at Kandolph Field. 
Mexican Fighter S(|iiadron split up 
lrainin<> at a \ariel> ol locations 

the 201 St 
to receive 

Perhaps the most surprising problem in training the British was one of communication. Though in theory both 
Americans and Britons spoke the same language, some difficulties with colloquial expression occasionally surfaced. 
Though there was never a serious communications barrier, there were minor problems throughout the British 
training program. 

i i 


After the United States entered the war. the Air Corps also developed a pilot training program tor the Free 
French many of whom had joined the Allies in North Africa in late 1942. This program was considerably smaller 
than either of the programs tbr British aviators. Because of the size of the program, the Air Corps concentrated each 
phase of training at a^ingle base. Thus. French students received primary training at the civilian contract sxhool at 
Tuscaloosa (and for a while at Orangeburg. South Carolina); basic training at Gunier Field: and advanced single- 
enoine training and P-40 transition training at Craig Field. By the end of October 1945. 1.165 pilots had graduated 
from the program. Other programs produced navigators, bombardiers, gunners, and maintenance personnel. 

The United States also assisted the Chinese Air Force. The Air Corps conducted most of the training for the 

Chinese at three Arizona installations: Luke. Wi 

Hundreds of Chinese students received 
instruction during the >var, like these cadets 
on parade at Marana Field, Arizona. 

liams. and Thunderbird Fields. Training the Chinese presented 
some special challenges. Because of their small stature some 
students could not reach all the controls. That problem was 
usually solved through the use of extra cushions and 
occasionally by switching them to another type of airplane. A 
bigger problem was the language barrier. It took all the 
interpreters the Air Corps could muster to support the training 
programs for the Chinese. In the end. 3.553 Chinese received 
tlying and technical training, including 866 pilots. 

While the preponderance of students trained in the United 
States during World War II were British. French, or Chinese, 
over 20 other nations also sent students. Most came from 
Latin America, most notably Brazil and Mexico. A smattering 
of others came from Australia, Turkey, the Netherlands, and 
the Soviet Union. Altogether, the Army Air Forces trained 
approximately 23.000 foreign students in the war years. 


A final responsibihts of the Technical Training 
Command that should be mentioned was basic 
niilitarv training for nonrated officers. They were 
needed to reliese Hying officers of their nontlying 
duties during the wartime expansion of the Air Corps 
and the Army Air Forces, (The Army Air Forces 
came into being on 20 June 1941. On 2 March 1942. 
as a result of a War Department circular, the Army 
Air Forces became a subordinate but autonomous 
arm of the US Army.) To provide this training, on 
17 February 1942. General Arnold directed the 
Technical Training Command to establish an Officer 
Candidate School (OCS). General Weaver located it 
at Miami Beach, where it activated on 21 February 
1942 and continued to operate until June 1944. when 
it moved to the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center at 
the site of what later became Lackland Air Force 
Base. In June 1945 the Officer Candidate School 
again transferred to Maxwell Field, Alabama. 

The Officer Candidate School began as a 1 2-\\eck 
course, but it expanded to 16 weeks in 1943. It also 
began as a uniform program for all officer candidates, 
but after 1943 the last phase of training was divided 
into specialized training for adjutants and personnel 
officers, a,^ acII as supply, mess, intelligence, guard- 
company. I id training officers. Later, it expanded to 

include physical training and technical officers as 
well. Then, in October 1944 as enrollment declined, 
the school dropped the specialized training 
altogether. Through the end of the war. the school 
graduated a total of 29,106 officers. These graduates 
had entered the school from a variety of backgrounds. 
Some were warrant officers or enlisted men who met 
the standards for admission to officer training. These 
sources were not adequate to meet all of the needs of 
the Army air arm. however, so it commissioned some 
individuals with special qualifications directly from 
civilian life. These people required some military 
training, so Technical Training Command also set up 
an Officer Training School (OTS) at Miami Beach to 
provide six weeks of military instruction. It became 
an integral but separate part of OCS in June 1942. 

Most OTS students were 30 years old or more, 
with the bulk of them in their 30s or 4()s. They came 
trom all walks of life, but most were teachers, 
hiisinessmen. or professionals. The majority was 
slated for administrative or instructional duties in the 
Army Air Forces, but others became ferry pilots. 
Beginning in the winter of 1942, Medical, Dental, 
and Sanitary Corps officers also attended Officer 
Training School in courses separate from those for 
other officers. On 26 June 1943. OTS terminated its 
activities, but by that date it had trained a total of 
13.898 students, of whom 13.284 graduated. 


Air Education and Training Command traces its lineage to the estahlislimcnt of the Air Corps Flying 
Training Command on 23 January 1942. nith the mission to train pilots, Hying specialists, and combat crews. 
The command »as redesignated the Army Air Forces Flying Iraining Command on or about 15 March 1942. 
after the Army Air Forces became a subordinate but autonomous arm of the LS Army. Ihe command 
struggled »ith the challenge of a massive wartime expansion of the air forces. Throughout 1942, the need for 
combat crew personnel far exceeded the current and contemplated production of the command's Hying 
training schools. The rate of expansion of housing and training facilities, instructors, as well as the 
procurement of aircraft and other equipment, though at a breakneck pace, constrained the rate of increase of 
production. Facilities were used to their maximum capacity as quickly as they could be stood up. Some 
schools were expanded while they were still under construction. "The first year has been largely one of 
organization and expansion," the commander, Maj Cen Barton K. ^ ount. reflected in .lanuary 194.3. "W hile 
xve will continue to grow bigger, we arc now so organized that we can specialize on the quality of our product, 
and that will be our aim during the coming year." 


(.ippioMiiuitc as ol 3 I DcLcmhci l'U2) 



22().()()() (:().(I(K) ot'lKcr. 160.()()() enlisled. 4().()(K) civilians) 

19.000 (A- 17. A-20. A-2.^. A-2f)/B-26. A-29. A-35. A-36. AT-6. AT-7, 
AT-8. AT-9. AT-10. AT-11. AT-12. AT-17. AT-18, AT-21. AT-22. 
AT-23. AT-24. B-17. B-18. B-24. B-23. B-40. BC-1. BT-9. BT-12. 
BT-13. BT-14. BT-1.5. C-32, C-45. C-5(). C-56. C-60. C-64. CG-4. 
L-1. 1.-2. L-3. L-4. L-."). 0-46. 0-47. 0-52. OA-9. OA-10. OA-14. 
PO.S. P-.36. P-38. P-39. P-40. P-47. PT-13. PT-15. PT-18. PT-19. 
PT-22. PT-23. PT-27. RA-24. RA-28. RA-33. RP-322, UC-36. UC-40. 
UC-61.UC-67. UC-78) 


3 training centers: 
SOUTHEAST. Maxwell Field Al, 


GULF COAST. Randolph Field TX 

WEST COAS 1. -Santa Ana Army Air Base CA 


Maj Gen Barton K. 
\'ount assumed command 
of Ihe Air Corps living 
Training Commaiul on 28 
lanuary 1942. He had 
previously served as 
commanding general ot 
the West Coast Air Corps 
Training Center. 

Maj Cien Barton K. ^ imiiiI 



,'\ir l-ducation and Tiaininy Command ol" 2002 traces 
its lineage to the estahlislimcnt ol the Air Corps 
Flying Training Command on 23 January 1942. 


Ihc Ainn An I orccs came into hcing on 20 June 
1941. and on 2 March 1942. as a result of a War 
Department circular, the Army Air Forces became a 
suhorilinale hut autonomous arm of the US Army. 
The Air Corps Flying Training Command was 
.■<Miv,viMi>nilv rfrli>vion.iti'(l ihf Amiv Air Fore 

Ihe Air Lorps i-iymg i raining v^oimnaiiu «u 
consequently redesignated the Army Air Force 
Flying Training Command on or about \> Marc 






Headquarters Relocation 

One of the carl\ |iroblcnis the eommaiid faced was to 
locate the headquarters. Because wartime expansion 
of government agencies had overcrowded the 
Washington, D.C. area. General Yount chose to move 
the headquarters to Fort Worth. Texas, where the 
staff could centrally manage flying operations. The 
top four floors of the Texas and Pacific Railroad 
Building provided excellent office space (the 
headquarters took over a fifth floor in 1943). and a 
nearby Air Force station could support the 
headquarters. The Washington headquarters closed 
on 30 June 1942, and the Fort Worth location opened 
the next day. The headquarters staff numbered 204 
uniformed personnel on 30 Deceinber 1942. 

From 1942 t(i 1946. Arm) Air Forces Fixing 
rrainiti}; Command (later AAF Trainin}; 
Command) was headquartered in Fort Worth, 
Tc\as. The command injtiall> occupied the top 
four lloors of the levas and I'aciHc Uaih\a> office 


Flying Training Wings 

The rapid expansion ot training increased the number 
ol' the stations attached to each training center. The 
geographic dispersion and diversity of training made 
close supervision by the center commander im- 
possible. General Yount therefore proposed to 
General Arnold, AAF Chief of Staff, to organize not 
more than tour n>ing training wings in each of the 

three training centers. The command would furnish 
the personnel necessary to staff each wing with a 
commanding brigadier general and a small staff, who 
would supervise and coordinate actual training 
operations. General Arnold approved the proposal on 
19 October 1942. but authorization to activate twelve 
Flying Training Wings was not received until 
17 December 1942. The wings stood up in 1943. 


Airfield Construction 

During 1942. the command selected locations for the 
more than fifty additional airfields necessary to 
implement the 75,(J00-pilot program (see page 15). 
Local civic groups and congressmen "gave the site 
boards no respite." in the words of an AAF Training 
Command historian, as they lobbied for new bases in 
their jurisdiction. New airfields had to be located in 
areas with sufficient flying space free of other air 
traffic, and the West Coast training center faced the 
extraordinary requirement to avoid sites near the 
internment camps for Japanese- Americans. 

Honsln<; was primitixe in the early days at > uma 
Arm\ Air Field, Arizona. C onstruction bc<;an on 
I .June 1942, and advanced single-engine 
instruction commenced in Januar> 1943. 



New Location 

West Coast Trng Ctr 

Holtville. CA 
Inyokem. CA 
Mojave, CA 
Needles. CA 

Yuma, AZ 
Douglas, AZ 
Marfa. TX 
Kingman. AZ 
Winslow, AZ 

GulfCoast Trng Ctr 

Brady. TX 
El Reno. OK 
Miami. OK 
Ponca, City FL 
Sweetwater. OK 
Terrell. TX 
Waxahachie, TX 
Garden City, KS 
Independence, KS 
Winfield. KS 
Bryan, TX 

Altus. OK (Victoria Fid.) 
Alms. OK 
Dodge City. KS 
Frederick, OK 
Pampa. TX 
Everman, TX 
Plainview, TX 
Lamesa .TX 
Dodge City. KS 
Garden City. KS 
Liberal, KS 

Southeast Trng Ctr 

Cape Girardeau. MS 
McBride MS 
Charleston, MS 
Greenwood. MS 
Muscle Shoals. AL 
Tuckerman, AR 
Bainbridge. GA 
Seymour. IN 
Stuttgart, AR 
Valdosta, GA 
Sebring. FL 
Smyrna. TN 
Monroe, LA 
Eglin FL 
Ft Myers. FL 
Panama Citv. FL 

Type of Training Notes 

• Elementar\ 

Advanced twin-engine 
Flexible gunnery 

















Ad\anced single-engine 

Advanced twin-engine 

Advanced twin-engine 

Ad\ anced twin-engine 










Advanced single-engine 

Advanced twin-engine 

Ad\ anced tuin-cnginc 

Advanced twin-engine 

Combat crew training 

Combat crew training 


Fixed gunnery 


Gunnerv four planned sites were abandoned in laxor of 
converting glider schools at Twenty-Nine Palms. CA. and 
Wickenburg. AZ. where training began Mar 43 

Construction began I Jun 42. training began Jan 43 
Construction began Jun 42. training began 7 Oct 42 
Construction began Jun 42. training began 7 Dec 42 
Construction began 27 May 42. training began Jan 43 
Planned site abandoned in favor of alternate at La junta. CO 

Converted from British training No\ 42 
Con\erted from British training Nov 42 
Later converted to women's tl\ing training 
Converted from British traming No\ 42 
Planned site abandoned 

Also advanced twin-engine 

Planned site abandoned due to congested airspace 

Converted from British training 28 Jun 42 
Converted from British training 28 Jun 42 
Converted from British training 2 Sep 42 

Training began 3 1 Dec 42 
Training began I May 43 


Ircad} under consiruclioii. con\cned In ad\ single-engine 
Ci)n\erted to combat crew training 

Eglin FL 




75,000-Pilot Program 

Planning for facilities and personnel was based on 
programs for a certain annual production rate of 
pilots. These programs changed rapidly as the war in 
Europe progressed and accelerated again after the 
United States formally entered hostilities. Targets 
began in 1940 at an annual rate of 7,000 pilots, and 
peaked brietly in 1942 at a plan for 102.000 pilots per 
year. Training expansion in 1942 was based primarily 
on the 75,000-pilot program. Acute shortages in 
housing, classroom facilities, trained personnel, and 
trainer aircraft plagued the command. Students in 
flying training shared classroom facilities with 
technical trainees, combat aircraft substituted for 
advanced trainers (and all aircraft tlew seven days a 
week). Primary pilot production peaked in November 

1943, with facilities designed for the 73,000-pilot 
program operating above capacity, before gradually 
declining in 1944. 

Centralized Instructor Schools 

A lack of trained instrucltirs hampered the expansion 
of training. Though many graduates of training 
programs remained at their station to instruct 
subsequent classes, an acute instructor shortage 
persisted. A lack of training instructors was the most 
serious bottleneck in the production pipeline. In order 
to solve the problem, as well as to standardize 
instruction, the training centers urged General Yount 
to establish a Central Instructors School to serve all 
three training centers. In December, General Yount 
requested authority to implement the plan, which 
Headquarters AAF granted on 4 January 1943. The 
command planned schools for pilot, bombardier, 
navigator, and flexible gunnery instructors. 

On 14 Ma> 1942. Congress created the Women's .\rni> Auxiliary Corps (W.AAC). 
Members of the W A A( priniarih filled clerical positions, releasing nun for combat duty. 
Pictured abo\e are nienibers of the llrst \\ ,\,\( contingent lo arri\e at Randolph Field. 
In September 1943 the \\ AAC «as replaced hy the Women's Army C Orps (W.\C ). I he 
VV.\C remained in evislence until 12 .lune 1948. \>hen Congress passed the Women's 
Armed Service Integration Vet. and Women in the Air I orce (W AF) became a 
permanent designation. B> the mid-1970s, the Air Force stopped using the term W.VF' 
and began referring to both men and women as "airmen." 






The Army Air Forces Flying Training Command redesignated as the Army Air Forces Training 
Command on 7 July 1943, assumed responsibility for both flying and technical training. The Technical 
Training Command inacti\ated. The t»o training commands had undergone enormous and rapid expansion 
in an effort to meet the needs of IS forces in \\orld War II. The latter half of 194.^ inaugurated a period of 
continuation, refinement, adaptation, and e^entual contraction of training for the Army Air Forces. The basic 
training centers and technical schools had already reached their peaks of production in February and May, 
but the apexes of training for most other major categories did not occur until 1944. Ihe one exception to this 
generalization was primary pilot training, which achiexed its maximum production level in November 1943, 
when 1 1.41 1 student pilots graduated. 


(as of 31 December 1943) 



461.636 (53.585 officers; 325.453 enlisted: S2.6 IS civilians) 

29,713 (A- 17. A-20. A-25. A-26/B-26. A-29. A-35. A-36. AT-6. AT-7 
AT-8, AT-9, AT- 10. AT- 11. AT- 12. AT- 1 7. AT- 1 8. AT-21. AT-22. AT-23 
AT-24. B-17. B-18. B-24. B-25. B-29. B-34. B-4(). BC-1. BT-9. BT-12 
BT-13. BT-i4. BT-15. C-32. C-45. C-50. C-56. C-60. C-64. CG-4. L-1. L-2 
L-3. L-4. L-5. 0-46. 0-47. 0-52. OA-9, OA-10. OA-14. P-35. P-36. P-38 
p.39. p.4(), p.47. PT-13. PT-15. PT-18, PT-19. PT-22. PT-23. PT-27 
RA-24. RA-28. RA-33. RP-322. UC-36. UC-4a UC-61. UC-67. UC-78) 


3 flying training commands: 
EASTERN. Maxwell Field AL: 

7 Hying training wings: 

27th (Basic). Cochran Field GA 

28th ( Adv Single-Engine). Craig Field AL 

29th (Primary). Moody Field GA 

30th (Adv Twin-Engine). Columbus Field MS 

74th (Preflighl). Maxwell Field AL 

75th (Flex Gunnery). Bucknigham Field FL 

76th (Spec 4-Engine). Smyrna Field TN 

CENTRAL. Randolph Field TX: 

8 Hying training wings: 

31sl ( Primary l.Hnid Field OK 

32d (Basic). Perrin Field TX 

33d (Adv Twin-Engine), Blackland Field TX 

34th (Bomb & Spec 2/4-Engine). San Angelo 

Field TX 

77th (Adv Single-Engine). Foster Field TX 
78th (Preflight). San Antonio Aviation Cadet 

Center TX 

79th (Flexible GiinnerN i. Harlingen Field TX 
SOth (Nav & GlRier). San Marcos Field TX 

WESTERN. Sanla Ana Ann> An- Ba^e CA: 

7 n\ing traniHig wnigs: 

35th (Basic). Minler Field CA 
36lh (Primar\ ). Santa Ana Arm> AB CA 
37th (Adv Single-Engine). Luke Field AZ 
38th (Bomb & Spec 2/4-Engine). Kinland Field 

81st (Pretlight). Santa Ana Army AB CA 
82d (Flex Gunnery ). Las Vegas Field NV 
83d (Adv Twin-Engine). Douglas Field AZ 

3 technical training commands; 

EASTERN. Greensboro NC: 

Bcx-a Raton Field FL: technical school 
Greensboro Center NC: basic training center 
GuHpoil Field MS: technical school, basic training 


Keesler Field MS: technical school, basic training 




Miami Beach FL: basic training center, (ifficer 
candidate schocil 

Seyniour Ji)hnsiin Field NC: technical scIhh)!. basic 

Yale University. New Haven CT: technical school 

CENTRAL. St Louis MO: 

Chainite Field IL: technical school 

hidianapolis IN: technical school 

Jefferson Barracks MO: basic training center 

Scott Field IL: technical school 

Sioux Falls Field SD: technical school 

Tomah Wl: technical school 

Truax Field WI: technical school 

WESTERN. Denver CO: 

Amarillo Field TX: technical school, basic training 

Buckley Field CO: technical school, basic training 

Fort Logan CO: technical school, miscellaneous 

Kearns Center UT: basic training center, miscel- 
laneous training 

Lincoln Field NE: basic training center, technical 

Lowry Field CO: technical school, miscellaneous 

Sheppard Field TX: technical school, basic training 


On 7 July 1943, Maj Gen Barton K. Yount 
stepped down from his position as Commanding 
General of AAF Flying Training Command into the 
position of Commanding General of the Army Air 
Forces Training Command. When the command was 
established there was no provision for a deputy 
commantling general. Upon activation of AAF 
Training Command. Brig Gen Walter V. Kraus 
became Chief of Staff. Two months later, on 
13 September. General ^'ount was promoted to 
lieutenant general. 


Training Command 

On 31 July 1943, the Army Air Forces continued 
with organizational actions related to the activation of 
Training Command. What had been Flying Training 
Command's major subordinate units--the Southeast 
Flying Training Center at Ma.wvell. the Gulf Coast 
Flying Training Center at Randolph, and the West 

Coast Flying Training Center at Santa Ana were 
redesignated as the Eastern. Central, and Western 
Flying Training Commands, respectively. The five 
districts that had belonged to Technical Training 
Command also transferred to the new AAF Training 
Command. However, on 31 August 1943. Training 
Command disbanded the Third District at Tulsa. 
Oklahoma, and the Fifth District in Miami Beach. 
The other three were renamed. First District at 
Greensboro became the Eastern Technical Training 
Command, Second District in St Louis was renamed 
the Central Technical Training Command, and 
Denver's Fourth District became the Western 
Technical Training Command. 


Seated is Maj Gen Barton K. ^ ount. Commanding 
General, \.\F Trainini; Command. Standing, left to 
right, are the commanding generals of the six 
subordinate commands: Maj Gen Thomas J. Hanley, 
Jr., Eastern Flying Training Command; Maj Gen 
.Jacob E. Fickel, Eastern Technical Training 
Command: Maj Gen Gerald C. Brant, Central Flying 
Training Command: Maj Gen John F. Curry, 
Western Technical Iraining Command; Maj Gen 
Ralph P. Cousins, Western Flying Training 
Command: and Maj Gen Frederick L. Martin, 
Central Technical Training Command. 


Flying Training Wings Activated 

On N Januar\ 1943. the War Department constituted 
and activated 12 flying training wings and assigned 
them to the AAF Flying Training Command. Those 
included the 27th at Cochran Field, the 2Sth at Craig, 
the 29th at Moody, the 30th at Columbus, the 31st at 
Enid, the 32d at Perrin. the 33d at Blackland. the 34th 
at San Angelo. the 3.'ith at Minter. the 36th at Santa 
Ana, the 37th at Luke, and the 38th at Roswell 
(which moved during 1943 to Kirtland). In July these 
units were reassigned to AAF Training Command. 
The War Department added 10 Hying training wings 
to Training Command on 23 August. Those included 
the 74th at Turner (which moved during 1943 to 
Maxwell), the 75th at Buckingham, the 76th at 
Smyrna, the 77th at Foster, the 78th at San Antonio, 
the 79ih at Harlingen. the 80th at San Marcos, the 



81st at Santa Ana. the S2d at Las Vegas, and the 
at Douglas. The wings assisted Training Command 
with the management o\' the hundreds of training 
installations operating throughoul ihe United .States. 


Shown above are a s^oup of a\iation cadets at 
one of the colleges that provided trainin<; durin<; 
World War II. Note the aviation cadet patch 
worn on the lower right sleeve and the \rni> Air 
Forces patch on the left shoulder. 



Aviation Cadet College Training Program 

Because of the rapid expansion of flying training and 
a continuing shortage of adequate facilities to process 
and house pilot trainees. Flying Training Command 
began the year with a huge backlog of men awaiting 
entry into pretlight training. This, in turn, created 
morale problems. As a solution, in the spring of 194.^ 
the Army Air Forces introduced a three- to tlve- 
month college training program for aviation cadets. 
Initially, these men went to college before under- 
going aptitude testing. Unforlunately. after the 
college training, the Army Air Forces found many ot 
the students were poorly equipped for tlv ing. Rather 
than waste the government's money and the 
individual's time, the AAF decided to establish prc- 
college testing, beginning in the fall of 1943. Medical 
and psychological examining units conducted the 
tests al the basic training centers. 

Instructors in Primary Schools 

Duruig the expansion of pilot training in the early 
years of World War II. the contract primary pilot 
schools had a big problem obtaining and retaining 
instructors. By July 194.3. the AAF had solved this 
problem by encouraging most civilian instructors to 
join the Enlisted Reserve Corps. In this way. civilian 
instructors were protected from local draft boards 
and recruitment as pilots in the Army Air Forces, the 


The story of enlisted pilots began long before the 
US .Army admitted it even had any. In 1912 Capt 
Frank P. Lahm commanded a new ly opened air 
school in the Philippines. Lahm had trouble finding 
enough officers to train, so Cpl Vernon L. Burge. his 
new chief, volunteered. Burge received his pilot's 
license in June 1912. It was the start of an on-again. 
off-again relationship between the .Army and enlisted 

Only a few hundred enlisted airmen earned pUot 
wings before the training stopped during the Great 
Depression of the 1930s. In June 1941 Congress 
passed a law authorizing an enlisted pilot uaining 
program. The law permitted 1 8- to 25-year old men 
who had graduated in the top half of their high school 
class to appK. By contrast, aviation cadets had to 
have completed two years of college and be at least 
21 years old. A few months after the law was signed, 
the first class of "tlying sergeants" reported to 
primary Hying school. The sergeant pilots of Class 
42-C finished their training and graduated on 
7 March 1942, one-half from Kelly Field and the 
other from Ellington Field in Texas. All of Class 
42-C went to P-38s. Subsequent classes were 
assigned to various types of aircraft in both combat 
and support units. 

The training of sergeant pilots was short-lived, 
however, and ended in late 1942 because 
qualification requirements for both enlisted pilot and 
aviation cadet programs were made equal. Fhing 
training graduates were now given their wings and 
the rank of flight officer or second lieutenant, 
depending on class standing. 

By the time the sergeant pilots" program ended, 
nearly 3.000 enlisted pilots had earned their wings 
and tlown for the Signal Coips. Air Corps, or Army 
Air Forces. 

1 cnvnig Conmiand. and i.'s|->cci.ill> the IS Na\_s I he 
result was a much higher level of experience among 
instructors than had prevailed prev iously. 

Eliminations in Pilot Training 

Includnig latalnies. ainiosi 40 percent of students 
who entered primary pilot training from 1939 to the 
end of the war failed to earn their wings. The reasons 
for this high attrition rate were numerous, including 
low aptitude on the part of those who were 
eliminated. Though higher headquarters never 
established a fixed elimination rate, the operational 
demand for pilots primarily determined the 



elimination rate. During 1943. when the demand for 
pilots was greatest, the elimination rate declined. 
During 1944, when a surplus of pilots was in sight, 
eliminations rose as standards increased. These 
adjustments provided a crude but realistic way to 
reconcile the conflicting needs of the Army Air 
Forces for both quality and numbers of pilots. 

Trainer Aircraft 

Flymg tramnig and many pails of technical training 
required the availability of adequate numbers and 
types of trainer aircraft. As the nation geared up for 
war. suitable trainers were not available for training 
since most aircraft went to the operational 
commands. Thus, almost all schools suffered from a 
shortage of trainers until after 1943. Those aircraft 
that were available were either marginally 
satisfactory or already worn out from combat service. 
Until the spring of 1945, the most appropriate aircraft 
remained in short supply at installations in AAF 
Training Command. Ultimately, the rugged Stearman 
PT-13 "Kaydet" and its re-engined cousin, the PT-17, 
proved to be the most suitable primary trainers. In 
basic pilot training, the low-vsing monoplane of 
medium horsepower designated the Vultee BT-13 
"Valiant" served for most of the war as the standard 
trainer. However, many pilots regarded it as too easy 
to flv. so it was replaced by the North American 

AT-6 "Texan," which was already being used 
extensively in advanced single-engine schools. Until 
late in the war, there was no suitable trainer for 
advanced twin-engine pilot instruction. Then the 
Army Air Forces modified the B-25 for that 
Before that, a number of aircraft had been used, of 
which the Curtiss AT-9 proved to be the most 

Instrument Training 

Instrument training was the most important part of 
basic pilot training, but until 1944 only 14 of the 70 
flying hours in this phase dealt with instrument 
procedures. Moreover, training covered primarily 
only three instruments-the rate-of-turn, bank, and 
airspeed indicators -to the virtual exclusion of 
gyroscopic instruments. Howe\er. the Navy had 
developed a method of instrument tlying called the 
full-panel system that proved much more satisfactory. 
It relied upon the directional gyroscope and the 
artificial horizon. In June 1943 AAF instructors who 
had observed this more accurate method introduced it 
in basic and advanced pilot schools. During the 
following year, there was a substantial improvement 
in basic graduate proficiency in instrument tlying. 
partly as a result of this full-panel system. Also 
contributing to the improvement were better training 
of instructors, procurement of adequately-equipped 


During 194.'' the first class orj«in-cn<;iiu' homhi-r instructors entered training at Randolph AFB. Texas. Shown 
here are a nuinl)er of the instructor trainees walking between rows of .AT-9 ".leep" aircraft, one of the principal 
aircraft used in the advanced phase of pilot training. 



aircraft, greater emphasis on using Link trainers, and 
(in 1944) adding five hours of flying time to 
instrument training in the basic eurncLikun. 

Bombardier Training 

As of 7 Jul\. nine locations in Central and Western 
FlNing Training Commands pro\ ided bombaidier 
training. Earlier, when combat requirements had 
been greater, the course had lasted 12 weeks; 
however, a 16 June Tranimg Command memo- 
randum lengthened it to 18 weeks even though the 
peak in class size and number of graduates did not 
occur until September 1944. after tapering off from 
an initial high in June 1943. 

Flexible Gunnery Training 

■At the tmie of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Army 
Air Corps still did not have a specialized school for 
flexible gunnery. Three schools opened in December 
1941. and the program had grown rapidly. The 
number of graduates had reached ."^9.789 by 7 July 
1943. with another 57.176 men completing the course 
b\ the end of the year. Unfortunately, the quality of 
the training left much to be desired, as General 
Ainold wrote to General Yount on 29 June 1943. Part 
of the problem was a serious lack of proper aircraft 
and equipment to support the training. But even when 
nuire equipment and aircraft became available, there 
was still a need to devise a method of training that 
simulated firing upon fighter aircraft as they attacked 
a bomber. As 1943 ended. Training Command was 
still working on a satisfactory solution to this 

Centralized Instructor Schools 

A nia|or advance in living training occurred during 
1943 when the .^rmy Air Forces established separate 
central instructor schools for pilot, bombardier, 
navigator, instrument flying, and fixed and flexible 
gunnery training. These schools arose because ot the 
need to standardize and centralize instructional 
methods among the many different locations offering 
such training during a period of rapid expansion. .A 
key ingredient in this process was the establishment 
of a Central Instructor School at Randolph Meld m 
March 1943. A major weakness of this school. 
however, was its inability to secure and keep 
qualified people as stall instructors. 


Mobile Training Units 

In supplement training provided at AAF technical 
training schools, contract mechanic schools, and 
factory schools. General Waller R. Weaver, 
Commanding General, AAF Technical Training 
Command, and Major General John F. Curry. 
Commanding General of Western Technical Training 

A mohile Iraininj; unit instructor points out the remote 
compass transmitter to instrununt specialists on the 
.\-26. I his training took place on an i:n<;lish estate. 

- ^'~-— ^ ^^^^^^-^^^ 

To help students identifv aircraft as friend or foe. flying 
training schools taught aircraft recognition courses. 
Instructors used model airplanes and dra>\ings to 
familiarize students with various tvpes of aircraft. 

In a photograpliv class, an instructor uses a visual aid to 
demonslrale Ilie principles of the tri-metrogon sv stern of 
aerial charting. 

Command, developed a new concept in the summer 
of 1942 called mobile training for tactical 
maintenance personnel and aircrews. The mobile 
training units (Mill that provided this instruction 
carried their training equipment to the receiving 
organization in trailers or transport aircraft, with each 



MTU set up to provide instaiction on only one type 
of aircraft. To avoid dupiicaiing the instruction in 
schools, moreover, the MTUs focused their efforts on 
demonstrating how to correct specific malfunctions 
of aircraft parts and systems. They also served to 
keep men in the field current on the maintenance of 
new and modified equipment. By July 1943 only 17 
mobile training units existed. Later in the year the 
number had grown to 34. so Training Command 
decided to centralize management of the program in 
Western Technical Training Command. By the end of 
the year, the number of MTUs had grown to 43. a 
figure that expanded to 163 by the end of the war. 

Training Procedures and Problems 

At the beginning of World War 11. a shortage of 
teachers and equipment in technical schools dictated 
that teaching be disproportionately oriented toward 
lectures and theory. Consequently, graduates 
displayed serious deficiencies when they reported for 
duly. This led General Arnold to direct, in August 
1942. that training be more practical. A resultant 
series of directives from General Weaver was only 
partially implemented, but a modified policy issued 
by Training Command in October 1943 discouraged 
lectures and limited the use of written tests in favor 
of discussion, hands-on training, and actual 
demonstration of skills. Efforts also began to reduce 
student-teacher ratios, although it was not until 1945 
that declining enrollments produced satisfactory 
ratios in most programs. 


Beginning in the 1930s, the United States 
experimented with ways of landing troops behind 
enemy lines, such as dropping parachutists or using 
gliders. The Germans were the first to put the 
concept into practice during World War II. Before the 
end of the war. however, the United States was 
making the largest use of airborne troops. These 
comprised not only parachutists, but troops dropped 
in by gliders. In 1941 the Air Corps directed Flying 
Training Command to establish a glider training 
program. Contract schools opened soon after, but they 

were not around long. Most had closed by mid- 1943. 
Only the AAF programs at South Plains and 
Sheppard. Texas, remained. 

Technical Training Command also played a part in 
glider training when in 1943 it directed Sheppard to 
open a glider mechanic school. Students learned to 
perform maintenance and, in an emergency, to rebuild 
wrecked gliders. This was a relatively simple 
operation, considering that the primary glider, the 
CG-4A. consisted of little more than a shell, equipped 
with radio, wheels, and brakes. 

By late 1944 Training Command had ended all 
glider instruction, both flying and technical. Rather 
than create a separate glider force, the Army Air 
Forces had decided it would be more profitable to 
train its troop carrier pilots to also operate gliders. 

Training Command used the CG-4A "W aco" as 
its primary glider trainer. 



While war continued to rage in the Pacific and Europe, the traininjj pipeline l)e;;an to catch up \>ilh the 
demand lor most cate<iories of graduates. The high point ol training in the standard sequence ol living 
training occurred, for example, at the end of February, with the peak production of graduate pilots occurring 
t>\o months later. June brought the high point in the graduation of four-engine pilots, hut the production of 
aircraft commanders for very heavy bombers continued to rise into 1945. 

Pictured here are the types of uniforms worn by I raining Command fiying cadets. 


(as ol 31 Dcccmhei h-)44i 



Eastern Flying Training Command 


377.767 (.'i2.335 officers: 224,591 cnlisicJ; 1(K).S41 civilians) 

21.052 (A-20. A-26/B-26. A-36. AT-6. AT-7. AT-9. AT-IO. AT II 
AT- 17. AT- 18, B-17. B-IK, B-24, B/TH-25, B-29. B-34, B-40. BT-9 
BT-13, BT-14. BT-15. C-45. C-46. C-47. C-60. C-64. CG-4. F-2. F-6 
F-7. F-9. F-10, L-2. L-3. L-4. L-5. 0-47. OA-10. OA-14. P-38. P-39 
p.40, P-47. P-61. P-63. PT-13. PI- IS. PT I'), R-4, RA-24, RP-322 
TB-32. UC-78) 


3 tlyini: training commands: 

EASTERN. Maxwell lickl AL: 

7 nying training wings; 

27lh (Basic). Cochran Field GA 

28th ( Adv .Single-Engine). Craig Field AL 

29th (Primary). Moody Field GA 

3()th (Adv Twin-Fngine). Columbus Field MS 

74th (Prellight). Maxwell Field AL 



75th (Flexible Gunnery). Buckingham Field FL 
76th (Specialized 4-Engine). Smyrna Field TN 

CENTRAL. Randolph Field TX: 

8 flying training wings: 

31st (Primary). Enid Field OK 

32d (Basic). Perrin Field TX 

33d (Adv Twin-Engine). Blackland Field TX 

34th (Bombardier and Specialized Twin- and 
Four-Engine). San Angelo Field TX 

77th (Adv Single-Engine). Foster Field TX 

78th (Pretlight). San Antonio Aviation Cadet 
Center TX 

79th (Flexible Gunnery ).Harlingen Field TX 
80th (Nav and Glider), San Marcos Field TX 

WESTERN. Santa Ana Army Air Base CA: 

7 flying training wings: 

35th (Basic). Minter Field CA 
36th (Primary). Santa Ana Army Air Base CA 
37th (Adv Single-Engine). Luke Field AZ 
38th (Bombardier and Specialized Twin- and 
4-Engine). Kirtland Field NM 

81st (Preflight). Santa Ana Army Air Base CA 
82d (Flexible Gunnery). Las Vegas Field NV 
83d (Adv Twin-Engine). Douglas Field AZ 

'. technical training commands: 

EASTERN, St Louis MO: 

Boca Raton Field FL 
Chanute Field IL 
Gulfport Field MS 
Scott Field IL 

Seymour Johnson Field NC 
Truax Field WI 

WESTERN. Denver CO: 

Amarillo Field TX 
Buckley Field CO 
Keesler Field MS 
Lincoln Field NE 
Lowry Field CO 
Sheppard Field TX 

Student Instructors seek poor weather conditions to practice instrument flying in their B-25s during 
Instrument Pilot Instructors School 




Gcncial \'ount rcmaiiiccl the conimaiulcr 
throughout this period. On S May Brig Gen Wilhani 
W. Welsh replaced General Kraus as Chief of Staff. 
Then on 16 September Brig Gen Kenneth P. 
McNaughton succeeded General Welsh in that 


Central Technical Training Command 

Requirements m the combat theaters lor graduates of 
technical training schools and e\en pilots proved to 
be smaller than initialls expected, so the .'Xrmy Air 
Forces reduced the si/e of these training programs in 
January 1944. The cut in technical training was 
particularly heavy, so A.AF Training Command 
requested and received authority to discontinue the 
headquarters of Central Technical Training 
Command in St Louis. Missouri, effective I March 
1944. Simultaneously, the headquarters of Eastern 
Technical Training Command moved from 
Greensboro. North Carolina, to St Louis. All statit)ns 
previously in the central command, with the 
exception of Keesler Field, became part of the eastern 
command. Keesler went to the western command. 



AAF Base Units Established 

In .April 1944 the flymg and technical training 
installations disbanded all active support units, except 
AAF bands, and reorganized each base under an AAF 
base unit. At Keesler, for example, the .^7()4th AAF 
Base LInit look o\'er all adnnnistration. training and 
operations, and supply and maintenance duties. In the 
process of this reorganization, the base discontinued 
59 units. 


Reduction in Installations 

As training actnities contracted, the number of 
Training Command installations declined more 
rapidly than the number of graduates because it was 
usually the smaller installations that inactivated or 
were placed in stand-b\ status. Thus, the number of 
stations dropped from a high of 451 in July 194.^ to 
170 by the end of 1944. The largest portion of the 
decline resulted from the closing of college training 
detachments at the end of the 1943-1944 academic 
school year. However, many civilian aviation 
schools and other kinds of installations, such as 
factory schools, also closed. Many of their functions 
were then concentrated at other technical training 
installations such as Chanute. Keesler. Lowrv. ami 
Sheppard fields. 

Basic Training Centers Inactivated 

The numbei ol basic liaiiuiig centers also declined 
from the 1.^ in existence in the spring of 1943 to only 
tour by 31 nccember 1944. The four remaining 
centers were Amarillo and Sheppard Fields in Texas, 
Buckley in Colorado, and Keesler in Mississippi. 

Bomliiiidiers practice dioppin<^ duinmv Ixinihs 
lioni an A 1-1 1 "kansan" diirin<; lraiiiiii<;. 


Flexible Gunnery Deputy Appointed 

Despite the fact that tlexible gunnery training 
enjoyetl the highest priority for the procurement of 
the equipment it neetled. it continued to be the 
weakest program m the command. ,\t the beginning 
,if 1 1)44. Ilexible gunnery still lacked proper 
equipment, especially turrets and sights that 
aiiiomaiically compensated for the movement of the 
aircralt ami the target, and it also lacked a definitely 
esiablishetl training doctrine. To promote the latter 
and provide better direction, the command estab- 
lished a deputy commander for Ilexible gunnery 
within the headquarters on lOJtilv 1944. 





Consolidation of Pref light Training 

With the decline in the numbers of required pilot 
trainees as the war progressed, the Army Air Forces 
decided in October 1944 not to send more aircrew 
trainees to Santa Ana Army Air Base or Maxwell 
Field but to send them all to the AAF Preflight 
School at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center. 
The pretlight school at Maxwell officially closed on 
1 December 1944. but the school at Santa Ana 
remained t)pen until January 194.'i, prmiding 
preflight training for Chinese students. 

Instructors used this ^iant cockpit mock-up in 
B-29 transition training at Roswell Field, New 

Fighter Transition Training 

In January 1944 Training Command began to plan 
for the separation of single-engine fighter transition 
training from advanced single-engine training. The 
main purpose of the latter was to teach people to fly 
fast airplanes instincti\cly and to shoot accurately 
from them. Previously, it had included fighter 
transition, but the new plan was tor students to train 
on the AT-d aircraft until graduation from the 
advanced phase, when they received their 
commissions. Only then would they receive a 
transition course on the P-39 or P-4() aircraft, 
including gunnery training. The AAF announced this 
separation on 1 May 1944 and implemented it in July 
1944. This change permitted more intensive training 
than had been possible in the advanced course alone, 
generally improving gunnery training and giving 
students more time in tactical aircraft as a result. 
Meanwhile, other impro\emenls in fixed gunnery 
training had con\ertcd it from almost a guessing 
game into something approaching an exact science. 

Advanced Twin-Engine Training 

The greatest improvement in advanced twin-engine 

training during this period was the gradual 

introduction into flying training of the kinds of 
aircraft actually being flown in combat, such as the 
TB-25 (a stripped training version of the B-25 also 
known as the AT-24) instead of such generally 
unsatisfactory advanced trainers as the AT-9. Many 
of the TB-25s were worn out from combat duty and 
required extensive maintenance. Yet mechanics at 
training installations had to be retrained to repair 
them, and once they got this training, it was hard to 
keep them at the schools when combat theaters 
needed their skills. Even so. it was regrettable that at 
the end of 1944 more than two-thirds of flying 
training still took place in advanced trainers because 
actual combat aircraft, which were not available, 
clearly provided superior training. 

Formation and Egress Training 

As the war continued, reports coming from the 
combat theaters continued to einphasize the 
importance of formation flying. Consequently, the 
Training Command sent a letter on 16 May 1944 to 
the flying training commands directing transition 
schools to use any extra flying time available in the 
curriculum for formation training. Also, as a result of 
combat reports, on 27 July 1944. the AAF Training 
Command added a practice segment to twin-engine 
training that taught pilots how to abandon a disabled 
aircraft during flight and follow ing a crash landing. 

Four-Engine Transition Training 

As the strategic bombing offensi\e against the Axis 
forces in Europe mounted, so did the demand for 
pilots to fly the B-17s and B-24s that constituted the 
backbone of the campaign. Production of pilots had 
begun slowly in January 1942 but began to mount in 
March 1943. reaching an initial peak in November of 
that year and then its high-water mark in June 1944. 
At this point in time, available facilities were 
stretched to the breaking point before entering 
students began to decline during the fall months. 

B-29 Transition Training 

Until ihc fall of 1^)44. Second An Force provided all 
B-29 transition training for the .Arm\ Air Forces. 
Then, on 12 September 1944. HQ AAF directed 
Training Command to establish B-29 schools for the 
transition of crews consisting of pilots, copilots, and 
flight engineers. By late September, plans called for 
fl\e schools to provide transition training in very 
hea\ \ bombers, including a school for the TB-32 at 
Fort Worth. Texas. Training of pilots and flight 
engineers as instructors got underway at Maxwell 
Field, Alabama, on 20 September 1944. when the 
school took over facilities previously used for B-24 
training. Limited availability of B-29s restricted 
training, hut by November regular training of crews 
had begun at Maxwell on B-29s stripped of their 
armament and gear. Fmlher expansion of training 



was limited by continued delays in the delivery ol 
B-29s. so Second Air Force continued to pro\ ide the 
bulk of B-29 transition training. 

Flexible Gunnery Training 

0\er the course of 1444, there v\ere nian\ 
improvements in flexible gunner\ training, especially 
in the aircraft used in training. In July 1943 flexible 
gunnerv schools had possessed few tactical aircraft 
with which to train, mainh 55 twin-engine B-34s. 
B\ December 1944 the_\ had 440 four-engine aircraft 
(173 B-17s. 255 B-24s. and 12 B-40s). By the latter 
date, students on gunnery missions fired from these, 
while two-engine aircraft towed targets and single- 
engine tactical aircraft simulated attacks on the 
bombers. Unfortunately, towed targets hardly 
resembled attacking fighter aircraft, but one device 
that more closelv simulated combat conditions was a 
camera gun that students "fired" at fighter aircraft 
flying in normal attack patterns toward the bombers. 
These cameras, which came into general use during 
1944 and 1945. posed problems relating to 
developing the film and measuring the results for 
each student, but in conjunction with greater 
standardization of training and other improvements, 
they greatly reduced the shortcomings in flexible 
sunnerv traininc bv the end of the vear. 

The Miami Heath Ofllcer rrainin<i (enter >\as 
headquartered in a modern hole! huildinj;, hut 
traininji look place in temporal) classrooms. 

Flight Engineer Training 

In putting together the curriculum for training pilots 
and copilots on the B-29. Training Command could 
make use of its experience in transition training for 
heavy bombers. No such experience was available in 
the case of flight engineers, because the B-29 was the 
first AAF aircratl that required a flight engineer. This 
uulividiial operated the engine control panel of the 
aircrafl. Located behind the pilot, the panel contained 

all operating instruments but those the pilot used to 
control the altitude and direction of the B-29. ,Al the 
direction of the pilot, the flight engineer used these 
insiiumcnls to adjust the throttles, fuel mixture, 
supercharger, and propeller pitch. He also computed 
the aircraft's cruising range, fuel consumption, engine 
performance, weight and balance, and ainvorthiness. 
Flight engineers underwent comprehensive training at 
Amarillo and l.owry Fields before assignment to 
B-2'-) transition traininij. 

Flexible gunnery students at llarlin<;en I ield. 
Texas, used a Waller I rainer to "lire" at 
approaehin<; planes projected on a screen. 


Better Training Equipment Needed 

The history of communications training down 
through 1944 showed a trend that was more or less 
common to all wartime training-whether living or 
technical-that the quality of graduates from a given 
course was directly proportional to the amounts and 
kinds of training equipment available. .Allocating 
equipment to combat luiits without also providing 
adequate quantities to training organizations 
produced a false economy; it forced combat units to 
coniluct training while weakening that provided by 
Irammg agencies. The obvious solution was to 
provide a share of new training equipmeni lo all 
oriianizalions in Trainin-J Command. 




Military installations in San Antonio played a vital 
role in America's war effort. San Antonio was home to 
five major installations— the Army's Fort Sam Houston, 
and four air force bases: Randolph, Kelly. Brooks, and 

Fort Sam Houston was the first to be established-- 
back in the early 187()s. Interestingly, military aviation 
began at Fort Sam Houston when Lt Benjamin Foulois 
arrived in February 1910 with a single plane, the 
Wright Flyer. His instructions prior to setting out for 
San Antonio were to "take plenty of spare parts and 
teach yourself to fly." 

The Arm> adopted the B 1-9 as its standard basic trainer in late 
1935 and used it as such Ihrdufjhout World War II. 

When training requirements overtaxed the 
capabilities of Kelly and Brooks a decade later, the 
expanding Air Corps opened a third base in the San 
Antonio area in 1930-Randolph Field. At Randolph 
the Air Corps trained aviation cadets to be officers and 
taught them how to tly. 

The last of the air bases-Lackland— opened as the 
San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center in 1942, shortly 
after the start of World War IL Its mission was to 
process into the Army Air Corps young men who 
sought to become officers and aviators. 

At that time, tens of thousands of 
young men were entering flying training 
all across the country. Typically, the 
cadets first reported to a pretlight school 
like the San Antonio Aviation Cadet 

After preflight training, students were 
transferred to civilian-operated flight 
schools for primary training. At peak 
strength there were 56 such schools in 
operation. The most popular primary 
trainers were the Stem-man PT-13 and 
PT-17 "Kaydet." the Fairchild PT-19 
"Cornell," and the Ryan FT- 20 "Recruit." 

Upon completion of primary training, 
the cadets went to an Air Corps flying 
school such as Randolph for basic flying 
training. At Randolph they flew aircraft 
such as the Vultee BT-13 "Valiant" and 
were evaluated to determine who should 
go into single-engine advanced training 
and who should proceed to twin-engine 

Both Kelly and Brooks ran advanced 
fiying schools. Those students selected for 
single-engine training tlevv the AT-6 
"Texan," and those who went into twin- 
engine training tlcw the Curtiss AT-9 
"Jeep," the all-wood Beechcraft AT- 10 
"Wichita," or the Cessna AT- 17 "Bobcat." 

A few years later, in 1917, the Arnn's llcdgling .Air 
Service established Kelly Field to train pilots for World 
War I. Brooks Field opened the following year with a 
mission to train instructor pilots. 

In 1943, as more and more flying schools opened 
across the country, San Antonio's historic bases 
underwent changes in their missions. Kelly dropped its 
advanced living training mission and con\erted to an 



Typical of the trainers used 
durin<; W orld \\ ar II «ere the 
Pr-19 (left) and the Ar-9 

air logistics base, a role it retained until it realigned 
under Lackland AFB in 2001. Brooks also clo.sed its 
ad\anced Hying training school and began B-25 crew- 
training, a mission it kept until the end of the war. 

For its part. Randolph picked up the ad\anced 
flying training mission, closed the basic flying school, 
and opened the Central Instructor School to train 
instructor pilots, a mission Randolph still performs. 
.•\nd, for the last few months of the war. Randolph 
also conducted 6-24 crew transition training. 

.All the while. Fort Sam Houston had also played a 
major role in preparing US Army ground forces for 
their wartime roles. Durini: the course of the war. Fort 

Sam. mobilized and trained three infantry di\isions 
and five field army headquarters. The Army also had 
several medical department schools at Fort Sam. as 
well as the prostist marshal and adjutant general 
schools. In addition. Fort Sam Houston served as a 
recmit reception center and organized and trained 
appro.ximately half a million soldiers and 
outprocessed a comparable number at the end of the 

Meanwhile, by war's end, the Army Air Forces 
had trained over 193.000 pilots for the fight against 
the Axis powers, and San Antonio's four air bases had 
played a major role in getting that massi\e training 
effort off the ground. 



Armament Maintenance 

Among oihci speci;ilisis iiiiined in technical training 
schools were experts in armament maintenance. 
Combat aircraft were complex, including lots of 
lethal equipment, such as machine guns, cannons, 
bombs, and related gun turrets and bombsights. Such 
equipment exceeded the capabilities of general 
airplane mechanics and required the technical 
expertise of specialized armament maintainers, some 
160,000 of whom received trainmg during the war. 

Aircraft Maintenance 

Of the constellation of technical training courses 
offered to officers and enlisted men in 116 different 
schools (32 of them factory schools) at the end of 
1944, many involved advanced training in aircraft 
maintenance. One of the most important of these was 
a power plant course designed to produce engine 
specialists. This covered maintenance of standard 
aircraft engines and their accessories, including 
superchargers, generators, starters, and carburetors. 

I he airpliine and en<;iiic mechanic school at Keesler Field, Mississippi, provided soldiers practical 
instruction on general inspection of aircraft. 



As World War II approached its conclusion (clicctiveh on 14 Aujiiist hut tormalh not until 2 Septcmhcr), 
trainin<; activities and the strcnjith of Irainiu"; ( onimand declined. Ihe end of the «ar in Kurope in May 
caused the focus of trainin<i to shift from the needs of Ihe Kuropean Iheater to those of the Paciric. 
particular!) courses associated with ver> heav\ hombardment. Ihen, with the cessation of hostilities in the 
Pacific, most trainin" ceased for those students not planning to remain in the post-war air forces. Before that 
time, however, the trend in trainin<; had gone increasin<;ly toward specialized training on particular types of 
aircraft. Then during the last four months of 1945, rapid retrenchment in training <»ccurred, and emphasis 
shifted to separating people from the Army Air Forces and reorganizing Training Command for its still 
undetermined peacetime goals. 



(as (if 3 1 DcLcmber 1945) 


Alabama-Tuskegee; Ari/ona--Ajo. Datelan. Gila Bend. Luke. Williams; 
Calirornia--Mather. Minter; Colorado-Buckle). l.owry: 

Florida--Apalachicola. Boca Raton. Tyndall; Georgia-M(M)ds. Turner: 
Illinois-Chanute. Scott; Louisiaiia--Barksdale. Selman; 

Mississippi-Columbus. Keesler; Nevada-Las Vegas; Oklahoma-Enid; 
Texas-Amarillo. Bryan. Ellington. Foil Brown. Gainesville. 
Goodfellow. Harlingen. Midland. Periin. Randolph. Slieppard 


1 .^6. 1 34 ( 26.240 officers; 7.5.263 enlisted: .34.63 1 civilians) 

6.169 (A-26. AT-6. AT-7. AT-1 1. B-17. B-24. B-25. B-26, B-29. C-45, 
C-46. C-47. C-6(). C-64. CG-4. F-7. F-9. L-4. L-5. OA-IO. P-38. P-47, 
P-61. P/RP-63. PT-13. PT-19, R-4. R-.5/H-5. R-6/H-6. TB-32) 


With the end of the war in lunope. the War Deparlinenl closed luindreds 
of bases. In Iriiining Command (he base closures and mission 
reorganizations happened so fast that there wasn't always time to issue 
inactivation orders. .-\s a result, it was difficult to tell exactly when all 
units or bases closed or tiansfcrrcd to othei commands. Among the 
wings listed below, some had closed b\ the end of 1945 and others 
existed on paper only. 

2 training: commands: 


Western Flying Training Command 

KI.'SINt;. Randolph IicKlTX; 
12 fl\ing training wings: 

27th (Basic). Cochran Field GA 

30th (Adv Twin-Engine). Columbus Field MS 

32d (Basic). Perrin Field TX 

33d (Adv Twin-Engine). Blackland I leld IX 

34th (Bombardier and Specialized Iwin- and 
4-Engine). San Angelo Field TX 

37lh (Adv Singfe Engine). Luke Field AZ 

3Xth (Bombardier and Specialized Twin- and 
4-Engine). Williams Field AZ 




Cadets march tliniu<ih the main jjate at the San Antonio Aviation Cadet Center. In the early 1940s. San 
Antonio was one ol the three h)calions where Iraining Command processed and classified aircrew candidates 
for trainin". 

75th (Flexible Gunnery). Bucicingham Field 


76th (Specialized 4-Enginc). Smyrna Field TN 
77th (Adv Single-Engine), Foster Field TX 
SOth (Navigation and CiliderK San Marcos 
Field TX 

82d (Flexible Gunnery). Las Vegas Field NV 

V ^-1 —.■<i(l ALAi|T/ 


Field IL: 


Buckley Field CO 
Lowr> Field CO 
Boca Raton Field FL 
Chanute Field IL 
Keeslcr Field MS 
Amarilk) Field TX 

On 27 September 1945. MaJ Gen James P. 
Hodges succeeded General Yount as commander. On 
12 May Maj Gen Walter F. Kraus returned to serve 
for a second time as Chief of Staff, replacing General 
McNaughton. He was replaced by Brig Gen James F. 
Powell on 7 December 1945. 

Maj Gen James 
P. Hodges 




Technical Training Command Established 

In niid-Octoher 1945. Training Coniniand delegated 
ail stations and activities of the Western Technical 
Training Command to the Jurisdiction of the Eastern 
Technical Training Command, which it redesignated 
as Technical Training Ciimmand. its headquarters 
remained at Scott Field. Illinois, where the eastern 
comntand had been headquartered. The re\ ised single 
technical training command retained seven stations: 
Scott and Chanute Field.s in Illinois; Keesler Field. 
Mississippi: Boca Raton Field. Florida: Lowry and 
Buckley Fields in Colorado: and Amarillo Field. 

Flying Commands Consolidated 

Also in mid-October. Training Command reassigned 
all people and equipment in Western Flying Training 
Command to the jurisdiction of its central 
counterpart, which on 1 November 194.'i. became 
known as Western Flying Training Command. Then 
on I -S December the enlarged western command 
absorbed Eastern Flying Training Command. The 
single entity became Flying Training Command on I 
Januars 1946. with its headquarters al Randol|ih 
Field. Texas. 


Reduction in Installations 

As the overall training mission declined with the 
winding down of the war, first in Europe and then in 
the Pacific and other theaters, the number of bases 
under Training Command jurisdiction also declined— 
from 170 at the end of 1944 to about 140 in May 
194.5. 1 13 in September, anil ,^4 al ihc end of 1945. 

Lincoln Field 

On 15 .March Lincoln Field, Nebraska, transferred 
from Second .Air Force to AAF Training Command 
and became a combat crew processing and 
distribution center. Then as a part of demobilization, 
on 15 December Training Command placed Lincoln 
Field on inactive status. 

Waco Field, Texas 

From its establishment on 16 September 1941. Waco 
had served as a pilot training base: hov\ever. that 
mission came to an end on 15 December 1945, when 
the command inactivated the base. 

San Marcos Field, Texas 

By the end ot the vear. San Marcos ended navigator 
training and became an inactive field. 

Lubbock Field, Texas 

Pikii training was the primary mission at Lubbock, 
from its establishment on 26 Jime 1941 to its 
inactivalion on .^1 December 1945. 

Transfer of Aviation Cadet Center 

In June 1945 the San .Antonio .Aviation Cadet Center 
transferred to the Personnel Distribution Command. 
In preparation for that event, also in June, the Officer 
Candidate School transferred from the aviation cadet 
center to Maxwell Field. .Alabama. 

Pilot Training Bases 

Manv pilot training installations discontinued training 
during the year. The last contract primary pilot 
schools ended their operations in October. By that 
time, only Goodfellow Field. Texas, and Tuskegee 
Field. .Alabama, continued to offer primary pilot 
training. The last class of black pilots graduated from 
primary training at Tuskegee on 20 November. 
Goodfellow's last primary class transferred to 
Randolph Field to finish training. Randolph began 
primary training on 26 December. B_v the end of 
1945. onlv Perrin Field, Texas, and Tuskegee Field 
continued to provide basic pilot training. The 
remaining active advanced single-engine schools 
were at Luke Field. .Arizona: Stewart Field, New 
York: and Tuskegee. .Advanced twin-engine training 
continued only at Enid Field. Oklahoma: Turner 
Field, Georgia; and Tuskegee, 


Wing Inactivations 

During the year. AAF Training Command inactivated 
the 2SUi. 29th. .31st. 35th. 36th. 74th. 7Sth. 79th. SIst, 
and 83d Flying Training Wings. 

Demobilization Unit 

K_v ihc end ol ihc \car. the primary functions of ,AAF' 
Training Command had become the rapid separation 
of eligible personnel from the Army Air Forces and 
the recruiting of Regular Army enlistees to operate 
the post-war air forces. Consequently, in early 
September Training Command headquarters set up a 
demobilization unit in its Personnel (A-l) Division, 
and on 22 October it established a Recruiting Section. 
lis goal was to create an entirely vx)luntary force, 
preferably one consisting of experienced, three-year 




On 7 March 1942. the first African- Americans to 
become mihtary pilots received their wings at 
Tuskegee Field. Alabama. For many this event 
marked 25 years of determined effort to include 
blacks in military aviation. As early as 1917. Walter 
White. Director of the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). had 
called for the inclusion of blacks in the Air Coips 
only to be told that "no colored squadrons were 
being formed at the present time." Finally, on 21 
March 1941, the Air Corps activated the 99th 
Pursuit .Squadron, which became the first squadron 
of what became the renowned Tuskegee Airmen. 

At I uskcfiee Field these four aircraft «ere the 
preferred trainers during; the war: top to bottom, 
the Pr-17, primary; the BT-13, basic; the AT-6, 
advanced; and the P-40, transition. 

Tuskegee Field was established on 23 July 1941. 
and training began on I November. Also in July, the 
War Department announced that the 99th Pursuit 
Squadron was to consist of 33 pilots. 27 planes, and 
400 enlisted men. Moreover, over 270 enlisted men 
were already training at Chanute Field. Illinois, to 
serve as airplane mechanics, supply clerks. 
armorers, and weather forecasters at Tuskegee. 
Additionally, the War Department announced plans 
to train about 100 pilots each year at Tuskegee. a 
clear indication that more black squadrons were in 

the offing. During the war. Tuskegee trained 650 
single-engine. 217 twin-engine, and 60 auxiliary 
pilots, plus 5 from Haiti. 

After the first class of five pilots graduated, it 
took until July 1942 for enough black airmen to 
complete flight training for the squadron to reach 
full strength. Even then, the Army was not ready to 
send black pilots overseas. Under the command of 
Capt Benjamin O. Davis. Jr.. the 99th remained at 
Tuskegee and received additional training to prepare 
for combat. In April 1943 the unit deployed to 
French Morocco in North Africa. 

After acclimating to their new environs, pilots 
from the 99th got their first taste of combat on 2 
June 1943, during a strafing mission against the 
island of Pantelleria. A month later. Lt Charles Hall 
scored the squadron's first air-to-air victory when he 
shot down a German FW-190. In September 1943. 
the 99th conducted bomber escort, dive bombing, 
and strafing missions against targets on the Italian 
mainland. Squadron pilots were criticized for their 
failure to score another aerial victory for the 
remainder of the year. Limited contact with the 
enemy was partly to blame. The 99th also lacked 
flight leaders with combat experience, in contrast to 
white units, until the pilots had flown more combat 

Cadets at luskesee lle\> h^ht planes while 
completing the Indoctrination Flight Course. 

Meanwhile, Davis, now a colonel, had become 
Commander of the 332d Fighter Group. The unit 
acti\atcd at Tuskegee in mid- 1 942 and transferred to 
Michigan in 1943. where it conducted advanced 
training at Selfridge and Oscoda, before deploying 
oxerseas to Italy in February 1944. The group com- 



A\iation cadets conduct a physics class laboratory experiment at Tuskcgee Institute. 

prised three fighter squadrons: the 100th. .M)lst. and 
302d. all of which had also begun at Tuskegee before 
completing their training in Michigan. The 99lh was 
also assigned to the 3.^2d Group in May 1944. 

As soon as these units arrived in ital\ they began 
flying combat missions, using P-39s. The 332d 
switched to P-47s in the spring and to the more 
capable P-.'^ls in ,lune 1944. With the P-5\s. the 
group flew long range bomber escort missions against 
such targets as oil refineries, factories, airfields, and 
marshalling yards. 

As the war progressed the 332d"s si|Luidrons 
established an enviable combat record. On I 1 July 
1944. P-51s from the 332d Fighter Group shot down 
18 enemy fighters while Hying escort for a large 
bomber formation. On 24 March 1945. while escort- 
ing B-17s during a raid on a tank factory in Berlin, 
the 332d's pilots downed three German jet fighters. 

For their actions, the 332d ami three of its 
squadrons-the 99th. lOOth and .^01st--earned 
Distinguished Unit Citations, 

Barracks inspection at luskegee. 



Pictured ;ih(»\e is a tormatlon of PT-17 "Kaydets" used as primary trainers throughout World War II. 
Belo« is the 61-13 "\ aliant" which served as a basic trainer during the war years. 




The .\-2 bomb trainer was a steel scaffold about 12 feet hi};h. Mounted on \> heels, it could be electrically 
propelled across the hangar floor. The lop of the structure represented the bombardier's compartment 
and was large enough to accommodate an instructor, a student bombardier, and another student who 
acted as bomb approach pilot. In the lower portion of the scaffold sat another student who operated a 
moveable "bug" (an electronic motor on wheels), at which the bombardier aimed his siglit. I he •"boinl)" 
released was a small plunger that struck a paper target on the "bug." thereby registering the student's 



Relocation of Central Instructors School 

In order to muke room al Kamlolph iickl lor 8-29 
training, the Central Instructt)rs .School, redesignated 
the Army Air Forces Instructors School (Central), 
moved from Randolph and Brooks Fields to Waco 
Field. Texas, between 23 February and ."^ April. With 
the cessation of very heavy bomber training in 
August, however, the AAF apparently began to have 
second thoughts about the location of ail pilot 
instructor training at Waco. In any event, it returned 
to Randolph in November 144.^. 

New Instrument Pilot Instructors School 

Late in 1944 a vast expansion in instrument pilot 
training resulted in an increased need for instructors 
in that area. The existing instructors school at Bryan, 

Texas, was not able to lake on the additional load, so 
on 4 February. Lubbock Field, formally became the 
site of a second AAF Instructors School (Instrument 
Pilot I. aliliough the first class of instructors had 
alrcadv begun training on 10 .January. This was made 
possible by the simultaneous termination of the 
advanced tv\o-engine program at Lubbock. In late 
November, the two schools transferred to Barksdale 
Field. Louisiana. 

Qualification Screening Study 

During the first hall ol 194.S. I'raining Command 
completed a study of abt)ut I. .*>()() individuals sent 
inlo pilot training before being screened for aptitude. 
The group turned out to include a much higher 
proportion of men with low aptitude than had 
previously entered pilot training. Further, the 
percentage of eliminations was much higher than had 
been the case v\ith groups screened by the ciualilving 
examination and classification tests. This study 



showed clearly the value and validity of the screening 
procedures developed by the Army Air Forces. 

Navigator Training 

By May 1945. navigator training tor cadets existed 
only at three schools— Hondo and ,San Marcos Fields 
in Texas and Selman Field, Louisiana. Shortly after 
the conclusion of hostilities with Japan, the Army Air 
Forces decided to concentrate all navigation training 
at Ellington Field. Texas, which previously had 
trained instructors and graduate navigators. This 
consolidation occurred basically in September, 
although the navigation school at San Marcos 
remained open imtil the end of November and 

Students practice navigation skills In an A I'-l 1 

Selman Field remained in operation until earl\ 1946 
for the purpose of providing continuation training. 
The base at Hondo closed in December. In early 
1946, with the announcement that Ellington would 
close in April, the command assigned all navigator 
trail. mg to Mather Field in ralilornia. 

Prefiight Training Ended 

By April the preflight training program had met all 
quotas for pilot, navigator, and bombardier schools 
and had created a backlog of graduates that was more 
than adequate to satisfy all anticipated requirements. 
Consequently, at the end of the month Training 
Command suspended pretlight training for returnees 
from overseas and restricted the prefiight training 
school to B-29 flight engineers and a few other 
special priority needs. 

Combat Returnees 

During this perii)d. a great many of the students and 
instructors in Training Command were returnees 
from coinbat theaters. Whether 
because of morale problems, lack 
of preparation, or emotional 
disorders resulting from combat, 
the veterans were frequently 
problem students and poor 
instructors. In primary pilot 
training, for example, returnees 
tended to resent treatment and 
training as cadets, and they also 
were inclined to exhibit tenseness 
and ner\ousness while taking off 
in an aircraft, listening to an 
engine cut out. or watching a 
spin. However a few returnees 
made excellent instructors, 
although some regarded instruct- 
ing student pilots as more 
dangerous than some combat 

B-29 Training 

By contrast v\ ith most other areas 
of training where the supply of 
graduates had exceeded the 
demand, very heavy bombard- 
ment iMiits still required increas- 
ing numbers of crew members 
for the assault on the home 
islands of Japan. Consequently, 
the early part of the year was a 
period of rapid expansion for the 
B-29 program. Initially. Maxwell 
Field, Alabama, trained most of 
the crews, with instruction begin- 
ning at Roswell Field, New Mexico, in Januar\ and 
Randolph Field in June. 

Flexible Gunnery Training 

Durnig the carls pari of \'-)4f<. se\en schools provided 
flexible gunnery training. To make training more 
realistic, these schools used "frangible" bullets to fire 
at specially built Bell RP-6.^ aircraft that simulated 
conventional fighter attacks against bombers. The 



At Buckingham Field in Horicla. a Juda target car 
is readied tor llevible gunnery practice. 

bullets were made in such a v\a\ lliat they splaltered 
into powder when they struck the aircraft. The 
RP-63s were equipped with ladiosonic equipment to 
cause a wing lamp to Hash, showing gunners when 
they had scored. Unfortunately, the number of hits 
registered by the recording devices was usually 
disappointingly small-whether because of misses or 
a faikire of the recording mechanisms was unclear. 
Flexible gunnery training ended shortly after the 
surrender of Japan. 

how to search for and then drop lifeboats to dovsned 
aircrews in areas where no amphibious rescue craft 
were available, where high seas precluded water 
landings, or where downed personnel were too close 
to eiiem\ torces for other means of rescue to be 

B-29 Flexible Gunnery Training 

Throughout 1944, B-29 gunners received practically 
the same training as those for other aircraft, but at the 
end of the year a few of them began to receive 
training in B-24s modified by the addition of central 
fire control turrets to make iheni more like B-29s. 
Then, as the \ear progressed. Buckingham Meld. 
Florida; Las Vegas Field. Nevada; and Harlingen 
Field. Texas, all began offering B-29 gunnery 
instruction until ilic end ot the war. Among the 
training de\'ices used in this instruction was the 
niampulation trainer- 1 2 towers arranged to resemble 
a formation of planes. The towers ranged in height 
from 10 to 40 feet, each equipped with 2 nose. 2 tail. 
2 ring sighting, and 4 blister positions. As .students in 
these positions faced simulated attacks from PT-13 
and PT-17 aircraft, they "fired" camera guns at the 
attacking fighters. 



Ironi l*)44 to 1946. Keesler operated the only 
etiiergeiiex leseiie school in llie \ini\ Air l-orees. 
The OA-l(». ah()\e. and the IM7. right, were the 
major aircraft used for air-sea rescue training. 

B-17 Airborne Lifeboat Training 

Keesler's emergency rescue school began pio\iding 
airborne lifeboat training for air-sea rescues on 
29 January. During the course, B-17 crews learned 

Aircraft Mechanics Training 

Among the more impoitaiU of the many technical 
training courses offered in \945 was the primar\ or 
basic training pro\ ided Hi potential airplane and engine 
mechanics. The program consisted ot a 76-da\ course 
at Keesler or Amarillo Fields. Graduates then look a 
36-day course on a particular airplane before being 
granted the military specialty for mechanics 
(specification serial number 747). .Amarillo offered 
specific training on the B-17 and B-29; Keesler 
provided insiiuction on the B-24. B-2.';. B-2ft. B-32. 
(-46, and C-47 (terminated early in 1945); and 
("hanute specialized in the P-47. Amarillo ended its 
primary course on 10 May and, instead, offered only a 
primary course on the B-29. 

Factory Training of Mechanics Ends 

During the last part of 1944, there had appeared a 
trend toward replacement of factor) schools with 
courses in technical training centers. However, many 



The bonibsight was (he U\ to successful missions. Here, Lowiy students inspect and adjust Sperry bomb- 

factory schools continued to exist even after the end 
of the war. The last one-operated hy Douglas 
Aircraft Ci>mpany in Santa Monica, California- 
closed its diiors on I? December 1945. 

Mobile Training Units 

From July 144.1 through June 1944. mobile training 
units provided instruction for 144,063 men. That 
number climbed to 32 1. 004 in FY 45, a clear 
indication that mobile training had not slacked off by 
the end of the war. However, it shrank quickly after 
that. Meanwhile, to alleviate personnel problems that 
had resulted from assigning all nK)bile training unit 
personnel to Headquarters, Western Technical 
Training Command, on I March 1945. the Ariny Air 
Forces set up the 37ISth AAF Base Unit to oversee 
140 MTUs (increased to Ki3 by the end of the war.) 


Basic IVIilitary Training 

By January 1945 basic military training had become 
a comparatively minor part of Training Command's 
activities. Only three centers remained active- 
Amarillo, Sheppard, and Keesler. Buckley Field 
stopped basic training in December 1944, but it was 
early 1945 before all trainees had assignments. Only 
about 19,000 soldiers were in basic training in 
January, as compared to the peak figure of 135,796 in 
February 1943. The figure climbed to 42,413 on 
3 August 1945 and remained at 37,453 in December. 




Not surprisingly, demobilization caused a considerable amount of c(mfusion in the command's various 
trainin<; pro<;rams. Because ol the discliar<;e ol a large number oliiualilled people Irom the Army Air Forces 
and subsequent budgetary reductions, the command sulfered from a shorlage of skilled perscmnel to provide 
instruction and maintenance. The number of students flowing into the schoolhouse »as in a constant state of 
flux. Further complicating the picture was the fact that the majority of trainees were not suited to AAF 
training. In spite of these difficulties. Training Command was still able to lay a foundation for peacetime 


(as of 31 December 1946) 



Anzona--\Villianis; Calitbrnia-Mullier: Coloiadi)-Lowry: Florida-- Boca 
Raton: lllinois-Chanute and Scott: Louisiana-Barksdale; 
Mississippi-Keesler: Oklahoma-Enid: Texas-Goodfellov\ . Lackland. 
Randolph, and -San M;ucos: Washington-Geiger 

?2.7()7 (5.7S()otTicei>: 34.717 enlisted; 12.210 civilians) 

2.099 (A-26. .AT-6. AT-7. AT-ll. B-17. B-24. B-25. B-26. B-29. 
C-45. C-46. C-54. F-31. F-SO. L-4. L-5. OA-IO. P-47. P-51. P-80. PT-13) 

During the 1940s. Training 
Command used Beechcraft's AT-ll 
"Kansan" as a bomber and gunnerv 

3 divisions: 

Fl.MNt;. Randolph Field TX: 

Barksdale Field LA 
Enid Field OK 
Goodtellow Fiekl TX 
Mather Field CA 
San Marcos Field TX 
Williams Field AZ 

TrrilMCA!.. Scott Field IL 

Boca Raton Field FL 
Chanule Field IL 
Geiger Field WA 
Keesler Fiekl MS 
Lowrv Field CO 

INDCXTRINATION. lackland Field TX 



In February 1947 Traininj; Comniand moved its headquarters from downtown Fort Worth. Texas, to 
Barksdale Field in northwestern Louisiana. In the foreground of the above photo, is the new 
headquarters building. 



4MCgf<£. J29KJBV 

Lt Gen ,Iohn K. 

On 13 April 1946. I,l Gen John K. Cannon 
succectleil General Hodges as Commanding General. 
AAF Training Command. A new chief of staff. Col 
(later Brig Gen) Isaiah Davis, took office on 7 March. 
He was replaced on \5 April hy Brig Gen Alvin C. 

Training Command Headquarters Moved 

At the end of the wai. the irciid ihroughoiu the Arni>' 
Air Forces was to consolidate activities on facilities 
that would be a part of the post-war air force. 
Llnfortunately for AAF Training Command, its head- 
quarters was located in Fort Worth. Texas, in the 
Texas and Pacific Railway Building. Although the 
headquarters requested that AAF leave Training 
Command at Fort Worth, that request was denied. In 
No\ ember 1945 Headquarters. AAF directed 
Training Command to move its headquarters to 
Barksdale Field. Louisiana between 19 and 
2S f-ebruary. Because the round-trip distance between 
Fort Worth and Barksdale was in excess of 150 
miles, regulation forbade the use of government 
\ehicles in the mo\e. Instead, the headquarters had to 
use commercial van services at a cost of almost 
$23,000. In addition, the headquarters lost the 
services of 140 civilians, who chose to resign rather 
than make the move. However. 310 officers. 411 
enlisted personnel, and 239 civilians did go to 



Training Command Redesignated 

On I Jul\ 194(1. AAI- Iraimiii; Conimaiid became 
Air Training Command. At aboiil liie same time. 
Army Air Forces began interpreting the word 
"command" to mean a major air command. For that 
reason, on 1 November the Flying Training and 
Technical Training Commands became the Flying 
and Technical Training Disisions of Air Training 
Command. In addition, the Military Training Center 
in San Antonio (which had earlier been a part of 
Technical Training Command) became the 
Indoctrination Di\ision. All three were co-equal in 


Perrin Field, Texas 

Activated on 20 .September 1941. Penin served as a 
flying training base until its inactivation on 
31 October 194^6. 

Las Vegas Field, Nevada 

.Air Training Command inactivated the base on 
31 December 1946. From its activation on 

20 December 1941. Las Vegas AAF had conducted 
flying training. 

Tyndall Field, Florida 

Established on 16 June 1941. Tyndall Field served 
Training Command as a flexible gunnery and flying 
training base during World War II. The field 
transferred to Continental AW Command on 
28 February 1946. to Tactical Air Command on 

21 March, and finallv to Air University on l.'^l May. 

A student atop the \-2 honihinu trainer receives 
instruction (in the use of the M-series bombsiyht. 

Overseas Replacement Depots 

On 30 .April the tJverseas Keplacement Depots at 
Kearns. Utah, and Greensboro. North Carolina. 

translerred liom Strategic Air Command to Training 
Command. Their lunction of processing and shipping 
people dill not fit neativ mlo an\ part of ihe 
command's mission. So. on 31 JiiK Headt|uarters 
A.AF transferred the Kearns depot to .\ir Defense 
Command, and it reassigned (iieensboio to the same 
command on l.'i .August. 


Central Instructors School Transferred 

On 13 March 1946. Training Conuiiand transferred 
the AAF Pilot Instructors School, previously called 
the Cenual Instructors School, from Randolph to 

New Mission for Instructor Pilot School 

In March the Instructor's School (Insinmient Pilot) 
changed from a school for instructors ^Aho taught use 
of instruments to a school that trained all pilots in the 
command in the use of instrument procedures. As a 
result, on l.'S March Training Command renamed the 
school. It became the .AAF Pilot School ( Instrument i. 

Air Reserve Officer Training Corps 

Army Air Forces activated the .Air Reserve Officer 
Training Corps (the forerunner of today's Air Force 
Reserve Officer Training Corps) in 1946 and placed 
it under the supervision of .Air Training Command. 
Then in November, control passed to Air Defense 


Inactivation of Flying Training Wings 

On l(i.luiie 194(1. Headi.|uancrs ,\.\|- iiiacii\ated the 
27th. 34th. 37th. 38th. 75th. 76th. 77th. SOth. and 82d 
Flying Training Wings. Three more wings-the 30th. 
32d. and 33d-were inactivated on 1 3 October. 
Thereafter, the primarv unit at each .A TC installation 
was an AAF' base unit. 



Shortages of Trained Personnel 

Although command strength did not begin to decline 
rapidly until the second half ol the year (when it 
dropped precipitously), discharges aiul leiluctmns m 
force protliicetl an intense shortage ot niialitieil and 
e.xperienceil personnel. The situation was so critical 
in January 1946 that Training Command approved a 
se\en-and-one-half-week moratorium on flying 
training. Simultaneously, the commanil placed all but 
seven of the stations in Flying Training Command in 
a status of reduced activity so that the few available. 



qualified personnel could provide training and 
maintenance where needed. The same kinds of 
problems also existed in technical training. 

Pilot Production Expanded 

Headquarters .AAF announced in June that pilot 
production would be set at i ,400 per year. However, 
that proved impractical because of shortages of 
supplies, spare parts, and maintenance personnel, and 
lack of tlyable aircraft. By autumn, that productiim 
jiian had been revised downward to 825. Even that 
goal was unattainable. For the year, only 371 pilots 

Peacetime Pilot Training Program 

The standard pilot training program was set at 32 
weeks, consisting of three phases: primary, basic, 
and advanced. Pretlight training had been restricted 
to B-29 flight engineers and a few other special 
priority needs at the end of April 1946, and then ATC 
totally discontinued it as a separate phase in 1946. 
All preflight instruction was integrated into the new 
three-phase program. 

Under the new course of instruction, all students 
received common training in the primary and basic 

phases, and 35 percent of the basic graduates were 
then assigned to advanced single-engine school, 27 
percent to advanced two-engine school, and 38 
percent to the newly established four-engine school. 
Transition in conventionally powered fighter 
aircraft — the P-47 and P-51 — was integrated into the 
advanced single-engine phase of standard pilot 
training, and those transition schools were 
discontinued. The P-80 jet fighter pilot transition and 
fighter gunnery schools at Williams Field remained; 
however, the gunnery school existed only to fulfill 
research obligations. 

Observer Bombardment Training 

At the end of Wtirld War 11, the Army Air Forces did 
away with individual navigator, bombardier, and 
radar operator training and conducted a course to 
train personnel in all three skills. Originally, planners 
wanted to put this training at Las Vegas Field, but 
because of problems with sharing the airfield with 
local interests. Training Command decided to put the 
new instructional program at Mather. The first class 
began training in June 1946. Both the C-47 and B-25 
multi-engine aircraft were used in this course; for a 
short period, students also used a few B-29s, but they 
were too costly. 

In May 1946 San Marcos Field, Texas, shown aho\e. came back on active status to operate the AAF 
helicopter and liaison schools. «hich transferred from Sheppard Field. Texas, late in the month. At the 
same time, the schools mo\ed from lechnical I rainin» ( Oniniand control to Flying Training Command. 



Rows of Link trainers fill this C hanutc Field. Illinois, classroom. Iluse trainers were used to teaeli both 
Link trainer operators and maintenance technicians. 


Weather Training 

111 IM4(i the War Depaitiiienl transt'envd 
responsibility for installation and maintenance of 
weather equipment troni the Signal Corps to the 
AAF. which, in turn, assigned that training 
responsibility to Training Command. However, a 
shortage of instructors and training etiuipment 
prevented the command from adding new courses 
until UMS. 

Technical Training Quotas 

An unstable student How created high and low 
workloads and precluded the possibility of obtainmg 
maximum use of available instructor personnel. Thus, 
in August 1946. the AAF established a system of 
mandatory quotas, where major commands were 
directed to meet, but not exceed, authorized 
allotments set by Training Command requirements. 
This compulsory quota system continued until late 
.luiie 1947. when the determination of training neeiK 
relumed to the major commantls. 

Polar Mobile Training Units 

I he lact that an routes across the polar regions were 
the shortest distance between many parts of Asia. 

Europe, and the L'nited Slates served as the 
mainspring of the AAF's postwar plans. Air Training 
Command gave Technical Training Command the 
lesponsibilitv of assembling and training two 
specialized arctic training teams by 1 September 
1946. Their mission was ti' indoctrinate AAF imiis 
and individuals destined for polar assignments in 
personal survival and in the care and use ol 
equipment in cold weather climates. 

Shovxn above is a lai^e muck-op nl the M- 
series l)oml>si<^ht where inslrudois picsenled 
detailed instruction on its opei aliori. 


The Control Tower Operator Course at Chanutc I icid. Illinois, used a model airport and a full-scale mock- 
up control tower shown above. 


Basic Military Training 

Throuiihoul the year, basic tiaining consisted of six 
weeks instruction for all recruits. Those not selected 
for technical training received an additional two 
weeks of continuation training. After 1 July 1946. all 
basic training was conducted in .San Antonio, at v\hat 
later hecaine known as Lackland. 



Separation criteria were progressively lowered tor 
both officer and enlisted personnel during 1946. 
Training Command losses from separations were not 
made up by gains from recruits and returnees. 
Shortages were particularly acute in maintenance, 
mess, clerical, and medical personnel. By mid-year, 
the command had an estimated personnel shortage of 
over 1 7.000- lO.OnO in maintenance. 

Enlisted personnel learn how to pack parachutes at Chanute Field. 



The Army Air Forces had set a post-war »;oal of bllildin^ its strength to 70 groups: however. Congress 
ballsed at funding the ambitious undertal<ing. Instead, the AAF had to downscale its plans, settling on 55 
groups. All 55 groups were to be organized and manned by I .lanuar\ I94S. (However, before the AAF 
could meet its objective. Congress passed the National Security Act of 1947, and soon after, the Air Force 
became a separate service, equal to the Army and Navy.) To meet this directive, ATC expanded its pilot 
training program to produce 3.00(1 pilots per year. The command also integrated primary and basic training 
- another step toward meeting the Air Force's ever increasing demand for pilots capable of living heavier and 
faster aircraft. 

By 31 December 1947. the Air Force was 55 groups strong, but many of the major commands felt their 
personnel cupboards had been stripped clean in order to accomplish this goal. Earlier in the year, the ATC 
commander had told Gen Carl A. Spaatz. the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, that ATC would do all it could 
to bring the new groups up to strength, but Spaatz's push to man the groups at any cost almost destroyed 
ATC's training capacity. 


(us of 3 I December 1947) 



Arizona-Williams: Culit'omia-Mather: Colorado-Lowry: Illinois- 
Chanute and Scott; Louisiana-Barksdale: lVlississippi--Keesler: 
Ne\ ada--Las Vegas: Texas-Goodt'eljow. Lackland. Randolph, and San 
Marcos; Wvominu-Fort Francis E. WaiTen 


49.321 (4.969 iifficcrs; 199 warrant officers: 35.476 enlisted: 8.677 


1.707 (A-26. AT/T-6. B-17. B-25. B-29. C-4.5. C-46. C-47. C-.S4. C-82. 
F-2. F-IO. L-4. L-5. PT-13. P-51. P-8(). R-5. R-6) 


3 divisions: 


Randolph Fiekl TX 
Barksdale Field LA 
Goodfellow Field TX 
Las Vegas Field NV 
Mather Field CA 
San Marcos Field TX 
Williams Field AZ 


Scott Field IL 

Chanutc Field 11. 

Fort Francis F. Warioi \S "i' 

Keesler Field MS 

Lowry Field CO 


Lackland Field 1 \ 


Lieutenant General John K. Cannon continued to 
serve as Commanding General. Air Training 
Command, and Brig Gen Alvin C. Kincaid remained 

chief of staff. 



Internal Base Structure Reorganized 

lleadc|iiartcrs I'S.AF directed a service-wide re- 
organization of internal base structuie. The major 
change was the replacement of the base unit 
organization with a base-wing set-up. All ATC bases 



were to have a wing headquarters with three 
subordinate groups: training, maintenance, and 
airdrome. However, in August 1947 this reorgan- 
ization was deterred until 1948. 

could be salvaged was moved to Keesler. It took 
Keesler personnel several weeks to dry out and repair 
radar equipment. As a result, the radar school didn't 
open at its new location until early 1948. 

Goodfellow Field 

Since .August 1440. Goodfellow's primary mission 
was flying training; however, that came to an end on 
1 May 1947, when ATC inactivated the base, but the 
closure was short-lived. In June 1947 the Air Force 
published a new statement of training requirements. 
Beginning in August, pilot output was to increase 
from 825 per year to 3,000 per year. For ATC, the 
first step in this expansion effort was the activation of 
another pilot training base. Effective 1 December 
1947, Goodfellow Field. Texas, returned to active 
status. Basic pilot training resumed in March 1948. 

Enid Field, Oklahoma 

From lis activation on 20 September 1941, Enid had 
operated a flying training program. Air Training 
Command inactivated the base on 3 1 Januar\ 1947. 

Geiger Field and Fort Francis E. Warren 

For sometime city officials in Spokane. Washington. 
had tried to acquire joint use of facilities at Geiger 
Field. Air Training Command used Geiger as its 
Aviation Engineer Training Center, and the Air Force 
was opposed to sharing facilities with civilian 
authorities. Instead, Headquarters USAF directed 
ATC to transfer its training mission from Geiger 
Field to Fort Francis E. Warren in Wyoming. 
Training stopped at Geiger Field on 15 May 1947. 
and ATC assumed jurisdiction of Fort Francis E. 
Warren on 1 June. Within a matter of weeks, 3,346 
military personnel and 4,000 tons of equipment had 
rek)catcd. Training began at the Wyoming fort on 
7 July. Geiger Field transferred to Strategic Air 
Command as of 15 September. Also in connection 
vv ith the disposal of Geiger Field. ATC translerred a 
Geiger subpost. Fort George E. Wright, to Strategic 
Air Command on 16 Julv. 

T\NO hurricanes, one in Scpteniher and the otlur In 
October, destroyed Boca Raton Field in Florida. 
Hca\> rains shut down drainaf;e and sewer sys- 
tems. The resulting unsanitary conditions caused 
medical authorities to condemn the base, and that, 
in turn, accelerated the mo\e of the radar school to 
Keesler. The upper photo shows barracks flattened 
in the storms, and the lower picture shows all that 
remains of one of the giant radar training facilities. 


Boca Raton Field, Florida 

As a cosl-culling nicasuic. War Department officials 
in early 1947 were making plans to dispose of Boca 
Raton Field. Florida, the only radar school in the 
.■\rm) .'\ir Forces. The radar training program would 
move to Keesler in November. However. Mother 
Nature put a kink in those arrangements. On 
I S September a hurricane caused major damage tii 
Boca Raton and the radar school. Keesler officials 
airlifted personnel to the base to assist with salvage, 
packaging, and shipping equipment. Before the mo\e 
could be completed, on 1 2 October a second 
hurricane slammed into the base, again dumping 
torrential rains. By the time that storm had moved on. 
Boca Raton was totalK uninhabitable. W'hate\cr 

Jet Fighter Training 

In 1946 Training Command began its first jet fighter 
transition course at Williams. However, by early 
1947 the AAF had sped up its conversion to jet 
aircraft. The only way training needs could be met 
uas b\ limiting course quotas to commands already 
using jet aircraft. Also, the training program was 
handicapped by the fact that no dual jet aircraft 
existed. Putting untrained jet pilots into a single-seat 
fighter endangered personnel ami expensive equip- 
ment. To overcome this problem. Air Training 
Command decided to use a newly developed 
"captivair" training de\ice. It was recei\ed and 
installed at Williams in early 1947. 



Basic Flying Training 

In September llie priinai\ and basic llsinii irainini: 
courses were combined into a single eight-nioiiih 
basic course, vvitii two phases. Ail flying was done \n 
the T-6. (The earlier course had used the PT-13 lor 
the primary phase and the AT-6 for the advanced.) hi 
addition, the new course had added a two-week 
preflight segment. 

Fighter Gunnery Training 

Partialis disconliniied at \\ illiams Field in September 
1946. tighter gunnery training was reestablished there 
in early 1947. The new program studied the use of 
fighter gunnery, bombing, and rocketry equipment. 
Students tlew P-.'^ls. P-47s. and beginning at mid- 
year. P-80s. 

Flight Engineer Training 

Part of this Mather-based program transferred to 
Strategic Air Command in early 1947. It had been an 
expensi\e program froin ATC's perspective, in terms 
of operating expenses. Because the course used B- 
29s. ATC believed SAC should take over the 
program. Finally. ATC agreed to keep the ground 
training, while SAC provided tlight instruction. A 
student would not receive his flight engineer rating 
until he had successfully completed flying training in 
SAC. The new training program went into effect in 
February 1947. and within several months ATC 
transferred the B-29s to SAC. 

Liaison-Type Aircraft Training 

Air Iraimng Command learned in late 1947 that the 
Army was discontinuing its liaison-type airplane and 
engine mechanic training program at Fort Sill, 
Oklahoma, in the future, this training would be 
provided by ATC for Army soldiers. Keesler Field 
became host of the new training program, which 
began in early 1948. Also relocated were L-4 and L-5 

Prototype Dehmel Z-1 

Beginning in 1947, ATC used this trainer at 
Barksdale AFB. It had an automatic radio range that 
recorded the solution of instrument Hying problems 
on cardboard discs. The Dehmel Z-1 operated 
electronically, which meant instrument readings were 
more accurate. According to Barksdale officials, the 
Z-1 was more like a real aircraft than any other 
synthetic flying training device in use in Air Training 


Cutbacks in Technical Training 

In March 1^)47 budgetary cuts caused a major 
reduction in force of graded civilian employees. 
Technical Division had no choice but to fill empty 
civilian instructor slots with military personnel. That 
left the schtHils v. ith a high percentage of instructors 
with little if any teaching experience and. in some 

SxMlhelic trainers such as the I -SO ( aplivair nmit nicuuv savers, as vmII as lime savers. Instructors 
considered them an excellent >\a> IV.r students lo develop muscular aiul menial coordination. (In .lune 
1947 the "P" for pursuit ehan«;ed to "K" for lljihter.) 



Several trainers were used in the jjunnery phase of pilot training. Here an aviation cadet fires a BB 
machine gun from a link trainer-type cockpit to simulate the ideal curve of pursuit in firing at moving 

A mobile training unit instructor 
explains up-to-the-minute P-51 
maintenance procedures to a group 
of ground crew specialists. 

Enlisted personnel at Uandolpli 
Field, Texas, received hands-on 
training using the C-8 synthetic 



cases, very limited knowledge ol eourse material. In 
fact, many of these new instructors had just graduated 
from the courses they were now expected to teach. 
Besides these problems, there was also a morale 
problem. In general, militarv instructors were offered 
poor housing and given few opportunities for 
promotion. There was also a definite lack of 
distinction between students and instructors in 
performance of routine organizational duties. Not 
only were there attitude problems within the 
instructor ranks, but these problems also spilled over 
into the student ranks, and that resulted in high 
elimination rates. While the command attempted to 
remedy the situation, little success was noted in 1947. 

Generalized Technical Training 

Air Training Command began a general system of 
instruction in several courses during the seci)nd half 
of 1947. The idea behind generalized training had 
come with the realization that the Air Force was 
extremely reluctant to assign hea\y bombardment 
aircraft to ATC for ground training, yet the command 
was still required to train crew and support personnel. 
Trainers felt the only way adequate instruction could 
be prov ided was by the use of mobile training teams 
that would take the training to the unit. However, the 
command didn't ha\e the instructors to provide that 
training. In fact, budget cuts had left ATC with an 
instructor force with very limited teaching 
experience. The only way ATC officials thought 
training needs could be met was by establishing 
generalized training. Instead of needing the latest in 
equipment (as was the case in specializetl 
instruction), generalized training could be conducted 
using generic equipment. More specialized training 
would be pro\ided on the job. One of the first 
generalized courses was airplane and engine 
mechanic, jet propulsion, which opened at Chanute 
on 17 September. By mid- 1948 this course made up 
almost 50 percent of Chanute's student body. 

Aviation Career Plan 

In an effort lo mcrease voliuitary enlistments from 
high school graduates and improve the caliber of 
personnel chosen for \anous t\pes ot technical 
training, the Air I-orce established the Aviation 
Career Plan in July 1947. liidcr this program, 
selected high school graduates could apply and 
qualify for technical training of their choice prior to 

Radio Operator Training 

An Training Command ended radio operator 
mechanic training in October 1947. The course first 
began at Chanute in the 19.^()s and then moved to 
Scott in 1940. where it expanded during the war to 
fill about 46 wimzs of the laree school buildings on 

base. It was from this course that many specialized 
radio and communications courses evolved. 

^»- \i^ ^ 
\\iati()n cadets receive Morse code training from 
female A.\F instructors (note the shoulder patch). 

Training Aids 

During World War II. a separate field dixision had 
existed in New York City for the purpose of 
de\eloping and manufacturing all types of training 
aids. The program died at the eiul ot the w ar. leaving 
training aids with no roadmap for the future. This 
lack o\ direction resulted in duplication of effort 
between agencies and no clear policy for meeting 
newly-assigned training requirements. By the end ot 
1946. Headquarters AAF had decided at assign Air 
Training Command responsibility for training aids. 
This was just one of several taskings added ATC's 
mission statement. 

Radio Operator Training 

Air Training command ended radio operator 
mechanic training in October 1947. The course first 
began at Chanute in the 19.^()s and then moved to 
Scott 111 1940. where it expanded during the war to 
fill about 46 wings of the large school buildings on 
base. It was from this course that many specialized 
radio ami commimicalions courses e\(>l\ed. 

Intelligence Training 

leachers. lawyers, and investigators made up the 
greatest percentage of personnel trained as 
intelligence officers during World War II. By mid- 
1946 most of these people had left the service, 
returning to their ci\ ilian occupations. The AAF was 
left with an intelligence organization where almost 75 
percent of the personnel had been trained on the job. 
Only 25 percent had any formal training in 
intelligence. As a result, the AAF directed Air 
Training Command and Air University to establish 
formal courses. The ATC courses were to focus on 
basic training in intelligence techniques needed tor 
combat reporting, photographic intelligence, prisoner 
of war interrogation, and briefing and interrogation of 



combat crews. Keesler was selected as the site for 
this training. The first (and only) courses began at 
Keesler in June. Then the announced move of the 
Boca Raton radar school to Keesler, resulted in 
intelligence training moving in July to Lowry. 

Food Service Training Ended 

The last class at the Air Force Food Service School, 
Scott Field. Illinois, graduated in June. The Army 
Ground Force Schools would provide future food 
specialty training for the Air Force. 

Basic trainees perform "dry fire" traininj" at 
Lackland I- icid, Texas. 

Military Police Training 

In February .Air Training Command discontinued its 
military police training program at Keesler. All 
military police training then was consolidated with 
the Army program and given at the Provost Marshal 
General's School. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. 


Command Mission Broadened 

BcMdcs lis overall nussion of pnniding individual 
and unit training for officer and enlisted personnel in 
various flying and technical specialties, HQ USAF 
also assigned ATC responsibility for planning, 
reviewing, revising, and establishing qualitative 
requirements for Air Force training material. This 
included liaising on training material matters, 
conducting serv ice tests anil ev aluations of .\ir Force 
training material, establishing priorities among 
training material projects, and disseminating training 
material information to interested .\ir Force agencies. 

Contractual Training 

In this period of demobili/ation. Air Force officials 
were concerned that the drawdown would damage the 
civilian aircraft industry to the point where these 
companies would be unable to provide fast assistance 
to the military in event of a national emergency. 
According to the Air Force, the best way to maintain 
a healthy aircraft industry was by supporting it 
through purchase of new military aircraft and by 
taking part in joint research and development 
programs. However, the limited defense budget 
made this impossible. The next best alternative was 
to put Air Force training dollars into civilian industry. 
Air Force officials directed ATC to study the 
feasibility of contracting all or part of foimal 
technical and flying training to manufacturers of Air 
Force equipment and operators of civil flying and 
technical schools. The study found no monetary 
savings in such an approach, although some military 
personnel could be released to tactical units if 
training were provided by contractors. Instead, ATC 
suggested that flying and technical training remain 
in-house. The same number of military personnel 
could be released by increasing the number of 
civilian authorizations allowed to support training 
efforts. The Air Force adopted that suggestion. 

An instructor reviews the circuitry for tlie B-25 
power system with a student. 



In 1948 Air Training Command began rebuilding its training complex. The command was still reeling 
from the heavy losses if sustained in its instructor force in 1947. I hen the personnel withdrawals that had to 
be made in support of the Berlin Airlift and the expansion of Strategic Air Command combined to handicap 
even more the training bases just at the time pilot production increased. Plans called for A IC to add fne 
additional fl>ing stations. By year's end. the command had alread> acti>ated four: Perrin AKB, Texas; Knid 
AFB. Oklahoma; Waco AFB, Texas; and I, as \ egas AFB. Nevada. In a 17 September letter to the field. 
Headquarters ISAF directed all commands to release many highly experienced personnel in support of the 
Berlin Airlift. Officials in Air Training Command were so concerned about the effect this loss of personnel 
would have on mission accomplishment that a return letter was sent to Washington asking which of the new 
flying training bases — Waco or Fnid — was to be written off. Both bases had acti\ated on 15 October, but 
with an extremely limited number of personnel on-hand. 



las (il 3i Ik-ccmhcr I 'MS) 

Ari/ona--\Villianis; Calitnniia-Mather: Coloiado--Lo\vry: Illinois-- 
Chanulc and Scott: Luuisiaiia-Baiksdalc: Mississippi-Keesler: 
Nevada-Las Vegas: Oklahoma-Enid: Texas-Goodt'ellovv. Lackland. 
Perrin. Randolph. San Marcos. Sheppard. and Waco: \\ yoming-lort 
Francis E. Warren. 


7L075 (6.316 officers: 231 wanant officers: 46.707 enlisted: 17.821 


1.830 (AT/T-6. B/TB-26. B-17. B/RB/TB-25. B-29. B-50. C/RC-4.S. 
C-47. C-54. r-82. F-51. F-8(). H 5, H-6, H-I3, L-4, L-5, L-I6J 


3 di\ isions: 

FLYING. Randolph Al-B TX: 

I honibaidmenl Uaining w nig: 

3.'S3.>lli. Mather AFB C\ 

S pilot training wings: 

35()()th (AtK Muiti-Enguie). liarksdale All? La\ 

35 lOth (Basic). Randolph AFB TX 

3.'>25th (Adv Single-Engine). Williams AI'B AZ 

354.'Sih (Basic). GoodfcMow AFB TX 

3.5 .S.Sth (Basic). Perrin AFB TX 

3565th (Basic). Waco AFB IX 

3575th (Adv Multi-Enginc). Enul AIR ( )K 

3585th (Liaison-Helicopter). San Marcos AFB TX 

3595th lAdv Single-Engine). Las Vegas AFB NV 




5 technical training wings: 

3310th. Scott AFB IL 

3343th. Chanute AFB IL 

3380th. Kecsler AFB MS 

3415th. Lowry AFB CO 

3450th. Fort Francis E. Wanen AFB WY 


2 Air Force indoctrination wings: 

3700th. Lackland AFB TX 
3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 


Lt Gen Robert 
VV. Harper 

On 14 October 1948. Lt Gen Robert W. Haiper 
succeeded General Cannon as the ATC commander. 
General Harper had been the Air L'niversity 
commander. General Cannon went to Ramstein Air 
Base, Germany, as Cominander in Chief. United 
States Air Forces in Enrope. On 16 November Maj 
Gen Robert W. Huins became ATC's first \ ice 



Perrin AFB, Texas 

On I April 1948. ATC reactivated Perrin to operate 
as a basic pilot training school. A shortage of funds 
furced ATC to open the base with only a caretaker 
groi. 'in hand. Three months later, on 1 Jul\. the 
base b^'gan training. Then on 28 August, tbilouing 
the inactivation of the base luul at Perrin. ATC 
activated tlie 3555th Pilot Trainini: Wiui; (Basic). 

Enid AFB, Oklahoma 

Returned to active status on I August. Enid became 
the command's second advanced multi-engine pilot 
training base. The other was at Barksdale. However, 
withdrawal of personnel in support of the Berlin 
Airlift almost caused the closure of the base before it 
could put its training program into effect. Training 
did begin on 15 October under the direction of the 

3575th Pilot 

Training Wing 



organized on 

28 August 

1948. The only 

way ATC was 

able to provide 

personnel for 

the school was 

by taking 


from other bases. One of the hardest hit was 
Randolph, and for a short period of time, Randolph 
officials claimed they were being "bled to death" to 
keep Enid open. 

Sheppard AFB, Texas 

To h.indle the oxeitlow of recruits coming in as a 
result of the Berlin Airlift. ATC needed a second 
center for basic military training. Sheppard was 
selected, and on I .August ATC reacti\ated this 
World War II prin ider of airplane and engine 

Waco AFB, Texas 

Almost iwo and one-half years after its inacti\ation. 
on 1 August 1949. ATC reopened Waco AFB. On 
28 August the command discontinued Waco's base 
unit and estahlisheil the 35(i5lh Pilot Training Wing 
(Basic). Its I list class besian on 25 October. 



Las Vegas AFB, Nevada 

To pio\ idc advanced iraining i)l tighter pilots. AlC 
returned Las Vegas AFB to active status on I April 
1948 and established the ?59>th Pilot Training Wing 
(Ad\anced Single-Engine I i>n 22 December. 
However, training did not begin at Las Vegas until 
1 March 1049. 


3525th Pilot Training Wing 

Since its activation in June 1941. Williams AFB. 
Arizona, had conducted n>ing training. On 
28 .August 1948. Air Training Command discon- 
tinued the base 
unit at Williams 
and established 
the .\^2.'^th Pilot 
Training Wmg 
( Advanced 


Training Wing 

On 28 Auuust 


ATC activated the 353-^th 
Bombardment Training Wing at Mather AFB in 
California. The wing would oversee the navigation 

and flying training 
operation. Mather had 
been in the command 
from Januar\ 1942 
until October 1944 
when it was trans- 
ferred to .Air Transport 
Command. Then on 
20 December 1945. 
the AAF reassigned 
the base to Training 

3585th Pilot Training Wing 

.An- TraHimg Command activated the 3.'>8.'Sth Pilot 
Training Wing (Liaison-Helicopter) at San Marcos 
AFB. Texas, on 25 August 1948. The wing remained 
in operation until early 1949. when it was inactivated. 
However, its 3585lh Pilot Training Group transferred 
to Waco in March 1949. when helicopter training 
mo\ ed from San Marcos to Waco. 



Flying Training Expansion 

At the beginning of 1948, Randolph AFB was the 
only ATC base providing basic flying training. With 

the -An Force-directed increase in pilot production 
i3.()()() pilots by 1950). ATC needed additional 
schools. The flrst school added was Goodfellow in 
December 1947. Its flrst class began on I March 
1948. Twi) other Te.\as stations. Perrin and Waco. 
also opened in 1948 and began pilot training. Air 
Training Command had intended to put a fourth 
school into operation, but because of cost and 
personnel considerations, offlcials decided to revise 
the training program. Basic went from eight to six 
months by shifting some course material to the 
advanced phase, and advanced went from four to six 
months. This revised plan--si\ months of basic flying 
training and six months of advanced schooling -went 
into effect in early 1949. 

Advanced Multi-Engine Training 

Early in 1948 ,A IC disconlmued loui-engine training, 
using the B-17. When this program ended. ATC 
renamed twin-engine pilot training as multi-engine 
training. Only Barksdale provided this instruction 
until October 1948. when Enid began accepting 
students. The schools used B-25s and B-50s. 

Fighter Gunnery School 

.At Williams the Flying Division discontinued its 
fighter gunnerv school ini 1 June 1948. Student 
training had been removed from the school in 1947. 
and all that remained were its research functions. 

I liise (.oinrnunicaliims siuiliiils ,i( Scull \lli. 
Illinois, arc sellinu u|) a radio ranjic station 




Technical Training Production 

In OctolxT 1948 HoadqLuirlcrs USAF directed ATC 
to increase its rate of production to meet 
requirements of a 7()-group (pre\iously 55-groiip) Air 
Force, with no increase in personnel or installations. 

Tech School versus Direct Duty 

,Appro\miatel\ 44 percent of all basic military 
training graduates went on to receive technical 
training before reporting to a first duty station. The 
other 5(> percent went directly from basic to their first 


Coeducation Introduction 

In l'-)4S the Indoctrination Division at Lackland 
introduced coeducation into basic military training. 
Officer Candidate School, and the Central Instructor 
School. The division acquired separate housing for 
Women in the Air Force (WAF) on Kelly AFB, 
adjacent to Lackland. The .^7()0th WAF Training 
Group and its three squadrons, the .^74 1st. .^742d. and 

3743d, managed the 1 1 -week basic military training 
program for the WAF. Basic military training for the 
WAF was two weeks shorter than for men because 
the women did not take part in weapons training, 
marksmanship, bivouacs, aquatic survival, or field 

Aviation Career Plan 

A year after its establishment, the aviation career plan 
caused some major headaches for officials at 
Lackland. In August 1948 an unrestricted number of 
high school graduates entered the Air Force, and they 
soon overloaded Lackland's training capacity. 
Additional housing had to be found-some at nearby 
Kelly and Brooks Air Force Bases. As a last resort. 
Lackland officials ordered tents erected between 
barracks to house about 3.000 basic trainees. This 
was just a stopgap measure until Air Training 
Command could open Sheppard and move new 
recruits to that northern Texas base for basic training. 
By fall the number of high school graduates coming 
intt) the Air Force had leveled ofL giving recruiting 
officials time to conect the system before the next 
year's high school graduation. 

A mobile training instructor diinmistr aics the tlncr points iif a C -54 automatic pilot system. 



The last half of 1949 was an exercise in austcrily. President Harry S. Truman decided that the eiiunlr\ 
could onl> afford a 48-oroup Air Force. B\ this time, the Air Force had activated 59 <;rou|)s. NMth the new 
announcement, the Air Force had to shift quicklv from expansion lo contraction. (Onjiress also failed to pass 
the fiscal year 195t( military appropriations hill until [)ecemher. With onl\ a minimum of operating funds 
available, the Secretary of Defense directed major spending cuts throu<ihout the Department of Defense 
(DOD). A total of 25.000 Air Force civilian authorizations \>ere lost--1.562 in Air Trainin<; C ommand. These 
were positions that, according to DOD, could not be filled by military. In addition. AI( had to cut fixing 
hours and separate large numbers of reserve officers, as welt as convert rated officers to nonrated status. 
Even with the abolishment of the three divisional headquarters-Flying. Technical, and Indoctrination. A TC 
operations remained crippled by a lack of funding. 


(jsol 31 Dcceniher IW)) 



Arizona-Williams; Caliturnia-Mather: Colorado--LouTy: Illinois-- 
Chanute and Scott; lVlississippi--Keesler: Nevada--Las Vegas; 
Oklahoma-Vance; Texas--Corinally. Ellington. Goodtellow. Lackland. 
Peiriii. Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard; Wyoming--Francis E. Warren 


70.762 (7.867 officers; .^45 waiTant officers; 49.840 enlisted; 12.710 


2.132 (AT-6. B-17. B/RB-2.\ B-26. B-.^O. C-45, CArC-47, C-.H 
F/TF-.Sl. F-80. H-3. H-13. L-5. L-13. L-16. T-33) 

.\ir I'raining Command first used the 
T-33. destined to be its bellwealher 
trainer. in advanced single-engine 
training at Williams Alii. Aii/ona. in 
June 1949. 


8 pilot training wings: 

3500th ( Adv Multi-Engine). Reese AFB TX 

3510th (Basic). Randolph AFB TX 

3525th (Adv SingleTingine). Williams AFB AZ 

3.545th (Basic). Goodtellow AIB TX 

3555th (Basic). Pcrrin AFB TX 

3565lh (Basic). Connally AFB TX 

3575th (Adv Multi-Engine ). Vance AFB OK 

3595th (Adv Single-Engine). Las Vegas AFB NV 




rompleted in March 1940, Scott AFB Building P-3 was originall\ designed to be Headquarters, General 
Headquarters Air F(»rce ((JHQ Air Force). Air I raining Command moved its headquarters into the building 
on 17 October 1949. On July 1951, ATC renamed the building Yount Hall in honor of Lt Gen Barton K. 
^ (lunt. the first Commanding General of AAF Training C ommand. 

Al- indoclriiialion wing: 
3700th, Lackland AFB TX 

Students recei\e Morse code and t>pe the 
transcribed messages as part of the radio 
operators course at Keesler AFB, Mississippi. 
Both men and women were entered in the course. 

1 bombardment training wing: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
1 navigator training wing: 

3605th, Ellington AFB TX 

6 technical training \\ ings: 

33i()lh, Scott AFB IL 

3345th, Chanute AFB IL 

3380th. Keesler AFB MS 

.3415th. Lowiy AFB CO 

3450th. Francis E. Warren AFB WY 

3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 

i training aids wing: 

3499th. Chanute AFB IL 




General Harper remained the ATC" commander. 
and Major General Burns eoniiniied as vice 


Command HQ Established at Scott 

In earl> 1949, Secretary of Detense Louis Johnson 
initiated a series of economic measures throughout 
the armed forces. His purpose was to effect greater 
utilization of the assets assigned to all services. As a 
result of these actions, a number of bases transferred 
between major commands, schools mined, and other 
bases closed. In addition, the Defense Department 
reduced civilian and military personnel requirements 
needed to operate a base and ordered abolishment of 
subordinate headquarters. Because of these DOD- 
directed initiatives, the Air Force reassigned 
Barksdale to SAC. The base had long runways better 
suited to bomber traffic than training. Barksdale 
became a SAC installation on .^0 September. 
Originally. USAF officials had intended to leave 
ATC headquarters at Barksdale as a tenant. biU 
planners later decided to move ATC to Randolph. 
where the Flying Division was based. Before that 
move could take place. Headquarters USAF decided 
to put .-XTC at Scott AFB in Illinois, effective 
17 October 1949. The new ATC headquarters was 
considerably bigger, because it absorbed the 
functions of its previous three subordinate 
headquarters— Flying. Technical, .uid linlocirmation 
Divisions. Air Training Command abolished the 
Indoctrination [Division on I November and 
discontiniietl the other two on 14 November. 

Wing-Base Organization 

In April 1949 ATC completed implementation of a 
USAF directive to organize installations by "wing- 
base." The wing commander would control both the 
base and the operating units on that base. General 
organization of the wing included an air base group, a 
tactical group, a maintenance and supjily group, and a 
medical group. In ATC a training group replaced the 
tactical group. This new plan made organizations 
uniform throLighoul the Air Force. 



months later, aviation cadets anil nonrated ollicers 
joined the list of students, lilhngton was first 
activated in World War I to provide bombing 
instruction. It again opened on 17 .August 1940 as a 
bombardment school, but because of poor weather 
contlitions, that training was discontinued in January 
1942. instead, beginning in September 1941. 
Ellington became a prellight school for navigators 
and bombardiers. Then on l.'i .April 1946. Traming 
Command inacliv aled the base. 

San Marcos AFB, Texas 

In preparation lor niactivation. on I March 1949. 
ATC transferred helicopter ami liaison training from 
San Marcos to Waco. Then on }\ March, the 
command inactivated San Marcos AFB. 

Connally AFB, Texas 

■fhe comnuLnd redesignated Wac(i .-XFB as Connally 
on 10 June 1949. The name honored Col James T. 
Connally of Waco, killed on a bombing mission over 
Yokohama in 1943. On S January 19.31, Air Training 
Command again changed the base designation-this 
time to James Connally AFB. 

Vance AFB, Oklahoma 

On 9 July Find AlB became Vance, named for Lt 
Col Leon R. Vance, Jr.. of Enid. The War 
Department posthumously avvanled the Medal of 
Honor to Vance for gallantry in action over France on 
.3 June 1944. 

The Acntjcts at NMIiianis M U in Arizona were the 
first jet aerial (knionstralidii team in the Air 
Force. Duty with the Aerojels «as in addition to 
the pilots' assi<:iied duties. 

Ellington AFB, Texas 

At lh)Usion. lexas, ATC activated Ellington MB. 
effective .^1 March 1949. Two weeks later the 
command established a USAF Navigation School at 
Ellington, and sometime after that the .^(i03th 
Navigation Training Wing came into existence. The 
first class entered irainini; on S August 1949. Three 

Lubbock (Reese) AFB, Texas 

.All Iraining Command activated Lubbock on 
1 .August 1949 as an advanced multi-engine pilot 
training school. The first class convencil on 
I November. The command had directed that the 
3500lh Pilot Iraining Wing (Advanced 



Multi-Engine) relocate from Barksdale to Reese 
during the late summer. On 29 November 1949, ATC 
redesignated Lubbock as Reese AFB. to honor ILt 
Augustus F. Reese of nearby Shallowater. Texas. 
Lieutenant Reese was killed on 14 May 1943 over the 
island of Sardinia, when his P-38 crashed after a 
strafing run. 

Fort Francis E. Warren 

On 7 October 1449. Fort Francis E. Warren became 
Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyoming. 

3750th Technical Training Wing 

Headquarters ATC discontinued the 3750th Air Force 
Indoctrination Wing, which had provided basic 
training at Sheppard. and on I April 1949, estab- 
lished the 3730th Technical Training Wing also at 
Sheppard. The wing acquired Keesler's airplane 
mechanics school, which provided room to expand its 
communications and electronics training programs. 



3499th Training Aids Wing 

In October 1949 ATC organized a training aids wing 
at Chanute. The purpose of the 3499th was to provide 
training in the field for maintenance personnel 
assigned to wcirk on various types of aircraft in 
general use in the Air Force. By I January 1950. the 
wing possessed 37 detachments: 15 bomber, 7 cargo, 
and 15 fighter. 

The TE-105A Ejection Seat Iriiinei, more commonly kno»n as 
the "Boom Bucket," >vas erected at Williams AFB, Arizona, in 
1949. This trainer, the onl> one of its kind in the \ir Force, 
simulated ejection from a jet aircraft. B\ the last ride on .^0 .lul) 
1974, a total of 18,187 students had used the trainer. 

Survey of Training 

In late 1948, as the result of personnel cuts taken in 
1947, ATC officials asked the US Office of 
Education to survey technical and flying training 
bases and make suggestions for improving the entire 
training system. Their report made a number of 
recommendations, ranging from ways to define 
course content better to employing only instructors 
with proper education qualifications, as well as an 
interest in teaching. From this survey, ATC 
established a training analysis and 
development office at the headquarters to 
oversee improvement of teaching 
methods, curricula, instructors, and 
training aids, all in an effort to improve 
the quality of the graduate. In addition, 
ATC created a formalized method for 
training technical instructors. 


Pilot Schools Transfer from 

When Barksdale became a Strategic Air 
Command installation. ATC officials 
relocated all flying training from that 
base. The multi-engine pilot school 
(operated by the 3500th Pilot Training 
Wing) moved to Lubbock in late summer, 
and the Instrument Pilot School became a 
tenant on Air University's Tyndall AFB, 

Shortages Affect Training 

All of the flsing programs suffered from 
shi>rtages of aircraft replacement parts, 
qualified maintenance personnel, and 
instructors--problems that had been with 
the schools since the war. But in 1949 the 
instructor shortage became so critical that 
schools had to increase numbers of recent 
graduates used for instructor training. At 
V\ illiams the high accident rate was 
attributed in part to a lack of experienced 



Basic Pilot Training 

Hail) in 1449 IImiil; Di\ision 
changed its pilot trainini; 
program from eight months in 
basic and four months in 
advanced training to two equal 
phases of six months each. 
Then in Jime officials added a 
four-week pretlight training 
segment at Lackland. That 
increased the pilot training 
program from 12 to 13 months. 


The aircraft observer (bom- 
bardment) program at Mather 
changed to navigator-bombar- 
dier. The new program was to 
be a two-base effort. Ellington 
would pro\ide basic 

instruction and then feed its 
graduates to the Mather school. 

Fighter Gunnery Sctiool 

The command had closed its 

only gunner\ school (at 

Williams) in 1948. but in 

February 1949, ATC officials 

directed Las Vegas AFB to 

study the possibility of 

establishing a central gunnery 

school with both training and 

research capabilities. On 

15 May 1949. with USAF approval. ATC opened its 

USAF .Aircraft Gunnery School at Las Vegas. Even 

bclore the schtiol opened. Las Vegas AFB officials 

hosted their first aeiial USAF Giuinery Meet. 


Accelerated Technical Training Program 

In March the Air Force directed ATC to accelerate 
ceilain portions of its technical training program, as a 
part of an overall restructuring to a 48-group A\v 
Force. The statement of trained personnel 
requirements gave priority to radio, radar, armament, 
and aircraft maintenance training programs. To meet 
these training rec|uirements. it was necessary for ATC 
to Find additional space for these courses. To do that. 
the Air Force announced on l7Janiiar\ that all 
aviation engineering courses at Francis E. Warren, 
with the exception of pouerman. would transfer to 
the Army's Engineer School at Fort Belvoir. Virginia. 
Then on 21 Februar\. .'\TC announced it would use 
Sheppard lor technical training. All airplane and 
engine mechanic and rotary wing and liaison 
mechanic courses at Kccsler would move to 

I pon their arii\al 
candidates march to 

at Lackland Al B. Texas, these pn)specti\e officer 
the processing station. 

Sheppard. flicn ladio operator ami control tower 
courses at Scott would iclocate to Keesler. In 
addition, the fixed wire courses at Scott went to 
Francis E. Warren, so that Scott had room to expand 
its radio mechanic school. As the result of all this 
restructuring. ATC now had nine major famih 
groups of training: aircraft maintenance, armament 
and ordnance, aviation engineers, communications, 
photography, radar, weather, intelligence, and 
miscellaneous. In those nine families, iheie were 
appro\imatel\ 100 active courses. 


First Women Enter OCS 

On 12 June I94S. Congress passed the Women's 
.Armed .Services Integration Act. establishing \\ omen 
in the Air Force as a permanent part of the Air Force. 
Seven months later ATC's Officer Candidate School 
Class 49A included its first WAF students. 



*^ .-^H?- 



For years ATC bases had reported an acute shortage of family housing. This was one of the major 
factors affecting morale. Finally, on 8 August 1949, Congress passed the Wherry Housing Act, 
encouraging private contractors to build family housing for the services. Above is a duplex unit and 
helo« are multi-family housing units. 


Operations Hayride and Snowbound 

In laic Jaiui.iiA licas) snowsioims in Nebraska 
brought requests for assistance. Helicopters from San 
Marcos AFB. Texas, and a C-47 from Randolph took 
part in Operation Ha\ridc. They helped pro\ idc food 
to snowbound laniilios and stranded lixestoek. trans- 

ported medical aid. and surveyed roads and power 
lines to determine the extent of storm damage. When 
these winter storms inoved into Wyoming in early 
February, assistance continued under the title. 
Operation Snowbound. 



The outbreak of the Korean \\ar on 25 June I'JSO indicated that ATC would soon see an increase in 
traininfi requirements. By 1 July the Air Force had directed A IC to accelerate trainin<: to Jill the needs of a 
new 95-win5i Air Force. A few days later ATC found itself with a new mission-comhal crew traininj;. With 
operational commands immersed in the war. it was left to ATC to train pilots for comhat. Ihe first school 
opened at Nellis AFB in Nevada. In August the Air Staff raised the rate of pilot production from 3.000 to 
4.000 per year, and by the end of the year, it had climbed to 7.200. At Ihe same time, the need for traininji 
technicians also rose. As it had in World War II. ATC met the increased training requirements by 
contracting with civilian schools, but there were other problems that weren't so easy to solve. The command 
soon found itself facing sudden and generally short-range training requirements of an emergency nature. 
There was no time to prepare, and that meant the quality of training suffered-both Hying and technical 
training. Because troops in the Far East recei\ed priority in the supply system. ATC also faced across-the- 
board shortages in equipment such as armament, radar, aircraft spares, maintenance items, clothing, 
bedding, and office equipment. Shortages of spare parts even caused a reduction in helicopter training at San 
Marcos and B-29 training at Randolph later in the war. 


(asot 31 DL-ccmber 1950) 




Alabama-Craig: Arizona--Wil]iams: Calif()rnia--Mather: Colorado- 
Lowry: Florid"a--Tyndall: Illinois-Chanutc and Scoit: Mississippi- 
Columbus. Greenville, and Keesler; Nevada-Nellis: New York-Sampson; 
Oklahoma-VanL-e: Texas-Connally. Ellington. Goodfelkm. Lackland. 
Perrin. Randolph. Reese, and Shcppard; Wyoming-Francis E. Warren 

1 10.044 (9.432 officers; Sl,215 cnlislCLl; 19,297 civilians) 

2 621 (AT/T-6. B-17. B/TB-25. B-26. B-29. C-45. C-47. C-.'^4. F-51. F-80. 
F-84. F-86. H-5. HI 3. L-5. L-13. L-16, T-28, T-29, T-.33, YT-34, YT-35) 


1 boiiibarJnicnt training v\ing: 

3535th, Mather AFB CA 
1 navigator training wing: 

3605th. i;ilnigton AFBTX 

8 pilot training wings: 

35()Oth (Ad\ Multi-Enginc), Reese AFB TX 

3510th, Randolph AFBTX 

3525lh (Adv Single-Engine I, Williams AFB AZ 

3545th (Basic). Gooilfenow AlB TX 

3555th (Basic). Pcrrm AIB TX 

3565th (Basic). Connally AFB TX 

3575th (Adv Multi-Engine), Vance AFB OK 

3615th (Adv Single-Engine), Craig AFB AL 

1 training wings; 

3595lh (Combat Crew). Nellis AFB NV 
3625th. T.Midall AFB FL 

2 Air Force indoctrination wings: 

365()lli. Sampson AIB NY 
37()()th, Lackland AFB TX 

6 technical training wings: 

331()th, .Scott AIB IL 

3.345th, Chanule AFB IL 

3380lh, Keesler AFB MS 

34 1 5th, Lowry AFB C(J 

3450th. Francis E. Warren AFB W A 

3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 



I training aids wing: 

3499th. Chanute AFB IL 


General Harper continued in command of ATC, 
and Maj Gen Bums remained as vice commander. 



Nell is AFB, Nevada 

On 30 April 1950. ATC redesignated Las Vegas AFB 
as Nellis. honoring ILt William H. Nellis. a Nevada 
resident who lost his life in aerial combat over 
Luxembourg on 27 December 1944. 

'\\ iHJali MB. Florida, was the location of the only 
Air Polici.' school in Ihc Air Force. Prior to the 
estahlishiiient of this school in September 1950, 
the Army had provided training. 

Tyndall AFB, Florida 

An lini\crsu_\ transferred fyndall AFB to ATC on 
I .September. At the same time. Air University's 
3(S2()th Air University Wing became an ATC asset; 
however. ATC discontinued the 3820th and 
established the 3625lh Training Wing in its place to 
conduct weapons controller training. Tyndall had 
operaletl the Air Tactical School, but it was put on 
hold in JiiK with the advent of the Korean War. On 
4 September ATC established the USAF Air Police 
Sch(H)l. which joined A TC's USAF Instrinncni Pilot 
School and Air University's aircraft controller school. 
.. als' -vas reassiszned to Air Trainins: Command. 

Craig AFB, Alabama 

Effective I September. Air University handed control 
of Craig AFB to ATC along with the 3840th Air 
University Wing. On the same day. ATC 
discontinued the 3840th 
and established the 
3615th Pilot Training 
Wing. The advanced 
single-engine pilot train- 
ing mission transferred 
from Nellis to Craig, 
which also gained pilot 
instructor training from 
Randolph. With these 

moves, Nellis and Randolph assumed new training 
missions: fighter-bomber training at Nellis and B-29 
combat crew instruction at Randolph. (lnstruct(tr 
training began at Craig on I September, and pilot 
training started on 1 November. Nellis established its 
USAF Air Crew School (Fighter) on 14 November. 
Randolph had initiated B-29 training on 7 August.) 

Sampson AFB, New York 

Headquarters USAF directed Air Training Command 
to activate and redesignate a former US Navy 
training center as Sampson AFB on 15 November 
1950. Air Training Command intended to use 
Sampson as a second basic military training center to 
handle the intlu.x of recruits for the Korean War 
buildup, and established the 3650th Air Force 
Indoctrination Wing at the base. However. Sampson 
did not receive its first group of trainees until 
February 1951. and its basic military school was not 
established until 1 March. 

Within da>s of the outbreak ol the Korean War, 
ATC was training combat-rcad> F-80 pilots at 
Nellis AFB, Nevada. 

Contract Flying Schools 

To handle increased pilot rei.|uirements for the 
Korean War. Air Training Command activated two 
bases. Greenville AFB, Mississippi, on 1 December 
and Columbus AFB, Mississippi, on 20 December, to 
be used as stations for contract flying schools. 
However, contract flying squadrons were not 
established until 1951. 



Guarding Air Force assets was only one of the jobs 
demanded of the air police. Here, a newly-trained 
air policeman makes a routine patrol of the 
Tvndall AFB. Florida. ni«;htline. 



Combat Crew Training 

From 1446 until the uulbreak o\ the Korean Wat", 
pilots were sent to an operational coniniaiui where 
they received additional training that qualiticd them 
as combat-capable on a specilie aircralt. In 1^50 
ATC assumed most combat crew iraining. thereby 
relie\ inji combat commands of much of their training 
burden and allownig them to conccniralc on their 


One of ATC's new I -2«s. used in basic Hying 

combat mission. Three weeks after the Korean War 
began ATC converted Neilis from a basic single- 
engine pilot training school to fighter crew training. 

A{ about the same lime. ATC redesignated the .\'^9.'ith 
Pilot Tranimg \\ uig (.Advanced Single-Engine) as the 
35y5th Training Wing (Combat Crew). On 17 July 
1^)30. Neilis began a special training program to 
pri)vide \\5 combat-ready I-'-.'il pilots for the Far 
East Air Ft)rces and 92 combat-ready F-8() pilots to 
serve as replacements for casualties in the first 
months of the Korean campaign. 

New Aircraft 

Williams began receiving new two-seat 'r-2S trainers 
in late 1950. and new dual TF-.'ils were assigned to 
Craig. Also, during the final half of the year. T-29 
navigation traincis began arriving at Ellington AFB. 

Mutual Defense Assistance Program 

Under this program, liist authori/cd by the U.S 
government in 1949. students from France. Belgium. 
Netherlands. Norway. Turkey, and Denmark would 
come to the United States for undergraduate pilot 
training. Air Training Command provided the 
instruction, fhe lirst class. 74 French cadets, entered 
training at Randolph on 17 .April 1950. 


Tec finical Training-Vertical Expansion 

The "crack and crevice" program, as it was known, 
was a way to house and train a greater number of 
technical training students with no increase in facili- 
ties. Beginning on 24 July 1950. all technical training 
programs went on a six-day-a-week operation. That 
reduced by almost 17 percent the amount of time it 
took H) train a technician. Multiple shifts also ran. 
While this increased the need for more instructors, it 
limited the amount of housing and dining facilities 
needed. Along with this, the amount of dormitory 
space given each student was reduced from 72 square 
feet to 60. and at Keesler and Sheppard the space was 
even less--only 50 square feet per student. Finally, 
the interval between class entries also decreased. All 
of this was an effort to train students as quickly as 
possible ami get them in the field. 

Tecfinical Training-Lateral Expansion 

This program allow cil lor the addition of new 
training bases, use of underutili/ed space at tlying 
training bases, incrcasetl use of Army and Navy 
schools, and estabhshnient of a lew contract training 
programs. However, it was 1951 before ATC added 
new technical training bases. In 1950 the Air Force 
began sending some students lo Army and Navy 
schools to train as food service and automotive 
technicians. Also in 1950. Air Training Command 
negotiated a series of contracts with 65 civilian 
institutions to provide technical iiaining in 
basic courses (primarily in airplane and engine 



mechanics, automotive mechanics, electronics, and 
clerk-typist courses). The first two classes, one in 
Oklahoma and the other in California, began in 
August training airplane mechanics. Between July 
1950 and June 1951, contract schools graduated 
5,670 airmen at a cost of $17 million. 

Recruit Overflow 

In August Sheppard was again pressed into 
indoctrination training to receive the overflow of 
recruits from Lackland. The 3740th Basic Military 
Training Group and 10 of its squadrons moved from 
Lackland to Sheppard. This was planned to be a short 
term solution, as ATC activated another military 
training base, Sampson AFB. New York, in 
November. Before Sampson could open its doors to 
receive recruits, however, the number of enlistees at 
Lackland totaled over 70,000. The 3740th remained 
active at Sheppard until 12 May 1952, when ATC 
inactivated it. During that time, the group provided 
basic traininc for about 100,000 airmen. 

In 195(1 three bases pro\ided wcathir traiiiin«: 
Scott in Illinois, Kecsler in .Mississippi, and 
Sheppard in Te as. All weather trainin g later 
consolidated at Chanutc. Then in 1990, durinj; the 
first round of base closure, this training was 
identified for movement to Keesler. 


Recruiters' Indoctrination Training 

.Allliough the .\rin\ still controlled the iccrutting 
program, in .lanuary ATC began indoctrination 
training for Air Force recruiters at Lackland. The 
course was designed to give recruiters a better 
understanding of the needs of the Air Force. Officials 
hoped this training would ultimately improve the 
quality of personnel hnuighl into the service. As of 
June, only about one-hall of all .Air Force recruits 
•■.."!.. hieh school graduates. 

Supply Shortages Plague Lackland 

The announcement of unlimited recruiting in 
December 1950 caused major problems for Lackland. 
Clothing and bedding were in short supply, and it got 
to the point where new recruits were issued only the 
minimum essentials. Clothing stocks had to be 
drastically reduced at other ATC bases so recruits 
could receive essential clothing-although it was 
impossible to provide exact sizes. Lackland had only 
been constructed to handle about 28,000 reciaiits, but 
by January 1951 the number exceeded an un- 
believable 70,000. Officials had no choice but to 
establish a tent city. Lackland completely exhausted 
the Air Force's supply of steel folding cots and 
mattresses. Others had to make do with canvas cots. 
At one time, the base had almost 10.000 recruits 
sleeping on canvas cots, without mattresses. 


Conversion to Career Specialty Codes 

In February 1950 personnel classification boards 
began converting from military occupational 
specialty (MOS) and specification serial number 
(SSN) categories to the Air Force career specialty 
codes or AFSCs. All personnel were to be converted 
to the new system by July. Under the new program, 
using a series of aptitude tests, the Air Force would 
assign every service member to the career field for 
which they were best i|iialified. 

Construction Accelerated 

1 he buiklup ot .American forces created a need for 
additional training facilities in ATC. Congress 
approved over $240 million in military construction 
in FY 1950, and another $134 million was expected 
at \ear's end. For example, at Keesler, over $50 
million v\as put into new dormitories, classrooms, 
and laboratories. 


































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Shortly after the Korean War 
began on' 25 Jinie 1950. ATC took 
over most combat crew training, 
thereby relieving operational com- 
mands of much of their training 
burden and allowing them to con- 
centrate on their combat mission. 
As one observer put it. ATC got 
into the crew training business the operational commands 
were "up to their prop tips in actual 

In response to the North Korean 
invasion. President HaiTy Truman 
authorized the Air Force to 
increase its strength from 48 to 95 
wings by June 1952. Just three 
weeks after the Korean War 
started, ATC converted Nellis from 
a basic single-engine training school and began fighter 
crew training. The total base structure for ATC's flying 
program rose dramatically from the 17 bases in use in 
1950 to 29 by 30 June 1951. This base structure was 
needed to support the rapid increase in pilot production 
from 800 in FY 1949 to over 2.000 in FY 1951. By 
December 1951, ATC had added another eight bases 
and another six in the next year and a half. 

Before long, the training load became too heavy for 
one headquarters. So, in 1951 ATC split its training 
responsibilities into two subordinate headquarters: 
Flying Training Air F'orce (FTAF) at Waco. Texas, and 
Technical Training Air Force (TTAF) at Gulfpon. Miss- 
issippi. By the spring of 1952, FTAF found itself unable 

Pilots slated for duty in Air Defense Command received air-to- 
air intercept training in ATC's F-86Ds. 

A B-47 aircrew at Wichita AFB. Kansas, prepares for a training mission. 

to do more than provide basic flying training to student 
pilots for the rapidly growing Air Force. So, Air 
Training Command established Crew Training Air 
Force (CTAF) at Randolph on 1 April 1952 to get 
crews ready for combat. Activation of CTAF freed 
Flying Training Air Force to concentrate on the 
operation of the pilot and observer training programs. 

Crew Training Air Force eventually consisted of 10 
bases devoted to combat crew training. Four of 
these-Nellis, Randolph. Pemn. and Williams-were 
already ATC pilot training bases and were able to 
convert to crew training with relative ease. Two 
additional bases, Tyndall and Moody, were operational 
bases of other coinmands and transferred to ATC with 

the crew training mission. Three 
others-Luke, Pinecastle. and Laughlin— 
were inactive World War 11 bases that 
ATC activated, while the fourth, the 
municipal airport at Wichita. Kansas, 
(later McConnell AFB) was acti\ated for 
the command. 

The transfer of crew training respon- 
sibilities to ATC was not without its 
problems. One of the greatest impacts on 
the program in the early 1950s was the 
replacement of conventional aircraft with 
jet aircraft. For example, the F-84. F-86. 
F-89. F-94. F-100. B-47. and B-57 were 
all introduced in the span of a few years. 
At the same time, the Korean War required 
se\eral thousand experienced personnel. 



lea\ing ATC short 3.700 rated officers in P\5\. Over 
I 1.000 of the command's aircraft mechanics were sent 
to Korea, leaving ATC with another shortage-nearly 
2,000 jet aircraft maintenance personnel. On top of that. 
ATC had a hard time obtaining sufficient numhers of 
new aircraft to pro\ide the necessary training for 
maintenance personnel. Finally, the command was 
plagued with maintenance problems that usuallv 
accompanied the phase-in of new aircraft. 

It took a while to iron out these problems, and some 
of them (e.g.. the acquisition of new aircraft), were 
never fully resolved. Despite the difficulties it 
encountered. ATC still trained tens of thousands of 
aircrew members. Overall. ATC provided combat crew 
and transition training to approximately 13.000 in 
fighters. 52.000 in bombers. 12.000 in interceptors, 
2.000 in tankers, and l.SOO in transports. 

A flight t'n;;inct'r on hoard a B-29 Super fori rcss .il 
Randolph AFB, le as, takes readinj^s in 
preparation for takeoff. This was part of the 
trainin<> pro\ ided h\ Crew Training Air Force. 

As noted earlier. HQ USAF did not transfer all 
combat crew training to ATC in the 19.'>0s. For 
example, SAC had its own program for training B-3ft 
and B-52 crews, and TAC continued to prepare light 
bombardment and reconnaissance replacement crews 
for combat. .Ml the while, air transport crew training 
remained w ith the .Military Air Transport Service. 

Toward the end of the decade, SAC pressed to take 
over training for all of its crews to help it meet its alert 
commitments. The Air Staff agreed, and SAC assumed 
the crew training mission on I July 1958. Also. 
Headquarters USAF assigned TAC responsibility for all 
its crew training. Thus. TAC picked up the Fighter 
Weapons School at Nellis AFB on I February and 
assunicil the rest of the trainim: mission on I .lul\ l')58. 

along with the bases at Luke. Nellis. and Williams. 
Air Training Command got out of the crew training 
business completely a few years later when it 
transferred Perrin AFB and its interceptor crew training 
mission to Air Defense Command. 

.Students prepare to take off on a cross-e(»untr> 
flight in F-51 fighters at Nellis AFB. Nevada. 
Nellis was the first AFC base converted to 
crew training in the earl\ 1950s. 

B-29s line the ramp al Uaiidolpli as one takes 
off on a training mission. 

Thirty-five years later, crew training rctuined to the 
command. The Air Force reorganized the MAJCO.Ms at 
the end of the Cold War. eliminating, for example, the 
\enerablc Strategic Air Command and Tactical Air 
Command. Air Training Command became .Air 
Education and Training Command in 1993 and regained 
responsibility for combat crew training. The post-Cold 
War drawdown created a surplus of front-line aircraft 
axailable to reassign to AFTC. and Aw Force Chief of 
Staff (ieneial Merrill .McPeak believed that the transfer 
of crew training to AETC would allow the operational 
wiii'js to locus on their missions. 



Students in aerial photograph) training receive 
pretlight orientation before t1yin» a photo mission. 
The F-10, a modified B-25 aircraft, was used in 

Better Use of the Force 

SiiKC the end ot World War II, it had been ATC 
policy to put an officer in any position involving 
responsibility and supervision. That prevented 
noncommissioned officers and key civilians from 
being given the opportunity to develop leadership 
skills. Considering the longstanding personnel 
shortages and looking at the Korean situation. ATC 
officials decided it was time to change that policy. By 
giving increased responsibility to NCOs and key 
ci\ilians. ATC expected to see an increase in 
proiliictix ity. 

Hospital Cutbacks 

Early in 19.^0 ATC learned that the hospital at 
Lackland .'\FB would be reduced to a dispensary. 
This was a major concern, since that hospital 
supporieil the indoctrination center. Ho\\e\er. there 
was little Air Training Command could do because 
the reduction was directed by the Secretary of 
Defense. Brooke General Hospital at Fort .Sam 
Houston in San AiUonio became responsible for 
pro\iding medical services to the basic military 
training center. In April the Department of Defense 
announced a priority listing for building permanent 
hospital facilities. Chanute received first priority in 
ATC. followed by Scott. Keesler. Sheppard. and 

Recall of Reservists 

Besides the tremendous increase in new recruits, 
ATC also had to in-process thousands of volunteer 
reservists. Between late July and the end of October, 
the command brought on active duty about 20,000 
reservists. Most of this work was done at Chanute, 
Scott. Francis E. Warren, and Keesler. Also, effective 
28 July 1950, it became legal to recall reservists in- 
voluntarily. However, involuntary recall didn't last 
long. By October the Department of Defense had 
suspended the process, primarily because the services 
had found that many veterans had been improperly 
classified upon separation at the end of World War II. 
They did not possess the qualifications needed for 
immediate assignment. Instead of wasting effort on 
the inactive reserve, the Air Force decided to place its 
emphasis on acquiring personnel from the organized 
reserves--individuals who possessed known critical 
skills. In April and May 1951, all 28 of the corollary 
reserve units attached to various ATC bases were 
recalled to active duty for 21 months. 


To meet the demands of the expanding Air Force, the 
Air Staff decided to civilianize. on a one-to-one 
basis, large numbers of military positions in finance, 
administration, and academic training. A survey of 
ATC bases showed that a total of 5,585 such 
positions existed in the command; however, the 
intent was not to convert all positions to civilian 
status, but rather to establish a 40 percent civilian. 60 
percent military mix. This plan went into effect in 

Food Service Operation 

Since 1947 the command's policy had been to assign 
cooks, bakers, and stewards on a permanent basis, but 
all other food service workers were conscripted from 
whatever sources could be found. It took almost 10 
percent of the command's military strength to meet 
operating needs of the various mess halls. This was a 
serious problem, because most of that 10 percent 
drew upiin critical career fields such as mechanics, 
radio operators, instructors, air police, and vehicle 
operators, as well as students. Beginning in 1949. on 
a trial basis. Air Training Conuiiand directed six 
technical training centers to replace this conscripted 
workforce with civilian hires. The test was called 
Operation New Look. By 1950 the test had proved 
successful, but oxerall reform was slow because 
funds were not readily available to pay salaries for 
ci\ ilian workers. 



Duiinji tin- first year of the Korean ^^ ar. Headquarters ISAF assigned combat crew training 
responsibility to A TC. tlie command's total base structure jumped from 22 to 37. and personnel strengtii and 
student load more than doubled. NNith the acceleration of training caused by the war, ATC recognised it 
could not provide the supervision needed for training e pansion from a single headquarters. To leave the 
command free to serve as a polic\ -making and planning agencv. officials decided to set up three 
subcommands to supervise fl>ing training, technical training, and indoctrination training. Soon after, that 
became t\>o subcommands, when ATC decided to combine technical and indoctrination training under a 
single headquarters. Headquarters USAF approved the decentralisation in early 1951. While ATC had 
sought numerical designations for its new air forces-- fhirtieth I l>ing Iraining and rhirt>-first Technical 
Training Air Forces-ISAF officials recommended functional rather than numerical designations. Ihus, 
ATC's new subordinate commands became Flying Training (FTAF) and Technical Training Air Forces 
(TTAF). Plans called for FTAF to be headquartered at Randolph and TTAF at Fowry; however, the 
une pected escalation of training at those bases meant facilities were not available. Thus. ATC established 
the FTAF headquarters at W aco, near James Connally AFB, and TTAF took up residence at the Gulf C oast 
Militarv Academy near Keesler AFB. 


(as of 3 1 December 1431 1 



Alabama-Craig: Arizona-Luke, Marana. Williams: 
California-Mather, Parks; Colorado-Lowry: 
Florida-Bartovv. Pinecastle. T\ndall: Georgia- 
Bainbridge. Moody. Spence; Kansas-WiLiiita; 
lUinois-Chanute. Scott: Mississippi-Columbus. 
Greenville. Keesler; Missouri-Maiden; Nevada- 
Nellis; New York-Sampson; North Carolina- 
Kinston: Oklahoma-Vance; Texas -Amarillo. Bryan, 
r.llington. Goodfeilow. Hondo. James Connally. 
Lackland. Perrin. Randolph. Reese. San Marcos. 
Sheppard: Wyoming— Francis E. Warren 

The T-29D observer traitur aircraft had stations 
for si sludenls and two instructors on board the 
living classroom. 

140.676 (16.445 officers: 376 warrant olTicers; 
111.961 enlisted; 1 1.894 civilians) 


3.632 (B-Z.-S. B-26. B-29. B-47. C-45. C-47. C-34. 
F-51. F-8(). F-84. F-86. F-89. F-94. H-.'5. H-13, L-5. 
L-13. L-16. T-6. T-7. T-28. T-29. T-33. T-34) 


2 Iraining air forces; 


1 bombartlment tiainmg umg: 

3535th. Mather AIB CA 

1 combat crew training wing: 

352()th. Wichita AIB KS 

1 navigator trainnig wing: 

3605lh. Llhnglon AIB TX 

12 pilot training wings: 

127th. Luke AFB A/. 

35(W)Ih (Adv Multi-Hng). Reese AFB TX 

351()lh. Randolph AFB TX 



3525th ( Ad\ Single-Eng), Williams AFB AZ 

3530lh (Adv Single-Eng). Bryan AFB TX 

3545th (Basic), Goodfellow AFB TX 

3555th (Basic). Perrin AFB TX 

356()th (Adv Single-Eng). Big Spring AFB TX 

3565th (Basic). James Connally AFB TX 

3575th (Adv Multi-Eng). Vance AFB OK 

3585th (Liaison-Helicopter). San Marcos AFB 


3615th (Adv Single-Eng). Craig AFB AL 

All iiistriKlor c plains how lo wear and use the 

3 training wings: 

3550th (Intcp Aircrew). Moody AFB GA 
3595th (Combat Crew). Nellis AFB NV 
3625th. Tvndall AFB FL 

y independent training squadrons (contiact tlying): 

3300th. Greenville AFB MS 
3301st. Coliniibiis AFB MS 
3302d. Spence Field, GA 
3303d. Bartow Field FL 
33()4th. Hondo Airfield TX 
33()5th. Maiden Airfield MO 
3306th. Bainbridge Airfield GA 
3307th. Marana Airfield AZ 
3308th. Kinston Airfield NC 

TECHNICAL. Gulfport MS: 

3 Air Force indoctrination wings: 

3275th. Parks AFB CA 
3650th. Sampson AFB NY 
3700th. Lackland AFB TX 

7 technical training wings: 

3310th. Scott AFB IL 

3320th. Amarillo AFB TX 

3345th. Chaniite AFB IL 

3380th. Keesler AFB MS 

3415th, Lo wry AFB CO 

3450th. Francis E. Warren AFB WY 

3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 

I training aids wing: 

3499th. Chaiuite AFB IL 


Throughout this period. Lieutenant General 
Harper remained the commanding general. The vice 
commander, Maj Gen Robert W. Burns, left his 
position in May to become Special Assistant to the 
Deputy Chief of Staff. Operations, at Headquarters 
USAF. Effective I June 1951. Maj Gen Kenneth P. 
McNaughton became the new \'ice commander. 


Flying Training Air Force 

On I Max 1951. ATC 
acti\ated Flying Training 
Air Force, with headquarters 
at Waco, Texas. This new 
unit assumed command of 
all ATC stations contlucting 
llxing training. With the 
establishment of Flying 
Training Air Force, ATC no 



longer needed a DepuiN Commander, Flying at the 
headquarters to manage fhing operations, so the 
position was abolished. 

Technical Training 
Air Force 

Activated on 16 Jiii> 
1951 at Gultpoit. 
Mississippi, the TTAK 
HQ controlled ten 
stations that provided 
technical and basic 
military training for 


Amarillo AFB, Texas 

On 1 March ATC activated Amarillo as a technical 
training base. It would provide airplane and engine 
mechanic jet trammg. At the same time, the 
command established the 3320th Technical Training 
Wing to oversee training activities at Amarillo. 

Moody AFB, Georgia 

This station iiaiistcrred from ,S.-\C to ,\TC on 
1 September l^^.^l. .Also on this date. ATC 
established the 3.550th Training Wing (Interceptor 
Aircrew). Moody became a part of ATC's all-weather 
interceptor training program. 

Wichita AFB, Kansas 

In 1950 USAF officials had begun working with city 
officials to lease facilities at the Wichita municipal 
airport for use as a B-47 training facility. The plan 
was to have training in place by mid-March 1951. 
The advantage of using the Wichita airport was that it 
would be a joint-use facility. The other tenant would 
be Boeing Aircraft Company, the manufacturer of the 
B-47 Stratojet. Boeing had set up a test program at 
Wichita. Unfortunately, the city also wanted to use 
the airport for commercial tlighls. so the Air Force 
decided it would be belter to purchase the airport, 
rather than lease. In the midst of all these problems. 
the first group of students began arriving. The 
command spent about S35.()()0 to erect a lent city to 
house incoming personnel. Air Training Command 
established the 352{)th Combat Crew Training Wing 
at Wichita on 5 June and assumed Jurisdiction of the 
municipal airport (which it tentatively named Wichita 
AFB) on 7 June 1951. Concurrently ATC established 
a B-47 school, but a variety of problems kept the 
school from beginning training in 1951. 

Luke AFB, Arizona 

The command placed Luke on active status on 
I January 1951 to augment jel fighter combat crew 

training in operation at Ncllis. Ihc program was to be 
conducted bv the 127th Fighter Wing, which had 
transferiwl liom Conlmcnlal ,\ir Command to ATC, 
eltectivc 10 February. The wing moved from 
Romulus. Michigan, to I.ukc on 23 February, and on 
1 March ATC established the USAF Air Crew 
School (Fighter-Bomber/Escort) at Luke. Fighter- 
bomber training began here on 1 March 1951. 
Effective 5 March, the 127th was reilesignated as a 
pilot training w ing. 

Big Spring AFB, Texas 

t)n 1 tJctohcr 1^'51. WC established the 35(-i()th Pilot 
Training Wing (Advanced Single-Enginel at Big 
Spring. Te.xas. However, the command was not 
formally able to activate the base until 1 January 
1952. because the City of Big Spring had difficulty 
acquiring clear title to some of the propertv' it 
intended to transfer to ATC. 

Wichita Municipal Airport, Kansas. 

Bryan AFB, Texas 

.Another advanced single-engine pilot school opened 
in the latter half of 1951 when .ATC activated Bryan 
AFB on I July. On the same day. the command 
established the 3530th Pilot Training Wing 
(Advanced Single-Engine) at Bryan. 

Pinecastle AFB, Florida 

.An I laming Coiiimaiul activated Pinecastle .AFB on 
10 September 1951: however, training did not begin 
until early 1952. The 3540th Combat Crew Training 
Wing celebrated its establishment on 10 January 
1952. Pinecastle was to take part in B-47 training. 

Parks AFB, California 

On 30 June 1951. ATC added Camp Parks to its 
inventory of bases, intending to use it for basic 
military training. Effective I August. Headquarters 
USAF directed the camp he redesignated as Parks 
AFB. Two weeks later, on 16 August. Air Training 



Command established an Air Force indoctrination 
wing-liie 3273th--at Parks; however, it was not until 
March 1952 that Parks began receiving recruits for 
basic military training. With Parks, Sampson, and 
Lackland AFBs now providing basic military 
training. Air Training Command was able to remove 
Sheppard from the basic military training program so 
that it could concentrate on training aircraft 


Contract Squadrons Activated 

In late 1950, Air Traming Command had activated 
two installations in Mississippi-Columbus AFB 
and Greenville AFB--to provide contract flying 
training. H(n\e\er, the tv\() squadrons--the 3.'^00th 
Training Squadron (Contract Flying) at Greenville 
and the 33()lst-were not established until 
31 January and I March 1951, respectively. The 
command added seven bases to its contract flying 
training program before the year was out: Spence. 
Georgia (16 April): Bartow, Florida (I May): 
Hondo. Texas (5 June): Maiden. Missouri, and 
Bainbridge. Florida (II July): Marana. Arizona 
(1 September); and Kinston (later redesignated 
Stallings). North Carolina (17 October). On the 
same date, the fields were activated and ATC 
organized training squadrons: the 3302d Training 
Squadron (Contract Flying) at Spence. the 3303d at 
Bartow, the 3304th at Hondo, the 3305th at Maiden, 
the 33()6th at Bainbridge. the 3307th at Marana. and 
the 3308th at Kinston. During World War II. all of 
these fields had served as tlvinsi traininc bases. 


Flight Safety 

Between July 1949 and June 1951. the command saw 
a major increase in flying and a corresponding 
increase in aircraft accidents. In fiscal year 1950. a 
total of 296 major aircraft accidents were recorded, 
compared to 414 in fiscal year 1951. In an effort to 

These students at Chanutc .\FB. Illinois, are learning how 
to perform maintenance on weather equipment. 

put greater emphasis on flight safety, the ATC 
commander established a Directorate of Flight Safety 
and assigned it to the Deputy Chief of Staff, 

An J- '.iss tries 

screen candidates ior pilot 

his hand at a primitive device used to 
training in the 1950s. 



Basic Pilot Training 

The main effort during the \ear in\ol\ed 
reaching the goal of training 7.200 pilots 
per year. To increase the number of 
applicants, ATC developed publicity 
campaigns directed at college students and 
acli\e duty airmen. Notices at air bases 
stressed the career advantages of flying 
training to active duty airmen. A second 
lactic to increase the number of students 
involved reducing qualifications. The 
command recommended that the required 
two years of college training be dropped, 
that the age limit be lov\,ered from 20 to 
1<S. that the requirement for applicants to 
be single be dropped, and that 
qualification test scores be reduced. In 
response to the ATC suggestions and to 
the lov\ number of applicants received 



from August through October, the Air Force reduced 
the quaUfying test score. In addition, in November, 
airmen with 18 months of active dul\ became eligible 
for pilot training if they had graduated from high 
school and were otherwise qiialitied. Finally, the Air 
Force reduced the enlistment period for qualified 
a\ iation candidates trom foin- vears to twix 

training at Tyndall AFB. Florida, on 4 January ly.'il. 
using F-S6. F-S9. and F-'-)A aircraft. Because the 
USAF Insirumenl Instructor and Aircraft Controller 
Schools were already located at Tsridall. ATC 
realized advantages through the joint use of 
expensive training equipment, such as a synthetic jet 
instrument trainei". 

Combat Crew Training 

A major change in the ATC mission during the 
Korean War involved the transfer of responsibility 
for much of combat crew training from the 
operational commands to ATC. This change came 
from the Air Force's desire to dedicate the maximum 
amount of resources to combat. Further, the 
operational commands did not have the resources to 
provide the training needed by the ATC graduates 
and reservists recalled to active duty. The four major 
combat crew training programs included 
fighter/bomber escort training and B-29 combat crew- 
training, both initiated in \950: all-weather 
interceptor training; and B-47 crew training. Air 
Training Commaml initiated aircrew (interceptor) 

B-47 Training 

Headquarlcis LLSAF transferred responsibility for 
B-47 training from .SAC to ATC in January \^)5\. 
The implementing directive detailed the acquisition 
of bases at Wichita. Kansas, and Pinecastle. Florida; 
outlined a $100 million construction program at both 
bases; allocated 84 aircraft for the training; anti 
transferred .^0 experienced airplane commaiulers 
from SAC lo serve as instructors. The designated 
successor to the B-29. the B-47 needed onlv a .Vman 
crew compared to the B-29's II -man crew. 
According to the basic plan. .\TC would train 49 
crews by the end of the vear. but by 31 December 
1951. no crew training had been accomplished. The 
contractor had delivered ten B-47s bv the end of 

These student repiiirmen instill! ;i lirniinal ho atop a lclii)hf>ne pole. Ihis is an c ample of (he priuliial 
traininu reciivid in the insialkr repairman phase of the 11 ed wire comiiiunicaiions course at I raneis K. 
W arren MB. W voinin^. 



Scptenibor, but from the beginning mechanical 
problems and lack of essential equipment prevented 
training. In addition, both bases had inadequate or 
incomplete training facilities, so even if training 
equipment had been available, the bases would not 
have been prepared to accommodate the training. 

Vertical Expansion 

Even pilot training was affected by vertical 
expansion. One example was the pilot instructor 
school; Air Training Command reduced the length of 
the school from eight weeks to six. cut the interval 
between classes from one month to two weeks, and 
expanded enrollment from 49 in the last class to 
graduate at Randolph AFB to 95 in the first class to 
graduate at Craig AFB. 

Contract Flying Schools 

To meet ihc urgent need for more pilots, beginning in 
late 1950. ATC made arrangements with a number of 
civilian schools to establish contract flying training 
programs. By late 1951. the command was sending 
student pilots to one of the nine new contract schools. 
Air Materiel Command awarded and administered 
the contracts, while ATC set training policy and 
morntored training performance. 

Helicopter and Liaison Pilot Training 

hlfectivc 15 January 1951, ATC returned San 
Marcos AFB. Texas, to active status so that 
helicopter and liaison aircraft training could be 
moved from James Connally. The availability of 
several small auxiliary airfields and the hilly, rough 

terrain of the San Marcos area (approximating that of 
Korea) precipitated the change. In addition to the 
course moves from James Connally. the helicopter 
and liaison aircraft mechanics courses transferred 
from Sheppard to San Marcos to make room for F-80 
and F-S9 training. Most of the training offered in this 
program went to Army pilots. On 1 February 1951, 
ATC designated and assigned the 3585th Pilot 
Training Wing (Liaison-Helicopter) to San Marcos. 

Preflight Training 

Not all commissioned officers who entered pilot 
training underwent preflight instruction. Some went 
directly into the primary phase of pilot training. 
Because of the wide variance in the military training 
received by graduates of the various ROTC units and 
because the proportion of ROTC offlcers entering 
pilot training had increased steadily to about 65 
percent of all entries, ATC implemented a new policy 
where aviation cadets received 12 weeks of preflight 
training, and ROTC-commissioned officers received 
four weeks of training. 


Mobile Training Detachments in Korea 

When a United Nations offensive pushed the front 
lines in Korea farther north, ATC deployed mobile 
training detachments to Korea to provide conversion 
training for pilots and aircraft mechanics as fighter 
wings converted from F-51s and F-80s to F-84s and 

~1 recruits arrived h> the train load, more than doubling the population of Lackland AFB. 



TemporaiN facilities (above) housed a Hood ol recruits aiii>in<; at lackland AFB (helow) in response to 
the militan expansion broujjht on b.\ the Korean contlict and the intensihing Cold War. 

Overcrowding at Lackland 

Tlie An Force announced unlimited recruiting in 
December 1950 in response to the Ciiinese 
intervention on the Korean peninsula. During the first 
two weeks of 1951. the population at Lackland AFB 
jumped from 36.513 to over 70,000 people, and 
training stopped temporarily. By then, the base was 
truly a "Tent City." Since base housing capacity 
stood at only 27.500. .'\TC took immediate steps to 
relieve the congestion at its primary recruit pro- 
cessing center. (Jn 16 January ATC stopped enlisting 
personnel without any pre\ious military experience 
and began shipping "untrained, inadequately clothed, 
and sketchily processed airmen" to other bases to get 

the situation under control. On 7 February Sampson 
AFB. New York, began providing basic military 
training. By the end of February, basic military 
training had resumed at Lackland. Shortly thereafter. 
.ATC increased basic nulitary training from se\en 
weeks to eight. 

Instructor Shortage in Technical Training 

With the rapid buildup of student ciu-ollment. .ATC 
experienced two major problems ni the instructor 
arena. There were not enough teachers to fill the 
classrooms, and many of those teachers didn't possess 
the skills needed to provide quality instruction. To 
solve these problems. ATC retained graduates for 



instructor duty, traded with other commands to gain 
experienced personnel, hired civilian instructors, and 
assigned other permanent party personnel to 
instructor positions. For example, from I January 
through 31 March 1951. ATC gained 2.615 
instructors from its technical training graduates. 46 
from other commands, and 647 civilian hires. In a 
move to stabilize its instructor force, ATC converted 
5.500 military authorizations to civilian. By mid-year 
40 percent of ATC's instructor positions were 

Torch Tender Program 

Considering the large number of units Air Force-wide 
converting from conventional to jet aircraft, ATC 
established in April an on-the-job training program to 

turn out more jet mechanics. Using recently 
graduated airplane and engine mechanics. ATC 
assigned these individuals to Williams. Nellis. and 
Tyndall, to leam jet aircraft maintenance. The 
command's objective was to train 3,000 jet mechanics 
as quickly as possible. 


Operating Costs 

In the space of one year. ATC almost doubled its 
operating expenses— from $371 million to $614 
million. A large part of that increase was in personnel 
expenses. Many civilian employees had been put on a 
six-day work week, and overtime increased 

The F-80 jet mechanics traininn program included disassembling the fuselage to remove the power plant for 
the 25-hour inspection. 



In the first half of the year. ATC continued to expand as it activated five more flying training bases. 
During the last half of 1952. however, the volume of training conducted sleadilv decreased as the suppl> of 
trained pilots and technicians met the Air Force demand in almost all areas. With this being the case, the 
Air Force reduced its enlistment quotas, and fewer personnel entered basic militar> training. With 
smaller training programs, fewer enlistments, and an Air Force austerit> program in manning. A TC's 
permanent party assignments started decreasing in the last half of the >ear. Air Iraining Command 
reached its Korean War peak of 176.446 pers<mnel in June. The Technical Training Air Force took the 
sharpest reductions, losing 10.(K)(I manpower authorizations during the last half of the year. In 1952 a 
total of 386.701 students graduated from ATC courses, a reduction of lOO.OOO from the previous year. 
The most important change in the training program involved the inauguration of four-phase pilot 
training. Air Training Command completed its program of decentralization, begun in 1951. by acti\ating 
the Crew Training Air Force in March. 

Mechanics clean the guns on an I -Sd in prepara- 
tion for another gunnery training mission at Luke 
AFB. Arizona. 


1 69.7 1 2 (1 7.3U.^ ot't'icers: 1 2 1 .347 enlisted; 3 1 .062 


4.768 (B-17. B-23. B-26. B-29. B-47. B-5(). C-4?. 
C-47. C-54. F-.'^l. F-80. F-84, F-86. F-89. F-94. H-5. 
H-13. HI 9. H-23. L-5. L-13. L-16. L-21. T-6. T-28. 
T-29, T-33.T-34) 


3 training air torccs: 
CREW . Randt)lph AIB TX 


(as ol 31 DcLcmbcr 19.^2) 


Alabania-Craig; Ari/ona-L.tikc, Marana. Williams; 

California-Mather and Parks: Colorado-Lowry; 

Florida-Bartow. Pinecastlc. and Tyndall; Georgia-- 

Bainbridge. Moody, and Spence; Kansas-Wichita; 

lllinois-Chanute and Scott; Mississippi-- Columbus. 

Greenville, and Keesler; Missouri- Maiden; 

Nevada-Nellis; New York-Sampson; North 

Carolina-Stallings; Oklahoma-Vance; Texas- 
Ellington. Foster. Goodfellow. 
James Connally. Lackland. 
'eiTin. Randolph. Reese. San 
and Webb; and Wyoming- 

Aniarillo. Bryan. 1 
Harlingen. Hondo. 
Laredo, Laugh 1 in. 
Marcos, Sheppard, 
Francis E. Warren 

Air Force 



Crew Training Air Force (contd) 

9 flying training wings: 

3510th (Med Bomb), Randolph AFB TX 
3520th (Med Bomb). Wichita AFB KS 
3540th (Fighter). PinecastJe AFB FL 
355()lh (Interceptor), Moody AFB GA 
3555th (Fighter), Perrin AFB TX 
3595th (Fighter). Neilis AFB NV 
360()th (Fighter). Luke AFB AZ 
3625th (Adv Interceptor). Tyndali AFB FL 
3645th (Fighter), Laughlin AFB TX 


4 observer training wings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th. James Connally AFB TX 
3605th. Ellington AFB TX 
3610th, Harlingen AFB TX 
3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 

9 pilot training squadrons (contract primary): 

3300th, Greenville AFB MS 
3301st, Columbus AFB MS 
3302d, Spence AB, GA 
3303d, Bartow AB FL 
3304th, Hondo AB TX 
3305th. Maiden AB MO 
3306th, Bauibridge AB GA 
3307th, Marana AB AZ 
3308th. Stallings AB NC 

TECHNICAL. Gulfport MS: 

7 technical training wings: 

3310th, Scott AFB IL 

3320th, Amarillo AFB TX 

3345th, Chanute AFB IL 

3380th, Keesler AFB MS 

3415th, Lowry AFB CO 

3450th, Francis E. Warren AFB WY 

3750th, Sheppard AFB TX 

10 pilot training wings: 

3500th (Basic Mulli-Eng), Reese AFB TX 
3525th (Basic Single-Eng), Williams AFB AZ 
353()th (Basic Single-Eng), Bryan AFB TX 
3545th (Primary). Goodtellow AFB TX 
3560th (Basic Single-Eng). Webb AFB TX 
3575th (Basic Multi-Eng). Vance AFB OK 
3580th (Basic Single-Eiig). Foster AFB TX 
3585th, (Liaison-Helicopter) San Marcos AFB 

3275th Air Force 




3615th (Basi Single-Eng). Craig AFB AL 
3640th (Bit^i. Single-Eng), Laredo AFB TX 

3 Air Force indoctrination wings 

3275th. Parks AFB CA 
3650th, Sampson AFB NY 
37()Oth. Lackland AFB TX 

I mobile training wing: 

34y9th. Chanute AFB IL 


Lieutenant (icneral Harper remained the ATC 
commander throughout this period, and Major 
General McNautihton continued as vice commander. 













• / 















* \ 


Crew Training Air Force 

Al Randolpli Al H on 16 March 1952. ATC estab- 
lished the Crew Training Air Force (CTAF). 
Assigned to CTAF were six bases: Luke and its 
127th Pilot Training Wing. Moody and its .^.'i.'iOth 
Training Wing (Interceptor Aircrew). Ncllis and its 
359.5th Training Wing (Combat Crew). Rantlolph and 
its .3510th Pilot Training Wing. Tyndall and its 
.3625th Tiaiiung Wing, and Wichita and its 352()th 
Combat Crew Training Wing. Pinecaslle became a 
CTAF base elTective 16 August. Perrin came untler 
CTAF control on 1 September, followed by Laughlin 
on 1 October 


5 New FTAF Bases Activated 

Ourmg 1952 AlC aclnaled li\e new bases under 
Flying Training Air Force. Four ol the installations 
provided basic single engine Hying training: Webb. 
Laredo. Laughlin. and Foster. The iillh base. 
Harlingen. provided basic observer training. Later in 
the year ATC tlccided to switch Laughlin to 
advanced lighter training, and with that change the 
base became a CT.'XF asset. 



Students inflate a parachute 
under the supcr>ision of their 
instructor during class in the 
parachute rigger's school at 
Chanute AFB, Illinois. 

Laredo AFB, Texas 

i:irc(.li\c 1 April 1952, ATC reopened I.arcdo AFB 
and established the 3640th Pilol Training Wing. Later 
the parenthetical notation (liasic Single-Engine) was 
addetl to the designation. 

Stallings Air Base, North Carolina 

in Ma\ 1952. Air Tiaiinng C'onintand lenamed 
Kinston Airfield. North Carolina, as .Stallings Air 
Base in memory of Lt Bruce Stallings. a P-51 pilot 
killed in March 1945. and his brother. I.t Harry 
Stallings, a B-29 navigator killed in April 1945. 

Foster AFB, Texas 

Air Training Command returned Foster to active 
status on 1 September 1952. Earlier, on 1 May. the 
command had established the 3580th Pilot Training 
Wing (Basic Single-Engine) at Foster to prepare for 
pilot training to begin in January 1953. 

Harlingen AFB, Texas 

On 1 April 1952. ATC activated Harlingen AFB. 
Texas. At the same time, the command established 
the 3610th Observer Training Wing at Harlingen. 

Laughlin AFB, Texas 

The command brought Laughlin back on acti\ e status 
on I May. At the same time ATC established the 
3645th Pilot Training Wing (Basic Single-Engine) 
and assigned it to Flying Training Air Force. Then 
on I October the 3645th was redesignated as a flying 
training wing (fighter) and reassigned to Crew 
Training Air Force. 

Webb AFB, Texas 

In 1951 .Air Training Command had established a 
pilot training wing at Big Spring. Texas, but because 
of legal considerations, the command was unable to 
acti\ate Big Spring AFB until 1 Januarv 1952. Four 
months later, on 1 S May. ATC changed the name of 
Big Spring to Webb AFB. honoring Lt James L. 
Webb. Jr.. a local Big Spring resident who was killed 
in a plane crash during a training mission in Japan in 




Wing Redesignations 

During 1952 Al'C redesignated a number ol its wings, as it reorganized its Hying program under llie Flying Training 
and Crew Training Air Forces. 

New Designation 

Pre\ ious Designation 
3500th PTW(Adv M-E) 
3510th PTW 
3520 CCTW 
3525th PTW (Adv S-E) 
.3530th PTW (.Adv.S-E) 
3535th BTW 
3540th CCTW 
3.545th PTW (Basic) 
3550th TW( I A) 
3555th PTW (Basic) 
3560th PTW (Adv S-E) 
3565th PTW (Basic) 
3575th PTW (Adv M-E) 
3595th TWtCmbt Crew) 
3605th NTW 
3615th PTW (Adv S-E) 
3625th TW 
3640th PTW 

3500th PTW (Basic M-E) 
3510th FTW (Med Bomb) 
3520 FTW (Med Bomb) 
3525th PTW (Basic S-E 1 
353()th PTW (Basic S-E) 
3535 OTW 

3540th FTW (Fighter) 
3545th PTW (Primary) 
3550 FTW (Interceptor) 
3555th FTW (Fighter) 
3560th PTW (Basic .S-E) 
3565 th OTW 
3575th PTW (Basic M-E) 
3595th FTW (Fighter) 
3605th OTW 
3615th PTW (Basic S-E) 
3625th FTW (Adv Intcp) 

Date Changed 

27 Jun 52 
1 1 Jun 52 

I 1 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 

I I Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
1 1 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
27 Jun 52 
1 1 Jun 52 
Jul-Aug 52 

364()th PTW (Basic S-E) 

NOTE: CCTW = combat crew training wing: FTW = Hying training wing: Med Bomb = medium bombardment: 
M-E = multi-engine: NTW = navigator training wing: OTW = observer training wing; PTW = pilot training wing: 
S-E = sinsle-ensine: TW = training wing. 

A studinl pilot approaches his 
assigned .\T-6 "Texan" on the 
ramp at Randolph MB. lexas. 
Note the uniiiiie nose art which 
included a pieline of ihe "I aj." 



3499th Mobile Training Wing 

On 4 November 1952. ATC redesignated the 3499th 
Mobile Training Group as a wing. Previously, the 
mobile training group had been a part of the 3499th 
Training Aids Wing, until the command discontinued 
the wing in early 1952. 

3750th Observer Training Group 

Air Training Command established the 3750th 
Observer Training Group at Sheppard on 10 October 
1952 and assigned it to Flying Training Air Force. 
The group operated at Sheppard until its inactivation 
on 15 March 1954. At that time, its training mission 
mo\ ed to James Connally. 

3600th Flying Training Wing (Fighter) 

The command discontmucd the 127th Pilot Training 
Wing at Luke on I Nmember and established the 
3600th Flying Training Wing (Fighter). 

Contract Flying Squadrons Redesignated 

Effective 27 June 1952. ATC redesignated all nine of 
its training squadrons (contract flying) as pilot 
training squadrons (contract primary). 


Basic Renamed Primary Pilot Training 

In 1952 ATC renamed basic pilot training, the first 
phase of flying training, as "primary" training. The 
advanced flying phase became "basic pilot training." 
The change came with the activation of the Crew 
Training Air Force in March 1952. with its charter of 
conducting advanced pilot training. Primary and 
basic pilot training fell under ATC's Flying Training 
Air Force. 

Interceptor Training 

Mechanical difficulties with the F-89 aircraft 
prevented ATC from training any students in this 
aircraft during the year. The F-86D program 
graduated 46 pilots during the year compared to a 
training plan of 1.200 per year (later reduced to 710 
due to problems with the aircraft). The only 
significant interceptor pilot production occurred in 
F-94 aircraft, in which 598 pilots graduated (slightly 
below the 650 annual soal). 


Two students in the cockpit of a l.ockhcid I -94C "Starfire" prepare to take off on an interceptor combat 
crew training mission at M(mkI> .\KB, deorgia. 



Four-Phase Pilot Training 

The most importanl cliungo in iraininL; during llic 
year involved the adoption ol a tour-phase pilot 
training program in November, with ni) change in 
living hours. Part one of the program included 12 
weeks of prefli<;ht training. The second part, called 
primar> training, required IS vseeks and featurcLJ 
120 hours of T-6 flight training. Part three, the basic 
flight phase, lasted 16 weeks and included 1.^0 hours 
of flying. This phase included flying in both the T-6 
or T-28 and in tactical aircraft (T-3.^ jet trainer. F-80 
jet fighter, F-51 conventional fighter, or B-25 multi- 
engine bomber). At the end of the third phase, cadets 
v\ere commissioned and received pilot wings. The 
fourth phase of pilot training featured crov trainin<; 
and covered an average of 12 weeks. Total time spent 
in training lasted nearly 16 months. The first class to 
begin the four-phase program was 53-H (later 
changed to 34-.A/B/C). which entered training at all 
flying bases on 3 No\ ember. 

Initiatives to Increase Pilot Applicants 

In an effort to increase the number of pilot training 
applicants. ATC created aviation cadet selection 
teams to visit colleges across the nation. The first two 
teams came into existence in January. Along with 
other initiatives begun in IQ.'il. ATC finally began to 
see the number of pilot training applicants increase. 
By .April the monthls a\erage had risen from less 
than 750 to over 3,800. 

B-47 Training 

The shortage nl anplancs thai hmdcrcd the B-47 
training program in ]'->5\ continued through much of 
1952. Fourteen three-man crews recei\ed training 
during the year at Wichita. The first B-47 students at 
Pinecastle began training on 22 December. 

B-26 Transition Training 

To provide trained B-26 crews for the advanced 
combat training TAC offered. ATC developed a four- 
week transition program for rated t)fficers. Perrin 
AFB hosted the course which started in .April. 
Because the B-26 had been used during World W ar 
II. ATC experienced no difficulty in obtaining 
aircraft or in protiuciiig trained crews. 

Fighter-Bomber Crew Training 

In .April .A IC reduced its training ivquiicnicnts from 
I.I 10 F-8() pilots per year to 2S8 and stopped all F-SO 
training in .September. In November 1951 ATC had 
planned to train 345 F-51 pilots per year, but in April 
1952 the command instead directed the elimination of 
the program following the graduation of the 30 June 
class. As training for these older fighters decreased, 
programs for the newer F-84 and F-86 aircraft 
increased. Quotas for the F-84 grew from 420 in the 
November 1951 plan to 588 under the April 1952 

schedule. For the new F-86 training course. AlC 
doubled its planned quotas from its initial 508. set in 
April 1952. to 1.224 in October. 

Helicopter Training 

With the inlnHluclion of the 11-19 al San Miircos. 
,ATC cut helicopter training from I I weeks ui 10. 

Observer Training 

During the sear. .ATC revised its obser\er training 
program based on a I November 1951 training 
directive. Instead of three separate courses— cadet and 
nonrated officers, rated bombardiers and navigators, 
and pilots-ATC implemented a single basic observer 
course, with ad\anced training related to specific 
aircraft. Complete conversion to a single observer 
program was delayed by the necessity of providing 
refresher courses to navigators, bombardiers, aiul 
radar observers who had been trained during World 
War II. 


Contract Schools Use Reduced 

The command decreased its reliance on civilian 
contract and other service schools during the year. In 
December 1951 the Air Force had more than 13.000 
students enrolled in Army and contract schools. By 
June 1952 that number had been cut in half. ,At 
contract schools, the student load declined from 
15.000 cnrolhiicnls in June 1951 to 2.050 in June 
1952. The number of contract schools .ATC used 
declined from 53 to 5. 

Changes in Technology 

1 he ciiiuiniicd mlioduciion of new aircralt and 
equipment forced ATC to develop new courses. 
Among the technical training courses begun in 1952 
were specialized B-47 courses and F-86E and F-89 
aircraft mechanic classes. As in 1951. the delayed 
delivery of new equipment to ATC caused shortages 
in trained technicians. Some of the most critical 
shortages were in the comminiicaiions-electronics 
fields, because the command couki not gel the new 
cryptographic and clccironic counicrmeasures (ECM) 
equipmeni benig prepareil for the war ctTort. In 
October .A I'C established an FCM operator-mechanic 
course at Kcesler. Retention of instructors became an 
increasing problem. Reenlistment rates among 
electronics instructors dropped. and ATC 
experienced a high turnover among its civilian 
instructors as private industrv offered these groups 
more money for their experience and expertise. 

Mechanic Training 

In 1952. when the Air Force listed its 13 most critical 
specialties. 10 were in aircraft maintenance fields. In 
February ATC estimated that the Air Force would 



have a shortage of 32,()()() aircraft mechanics by 
30 June 1953. Most frustrating for the command was 
the fact that the capabiHty existed to train far more 
mechanics. Air Training Command estimated it could 
train an additional 35,000 mechanics yearly if the Air 
Staff would increase the student load ceilings at 
Amarillo and Sheppard--the two main aircraft 
mechanic training centers: if the command had 
sufficient training equipment; and if more airmen 
could be tunneled through the induction centers. 
Officials at ATC argued that recruiting should be 
intensified to gain inductees and that the major air 
commands should provide more training aircraft. At 
Amarillo. onlv one F-89. one F-86F. and three B-47s 

were available for aircraft mechanic Iraiiiiiig. forcing 
two or three classes to use the same aircraft at any 
one time. 


Training Extended 

Diiring the years before the Korean War, basic 
military training had lasted anywhere from 4 to 13 
weeks. In the rush to flow recruits through the 
training system and into the theater of conflict, ATC 
reduced the course to seven weeks in 1950 and then 
to two weeks in January 1951. After the initial push, 
ATC reintroduced the eight-week course and urged 
the Air Staff to lengthen the course. 
In July 1952 the Air Staff approved 
a 12-week course, which ATC 
implemented on 1 August at 
Lackland and Parks and on 
1 September at Sampson. However, 
M A after only two months, the Air Staff 

-T-T • decided that the course should be 

'VjlJ hTi shortened, and ATC developed an 

11 -week program to begin in 
January 1953. 


International Training has always been an important part of the 
.\ETC' mission. rhroii<;h the Mutual Defense .Assistance Program, 
hundreds of international students received flying or technical 
training at various .\TC bases. In 1952 ^ ugoslavian and Taiwanese 
students joined the growing list of countries. The lower photo shows 
the first laiwanese students to recei>e jet training at NMIIiams .AFB, 
.Arizona. The upper photo shows graduating Dutch aviation cadets in 
formation at \ ance .\KB, Oklahoma. 


. » i « :^ 

mr^ •^f ■.? 

^^^^^^^ *^flr ^^^^^^^^^^B 

if *♦#! ■ 

M t. 


Operation Sign Post 

Air Defense Command conducted a 
nationwide air defense exercise 24- 
28 July, with the aid of Tactical Air 
Command and Air Training 
Command. At that time, ATC had a 
fairly heavy requirement to provide 
air defense support, as shown by 
the fact that over 50 percent of the 
aircraft used in the exercise 
belonged to ATC. The operation 
was a costly venture for ATC, 
because the majority of the aircraft 
deployed were those used in flying 
training programs. That cost the 
command thousands of lost student 
tlvint: irainine hours. 



As in the prexious year, the \olume of tiaininji ettndiKted steadily decreased durin}; 195.^. Air I rainiii}; 
Command graduated 333.332 students from all its Iraininj; profirams. do\>n from 439.991. Pilot production 
for the year neared the planned 7,200. but the cre» training; projiram failed to produce 7.200 comhat-ready 
pilots from its advanced ctmrses. In May the Air Staff dropped its plans to reach a production of 10.000 
pilots annuall> and postponed plans to build up to 143 wings. Instead, the Air Staff looked to establish 120 
wings by 30 June 1956. The Air Staff shortened basic militarx training, despite \i( objections, as a cost 
saving device. The command's permanent party assignments continued to decline despite the activation of an 
additional base. The Air Staff reduced the size of Headquarters ATC to 839 personnel authorizations as of 
31 December, less than half the 1.729 assigned at the start of the Korean \\ar. Ihe Korean War ended on 
27Jul.v. During the three-\ear conllict, ATC produced 11,947 combat-ready pilots and graduated o\er 
1,000.000 personnel from its various courses. 


uisiir3l DccciiiliLT I4fi3) 



Alabama-Craig; Ari7ona--I.Likc. Marana. and Williams; California-- 
Malher and Parks: Ci)l(>rado--Lin\r\: Floriiia-Barlow. Graham. 
Pinecastle. and Tyndall: Gi.-i)ri;ia--Bainbridge. Moody, and Spcnce: 
Kansas-Wichita: lllinois-Chanute and Scott: Mississippi-Columbus. 
Greenville, and Keesler: Missouri-Maiden: Nevada-Neliis: New 
York-Sampson: North Carolina-Stailings: Oklahoma-Vance: Texas- 
Amarillo. Brsan. Ellington. Foster. Gary. Goodfellovv. Harlingen. 
Hondo. James Connalls. Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. I'errin. 
Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb; and Wxoming-Francis E. 


I.SS.()42 ( l.^.')74 olTicers; I 13.4.-S4 enlisied; 2X.614 civilians) 

4.702 (B-2.^. B-26. B-2';. B 47. B-.^O, C-4.^. C-47. F-SO. F-84. F-86. 
F-89. F-94. H-5. H-13. H-19. L-.S. L-13. 1-16. 1.-17. 1,-19. L-21. T-6. 
T-28. T-29. T-33, T-.34) 


3 traininu air forces: 

CREW. Randolph AFB TX 

9 flying trannng wings: 

35]()lh (Medium Bombardmeiii i. k.indolph \l li 1 \ 

3.'i2()th (Medium Bombardment). Wichita AFB KS 

3.'i4()th (Fighter). Pinecastle AFB FL 

3.'^.^()lh (Inlerceplor). Moody AFB GA 

3.'i.'S.'^th (Fighter). Perrin AFB TX 

359.'ilh (Fighter). Nellis AFB NV 

360()th (Fighter). Luke Al H A/ 

362.'^th (Advanced Interceptor), lyndall MB 1 I. 

3(i4.'Slh (Fighter). Laughlin AFB TX 




4 observer training \\ ings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th. James Connally AFB TX 
3605th. EUington AFB TX 
3610th, Harlingen AFB TX 

I I pilot training wings: 


(Basic Multi-Eng), Reese AFB TX 
(Basic Single-Ene). Greenville AFB 



(Basic Single-Eng) 
(Basic Single-Eng) 
(Primary I, Goodfel 
(Basic Single-Eng) 
(Basic Multi-Eng), 
(Basic Single-Eng) 
(Basic Single-Eng) 
(Basic Sin2le-Ent;) 

Williams AFB AZ 
Bryan AFB TX 

low AFB TX 
Webb AFB TX 

Vance AFB OK 
Foster AFB TX 

r). Gary AFB TX 
Craig AFB AL 
Laredo AFB TX 

9 independent pilot training squadrons (contract 

3300th, Graham AB FL 
3301st. Columbus AFB MS 
33()2d. Spence AB, GA 
3303d, Bartow AB FL 
3304th. Hondo AB TX 
3305th. Maiden AB MO 
3306th, Bainbridge AB GA 
3307th, Marana AB AZ 
3308th, Stallings AB NC 

TECHNICAL, (iultport MS: 

3345th, Chanute AFB IL 
3380th, Keesler AFB MS 
3415th. Lowry AFB CO 
3450th, Francis E. Warren AFB WY 
3750th, Sheppard AFB TX 

3610th Observer 
Training Wing 

3 military training wings; 

3275th. Parks AFB CA 
3650th, Sampson AFB NY 
3700th, Lackland AFB TX 

1 mobile training wing: 

3499th. Chanute AFB IL 


Lieutenant General Harper remained the 
commander through this period. On 1 July Maj Gen 
Glenn O. Barcus succeeded General McNaughton as 
vice commander. 



3310th Technical 
Training \\ ing 

Graham Air Base, Florida 

Aw Tiainrng Command acii\ated Graham Air Base 
on 27 January 1953 to replace Greenville AFB as a 
contract primary pilot training school. Greenville 
then became an ATC basic single-engine pilot 
training school. 

Gary AFB, Texas 

On 10 May 1953. ATC changed the name of San 
Marcos AFB to Gary AFB to honor Lt Arthur 
Edward Gary, killed in the Philippines in 1941. Gary 
w as a nati\ c of San Marcos. 

7 technical training wings: 

.3310th, Scott AFB IL 
3320th, Amarillo AFB TX 



Officer Military Schools 

To consolidate its officer training activities. ATC 
established the USAF Officer Military Schools at 
Lackland, effective 1 August 1953. The command 


Sho\Mi is a uential \ic» of the nis;ht line at Perrin AFB. Texas, in the lOSOs. This \ I ( base cdnducted r-86D 
interceptor cre» training. 

changed its Officer Candidate School (OCS) 
curriculum to include 86 hours of air base defense 
instruction and to provide greater emphasis on 
military training. The first class to receive the new 
syllabus would begin training in January 1954. 
During the last quarter of 1953. the OCS class quotas 
dropped from 600 to 1.56 per quarter. In the officer 
basic military course, the Air Staff limited this direct 
commissioning program to applicants from medical, 
legal, chaplain, and meteorological fields during the 
last half of the year. 


3505th Pilot Training Wing 

In April 195.^ Greenville AFB. Mississippi, began 
basic single-engine pilot training. That mission was 
performed by the .^505lh Pilot Traiiimg Wing (Basic 
Single-Engine), which .\TC had activated on 
1 February 1953. 

Military Training Wings 

On 6 January 1953. lechnical Training Air Force 
redesignated its three indoctrination wings--the 
37(K)th at Lackland, the 365()th at Sampson, and the 
3275th at Parks--as militarv training wings. 


Changes in Technology 

As the B-26 aircraft left the Air Force inventory. 
ATC converted Perrin AFB. Texas, from B-26 
training to all-weather interceptor crew training. 
Alter April 1953. all advanced Hying training used jet 
aircraft, except that accomplished i)n B-26 and B-29 
bombers. There was also a significant increase in the 
number of specialized technical training courses as 
new equipment. primaril> electronic, moved into the 
Air Force inventory. Typically, training equipment, 
spare parts, and experienced instructors were often 
scarce. Courses for specialties such as missile 
guidance, radio-radar, and rocket propulsion received 
emphasis in 1953. 


Pilot Production 

To attain il-- .innual pilot production target, ,\IC 
attempted to reduce the attrition rale to the 29 percent 
upon which the command based its planning. If and 
when the graduations from basic llighl training 
increased. ATC faced a second problem 
deficiencies in the advanced training program. In 



This is an interior view of the Convair T-29D, which ATC used for navigator training. The "D" 
model had no astrodomes and carried six students and an instructor. 

prcl'light training alone. Air Training Command saw 
an average of 14.2 percent attrition in the first half of 
1953. Large numbers of students dropped out 
because of physical problems. Improved screening 
procedures corrected that problem. However, a 
second problem affected student nioti\ ation. With the 
lessening of tensions in Korea, the sense ot urgency 
anil ot need to serve one's coiintr\ had diminished. 

Interceptor Training 

During the year. ATC consolidated its interceptor 
training. Previously, the command gave instrument 
training at Moody, with applied training at either 
Tyndall or Perrin. Under the revised curriculum, each 
of the three bases prin ided both phases of training. 
Penin and Tyndall concentrated on the F-86D, and 
Moodv trained on the F-S*-) and F-94. 

Training Realignments 

Air Iraining Command had added Foster AFB, 
Texas, to its basic single-engine training program in 
1952, and the base accepted its first students in 
February 1953. Greenville AFB. Mississippi. 
switched from operating a contract primary school to 
conducting basic single-engine training in April. 
With this realignment. Perrin. Goodfellow. Gary, and 
Craig discontinued basic single-engine training and 
concentrated on primary missions: interceptor 
training at Perrin, primary pilot instruction at 
Goodfellow. helicopter and liaison training at Gary, 
and pilot instructor training at Craig. 

B-29 Training 

•Strategic Air Command transferred 
training to ATC durinii 1953. 

B-29 crew 

B-47 Training 

Pinecastle AFB in Florida produced its first fully- 
trained B-47 bomber crews during 1953. In the last 
half of the year. ATC pro\ided training for over 
1.300 students on the B-47. Even though ATC 
increased training on the B-47 by the end of the year, 
the Air Staff had decided to make B-47 crew training 
the responsibility of SAC, the using command. 



Air Training 
((iiniiiand l)C'<:iin 
ac(|uirin<; the 
Bt'ich T-34A 
"Mtntor" in 1954. 
riu' 1-34 replaced 
the A I -6 and other 
tvpcs of aircraft in 
primary training. 

Advanced Multi-Engine Training 

The Lommaiid began a new adNaiiced multi-engine 
training program involving the T-29 and B-Z.^i 
aircraft, with plans to add TC-54 and B-50 aircraft in 
the coming year. On 1 .September Air Training 
Command established advanced multi-engine schools 
at Mather in California and James Connally. 
Ellington, and Harlingen in Texas as a part of Flying 
Training Air Force and at Keesler in Mississippi, 
under Technical Training Air Force. 

Observer Training 

The miplemcniaiion ol the four-phase flying training 
program in \^)f^Z created an imbalance with the 
observer training program. Students in the obseaer 
program could receive their commission much more 
quickly than those in the lengthened Hying training 
program. To rectify the situation. ATC added a 
pretlight course to the observer training program, 
similar to that given to students in flying training. 
Other major changes in obser\ er training incluiled the 
implementation ut B-.'S? bomber-obser\er and B-26 
tactical reconnaissance training at Mather. 

Mutual Defense Assistance Program 
For the first time in its history, the Mutual Defense 
Assistance Program (MDAP) used a quota system to 
fill irainmg requests. Almost 40 percent of the quotas 

were used by West Germany. In addition, six new 
countries began receiving training authorizations 
under MDAP: Spain. Egypt. Iraq. Saudi Arabia. 
Syria, and South Korea. Air Training Commantl had 
provided instruction for various Arab countries prior 
to 1953. but never as a part of MDAP. 

Training Program Drawdown 

W lib ibc cikl 111 the Korean War. Air Training 
Command shut down many of its flying training 
courses. For example, during April the B-.^O observer 
program entered its final class, and in June B-29 
gunnery and bombardier refresher training ceased. 


Training Program Changes 

During the \ear. ATC made three curricula changes 
which significantly affected its training program. In 
July ATC moved factory training courses to its 
technical training centers. In September the command 
revised all atUanced officer and airman courses to a 
maximum of 19 weeks, saving permanent change of 
station (PCS) funds. Then in October ATC reverted 
to a five-day academic week. Oserall. there was a 
shift from general instruction to more specialized 
training. In Nosember the Air Staff issued a new 
technical training directive that defined the difference 



between tbrmal training and on-the-job training and 
delineated the responsibihtics of ATC and of the 
using agencies. 


Training Reduced 

To save money, the Air Staff decreased basic mihtary 
training from 12 to 9 weei<s; ATC implemented the 
change at Lackland in January and at Parks and 
Sampson in February. During the first half of 1953, 
the Air Staff reduced its induction quotas from 
1 {),()()() to l.'S.OOO per month to less than 5,()()(). With 
the lower quotas, ATC no longer needed to use Parks 
for basic military training, so BMT phased out at the 
end of September. (Parks continued to be used for air 
base defense training and processing oversees 
returnees. The command had established the air base 
defense .school at Parks in September 1952.) 

of ATC's interceptor training bases had air defense 
commitments. Moody maintained two combat-ready 
aircraft and crews on five-minute active air alert as 
ADC augmentation forces. Tyndall had a requirement 
to deploy 16 combat-ready F-86D aircraft and to 
maintain 16 others in a 4-hour readiness state in the 
event of an emergency. Peirin maintained an ADC 
defense squadron manned with ATC aircraft and 
instructor pilots as part of the active air alert force. 

Construction Savings 

In February the federal government imposed a freeze 
on military construction and began reviewing its 
building program. The Secretary of the Air Force 
canceled or deferred nearly one-third of ATC's 
projects— almost $25 million. The greatest single 
block of cancellations involved the decision to delay 
activation of Moore Field, Texas, as a flying training 
base. That saved ATC $8 million. 


Mission Change 

With the addition of crew training and the acquisition 
of interceptor aircraft. HQ USAF decided effective 
20 October to assign ATC responsibility for 
supporting Air Defense Command (ADC). All three 

Operation Tail Wind 

On 1 1 and 12 July, Air Defense Command tested its 
augmentation plan. A total of seven ATC bases 
actively participated in the exercise, deploying 
aircraft and aircrews, as well as supporting the ADC 
radar net. 

Radar students at Keesler AFB, Mississippi, learn to install and operate 
\arioiis radar s\ stems. 



During flic year, pilot tiainin}; lt'\clcd out at 7.0(10 per >car. obser\cr training roniainod unchanged, and 
technical training production jumped from 30.000 at the end ol 1953 to 47.000 h\ the end of June 1954. In 
the last hall of the >ear, Headquarlers liSAF told Al C that beginning in V\ 57 pilot production would drop 
to 4.800. That would be enough to support a 137->ving Air Force. Production was to be e\enl> di>ided 
between single- and multi-engine aircraft. In 1954. 65 percent of pilot trainees received single-engine 
instruction and 35 percent multi-engine. Although the reduction from 7,000 to 4.800 pilots per >ear was a 30 
percent cut in production, ATC onl> recommended releasing two of its 17 bases in\ol\ed in pilot training. 
According to ATC officials, the five basic single-engine training bases could be reduced to four. 
Headquarters ISAF wanted the production slowdown to be a gradual effort. That was partiallv because 
ei\ilian contractors operated the nine primary n>ing schools, and the Air Force didn't want to cause financial 
hardship for them. By cutting production gradually, each contractor had time to adjust the size of his 


(asot"31 iX'ccmber 1954) 




Alabama-Craig: Arizona-Luke. Marana. and Williams: California-- 
Mather and Parks; Colorado-Low i>; Florida-Barlow, Graham, and 
Tyndall: Georgia-Bainbridge, Moody. and Spence; 

Kansas-McConnell: Illinois- Chanute and Scolt; Mississippi- 
Columbus. Greenville, and Keesler: Missouri-Maiden: Nevada-Nellis 
and -Stead: New York-Sampson: North Carolina-Stallings; 
Oklahoma- Vance: Texas-Aniarillo. Bryan. Lllinglon. Gary. 
Goodt'ellow. Harlingen. Hondo. James Connally. Lackland. Laredo. 
Laughlin. Perrin, Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Wehh; and 
Wyoming--Francis E. Warren 

156.773 ( lfi.()7S otTieers: 1 1 1.73') enlisted; 28.956 civilians) 

4,702 (B-25. B-26. B-29. B-47. B-57. F-51. l--8(). 
F-94. F-l()(). H-5. H-13. H-19. H-21. L-19. L-21 


F-84. F-86. F-89. 
T-6. T-28. T-29. 

1 USAI' recruiting w ing; 

3500th. Wright-Pallerson AFB OH 
3 training air forces: 
CRF^^■. Randolph AFB TX 

9 combat crew training wings: 

3510th iMed Bomb). Randolph Al B I \ 
3520th I Meil Bomb). McConnell AFB KS 
3550th (interceptor). Moody AFB GA 
3555th (Adv Interceptor). Perrin AFB TX 

3595tli ( Fighter). Nellis AFB NV 
360()th (Fighter). Luke AIB AZ 
3625th (Adv Interceptor), Tyndall \1 K 11. 
3635th (Survival). Stead AFB W 
3645ih (lighter). Laughlin Al H 1 \ 

FIA INC;. WacoTX: 

4 aircralt observer training w ings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th, James Connally AFB TX 
.3605th, i;ilinglon AIB I\ 
3610th. Harlingen AFB TX 



3585th Flying 
Training Wing 

Flving Training Air Force (contd) 

2 flying training wings: 

3585th (Liaison-Helicopter), Gary AFB TX 
3615th (Basic Single-Eng) Craig AFB AL 

S pilot training wings: 

3500th (Basic Multi-Eng). Reese AFB TX 
3505th (Basic Single-Eng). Greenville AFB 



3525th (Basic Single-Eng). Williams AFB AZ 
353()th (Basic Single-Eng). Bryan AFB TX 
3545th (Basic Multi-Eng), Goodtellow AFB 


3560th (Basic Single-Eng). Wehb AFB TX 
3575th (Basic Multi-Eng). Vance AFB OK 
364()th (Basic Single-Eng), Laredo AFB TX 

9 independent pilot training squadrons (contract 

33()()th, Graham AB FL 
3.301st. Columhus AFB MS 
33()2d. Spcnce AB. GA 
3303d. Bartow AB FL 
3304th. Hondo AB TX 
3305th. Maiden AB MO 
3.306th. Bainbridgc AB GA 
3307th. Marana AB AZ 
3.30Sth. Stallings AB NC 

TECHNICAL. Gulfport MS: 

7 technical training wings: 

331()th. Scott AFB IL 
332()th. Amarillo AlH TX 
3.345th. ChanutcAlH II. 
3380th, Keesler AFB MS 
3415th. Lowry AFB CO 
M50th, Francis E. WaiTcn AFB WY 
'Hh, Sheppard AFB TX 

3 military training wings: 

3275th. Parks AFB CA 
3650th. Sampson AFB NY 
3700th. Lackland AFB TX 

I mobile training wing: 

3499th. Chanute AFB IL 


Maj Gen 
Glenn O. Barcus 

Charles T. Mvers 

On I July 1954. the ATC Vice Commander. Maj 
Gen Glenn O. Barcus temporarily assumed command 
of ATC from Lieutenant General Harper, who retired. 
Barcus was replaced on 26 July by Lt Gen Charles T. 
Myers, who had previously served as Commander. 
Northeast Air Coinmand. Also on 2 July, Maj Gen 
Edward H. Uiulorhill replaced Major General Barcus 
as vice commander. 



McConnell AFB, Kansas 

On 12 April I9.S4. ATC redesignated Wichita AFB as 
McConnell Al-B. honoring two brothers-Lt 
Thomas L. McConnell. killed in the South Pacific in 



1943. and dipt Fred M. McCiiniicIl, Jr.. who died in 
a plane crash in Korea in 1945. 


Recruiting Wing Activated 

On 10 April 19.'^4. as a part ol its plan to manage Air 
Force recruiting. ATC activated the .^SOOth U.SAF 
Recruiting Wing at Wright-Patterson AFB. Ohio. The 
command lormed the new unit usnig personnel from 
the former .!.'>( )()th Personnel Processing Group, 
which had been assigned at Waco. 

3635th Combat Crew Training Wing 

Effecti\e 1 .September 19.54. SAC transferred the 
3904th Composite Wing at Stead AFB, Nevada, to 
ATC. On that same date, ATC discontinued the 
39()4th and established the 3635th Combat Crew 
Training Wing (Survival) and assigned it to Crew 
Training Air Force. 

Wing Redesignations 

In September-October 1954. ATC redesignated its 
eight flying training wings as combat crew training 
w ings to describe their mission better. The command 
also renamed its four observer training wings as 
aircraft observer training wings. effective 
10 September, and redesignated two pilot training 
wings-the 3615th at Craig and the 35S5th at Gary- 
as flying training wings. 



Air Training Command established a new 
headquarters function. Deputy Chiel of Staff. Instal- 
lations, on 12 August 1954. This was the forerunner 
of civil enijineerinu. 


Missile Training 

\n August A rc learned that it would be assisting Air 
Defense Command w ilh air-to-air missile training of 
ADC units. .Although the Air SlafI suggested using 
Tyndall as the site for such training, in November 
ATC and .ADC reached agreement on establishing 
missile training at Moody .AFB, Georgia. Training 
wiHild begin in February 1955. 


Combat Crew Training Transferred 

Air Training Command returned various combat 
crew training responsibilities to S.AC and TAC in 
1954. Among these was the transfer of Pinccastle 

.AFB. I'lorida. and its B-47 training mission to SAC 
on I January 1954 and the transfer of Foster to TAC 
on 1 July. In addition. S.AC took over B-47 training 
at McCoiinell AFB. Kansas, but ATC continued 
pnniding B-47 transition training. At Vance, TAC 
began prosiding B-26 combat crew training. 

The Century Problem 

In World War II. pilots flew propeller-driven aircraft. 
After the war the all-jet combat force began to take 
shape. The next step w as replacement of subsonic jets 
with supersonic jets, which posed the "Century 
Problem" for ATC. Tactical wings had already begun 
receiving the new lOO-series aircraft, while ATC 
schools still had to make do with a combination of 
T-34s. T-2Ss. and T-33s. (In fact. ATC received its 
first F-lOO in August 1954 at Nellis. but not long 
after the .Air Force grounded all F-IOOs following 
three major accidents. As a result. ATC olflcials 
believed it would be 1956 before the command could 
begin training.) With this outdated training, graduates 
were handicapped before they reached their first 
assignment. In the eyes of ATC ofl'icials. the only 
way to improve the quality of pilot trainees was by 
acquiring new trainer aircraft. Planners felt three new 
trainers were needed. The flrst. the T-34. had alreatly 
begun to arrive in ATC in significant numbers b\ the 
end of the sear. The second, a T-37 twin-jet trainer, 
was intended to replace the coinentional T-28 in the 
second phase of primary training. When the T-37 
came onboard, that nieaiit for the first time ATC 
would be using a jet trainer in piimar\ training. The 
third trainer was intended to replace the T-33 in basic 
single-engine training. Its purpose would be to 
prepare student pilots for supersonic flight. What that 
aircraft would be was still to be determined. 

Basic Pilot Training 

With the Korean War past. USAF officials became 
concerned that ATC was producing too main pilots 
and thai liaiinng costs needed to be reduced. The Air 
Staff decided the best way to handle the problem was 
by limiting advanced combat flying training to pilots 
who signed an agreement to remain in the service for 
four years beyond graduation from basic pilot 
training. The flrst class asked to sign such agreements 
was 55-G. About 44 percent signed. By the end of the 
\car. it v\as obvious that loo many pilots were being 
trained. The command had had great difficulty 
placing graduates of basic pilot training. In fact, 
during the last three months of the year, a total of 178 
graduates were transferred to technical training 
programs, when ATC was unable to find cockpit 
assignments for these individuals. .Also as a result of 
this oNciproiluction, ATC temporarily discontinued 
its advanced multi-engine training program (B-25s, 
B-50s, and T-29s) in December. 



Student officers in the I SAF Bombardment 
School. Mather AFB, Calilornia. on a training 
mission in a modified Dou<;las C-54 "Skymaster." 
This C-54, the only one of its kind in use during 
the 1950s, could accommodate 21 students. The 
more common bombing trainer was the B-25. 

Basic Single-Engine Training 

In iy.'^4 AlC reduced its basic single-engine pilot 
schools from seven to five. James Connally returned 
to observer training, and on I July ATC transferred 
Foster AFB to TAC. The command was able to do 
this because bases like Greenville and Laredo had 
aci|uired sufficient facilities to assume their full share 
of the training load. In addition, the days t>f split-shift 
training (T-28s in phase one and T-33s in phase two) 
were over. All five bases— Bryan. Greenville. Laredo, 
Webb, and Williams— used the single-engine cur- 
riculum. The command even saw quality of training 
improve because of the increased number of hours 
students received in the T-33. 

Observer Training 

As a cost-cutting measure. Headquarters USAF 
directed ATC in No\ ember 19.'S3 to reorganize its 
observer training program and decrease training tiine. 
Air Training Command managed the restructure by 
converting primary observer training into a primary- 
i). ic course and by providing ad\anced instruction in 
the basic course. Under the new program, every 
gradual'- of r.rimary-basic training would be a 

qualified navigator. At the beginning of the year, nine 
ATC bases provided various types of observer 
training. Lackland taught preflight. Ellington and 
Harlingen gave primary training, while Mather. 
Lowry. Keesler. James Connally. and Sheppard 
provided advanced training. Sheppard was only in the 
program temporarily to help relieve congestion at 
James Connally. and Lowry dropped out of the 
program in November when armament instruction 
ended. By 31 December, only five bases remained in 
the observer program: Mather. James Connally. 
Harlingen. Ellington, and Keesler. 

Contract Primary Flying Training 

Since the lonnation of the piiiiiary contract flying 
training schools in the early 1950s, the only military 
base to provide primary training was Goodfellow. It 
had been kept in that position to monitor the training 
given by the contractors. By the end of 1953. ATC 
was satisfied with the quality of training provided by 
the schools, and officials felt it was unnecessary for 
Goodfellow to continue its monitoring role. Instead, 
in February 1954 Goodfellow converted to basic 
multi-engine pilot training. Meanwhile, the contract 
schools were in the midst of a major aircraft 
conversion. Beginning in May. Marana started 
receiving T-34s and T-28s to replace the older T-6s 
and PA- 18s. The Spence school reported the arrival 
of its first T-34s in June, and Bainbridge and 
Columbus started receiving new aircraft in 
September. By year's end. Marana had received 55 
T-34s and Spence had 56. The government-owned 
T-6s were turned over to Air Materiel Command. The 
PA- 18s belonged to the contractors. Contractors 
reported that they would give several of these suiplus 
aircraft to the Civil Air Patrol in early 1955. 

C-119 and 6-57 Training 

At Randolph B-29 combat crew training had to be 
sharpK curtailed midwa)' through the year, so that the 
base could prepare for operation of a four-engine 
transport school, using the C-119. Student training 
began in July. In addition. Randolph began its first 
B-57 pilot training course in late October. While 
some classroom instruction took place, students did 
not fly the B-57 in 1954. It was November before 
ATC recei\ed its first four B-57s. and another four 
aircraft arri\ed in December; howe\er. the command 
hatl innnediate maintenance problems with the 
aircraft, recortling an in-commission rate ot only 
seven percent. Besides the maintenance problems. 
Air Training Command also had difficulty finding 
qualified instructors. Because of the newness of the 
aircraft, most qualified pilots were assigned to TAC 
units converting to the B-57. The Randolph training 
program had to qualify T-33 pilots as B-57 



Air Training Command operated a 15-day 
survival course at Stead AFB. Nevada, tor Air 
Force bomber crews. Here, an aircrew member 
learns iiow to use a raciv to smoke fresh meat. 

Survival Training 

Since October 1950. SAC had taught survival 
techniques for downed aircraft crews. The first 
course was held at Camp Carson, Colorado, and in 
1952 the training moved to Stead AFB. Nevada. 
Originally. SAC had begun the training for its 
personnel, teaching them how to survive if forced 
down in remote and/or unfriendly terrain, how to 
escape capture, and how to escape if captured. Later 
other commands used the training. In the spring of 
1954, since ATC had primary responsibility for 
training. Air Force officials decidetl to transfer 
survival training to ATC. On I September 1954. SAC 
transferred its survival training mission to ATC, 
along with Stead. 

Basic Multi-Engine Training 
Here again production was exceeding need. The 
command had made the decision to change its 
proportion ol single-engine graduates to multi- 
engine--from a 7.5/25 mix to 65/.^5. This was 
accomplished by transferring Gooilfellow from 
primary pilot training to nuilli-engine instruction m 
the first half of 1954. ,\lso tramuig multi-engine 
pilots were Reese and Vance. 

Interceptor Weapons Training 

Ihc command csi.iblished mlcrceptor weapons 
instructor training at Moody and Tyndall in July. To 
inject more realism into the training, ATC made 

arrangements wuh SAC to allov\ nistruclor pilots to 
tly intercept missions against S.AC bombers. 

Atomic, Biological, and Chemical Warfare 

loi sc\cral \c.iis. the .\niicd forces Siiecial 
Weapons Project at Sandia Base. New Mexico, had 
provided all atomic, biological, and chemical (ABC) 
warfare training for the Air Force. Beginning in 
October 1954. ATC added ABC instruction to its 
bomber training program at Randolph and its tighter 
pilot programs at Luke and Nellis. In addition, ATC 
established six general ABC coiM"ses to train aircrews 
already in the tield, using mobile training teams. 


Lowry Interim Site of AF Academy 

In .lulv 1954 USAF officials named Lowry as ihe 
interim site for the new Air Force Academy. .At (he 
same time. SAC also wanted to use Lowry to support 
missile units. In both cases, no new construction was 
allowed. According to the USAF. Lowry had to 
support the new academy, and if necessary, training 
could be relocated so that facilities were available for 
the academy. In fact Lowry did have to transfer 
training. Beginning in September, the school moved 
intelligence, comptroller, and transportaticni training 
programs to Sheppard. At the same time. Sheppard 
also gained ."^7 jet engine, hydraulic, and electrical 
repairman courses from Chanute. because the training 
load at the Illinois school had overtaxed base suppi)ri 

From 1954 to 1958. Lowry .\FB. Colorado, served 
as the interim site of Ihe Vir force Vcademv until 
Ihe academ\"s permaneni home was coinpleled in 
Colorado Springs. C olorado. 


When incoming airmen completed basic military 
training, a large percentage went directly lo formal 
technical training courses. Other recruits were direct- 
duty assigned and received on-the-job training to the 



apprentice level. The remainder of basic military 
training graduates, beginning in October 1954, were 
sent into the field to fill "helper" positions. 
Commanders could assign these individuals to any 
career field where an authorized vacancy existed. 



Effective 6 March 1954. Secretary of Defense 
Charles E. Wilson signed a memorandum specifying 
thai the Air Force would assume operational control 
of its recruiting function not later than 1 July. When 
the Air Force became a separate service in 1947, re- 
cruiting had remained a joint function caiTied out 
through the Army's recruiting organization. Head- 
quarters USAF delegated recruiting responsibility to 

ATC. The primary reason the Defense Department 
had decided to give the Air Force control of its 
recruiting function was to save money and 
manpower. The new organization that would exist 
under ATC included a wing, six groups, 71 
detachments, and recruiting stations, as necessary. 

Third Basic Training Facility Needed 

At the beginning of the year, ATC had two basic 
military training facilities— Lackland and Sampson. 
However, the Air Force projected that an average of 
1 2, ()()() new enlistees would enter the service every 
month through FY 56. For that reason, ATC decided 
to reopen a third processing center. On 7 September 
Parks began receiving new recruits after a year in 
standby status. 

.\n instructor at l,()\\r\ AFB, Colorado, teaches future armament officers 
on the care and asseml>l\ of bombs. 



Pilot production continued its d(»\\n«aid trend. H(i»e>er, there was a positi>e side in that smaller classes 
meant A TC could <jive more attention to the quality of pilot bein<; produced. C ourse syllabi increased the 
amount ol llxinj; time pilot trainees recci\ed. The command also increased its efforts to acquire more 
modern aircraft for trainin<i purposes. That way pilot trainees would experience living heavier, faster aircraft 
before being assigned to tactical units. By mid-year four of ATC's nine contract primary schools had 
replaced their P\-18 and T-6 trainers with T-34s and r-28s. Also during the year, the Air I orce took a close 
look at ATC's technical and basic military instruction programs. Ihe Air Force hoped to integrate basic 
military and basic technical training, establish a field training system, and readjust training loads to 
economize the use of the command's facilities. 


(as of 31 Dee-cinber 195.'^) 



1 USAF rccniiiiiiy uiiig: 

35UUth. Wright I'auerson AlB OH 
3 training air forces: 
CREW. Randolph AI-B TX 

iS Lonibal crcu iraiiiint; wings: 


Alabama-Craig: Arizona-Luke. Marana. and Williams: California- 
Mather and Parks; Colorado-Lowry: Florida-Bartov\. Graham, and 
Tyndall: Georgia-Bainbridge. Mood\. and Spence: 

Kansas-McConnell; Illinois- Chanute and Scott: Mississippi- 
Greenville and Keesler: Missouri- Maiden: Nevada-Nellis and Stead: 
New York-Sampson: North Carolina- Stallings; Oklahoma-Vance: 
Texas— Amarillo. Bryan. Ellington. Edward Gar\. Goodfellow. 
Harlingen. Hondo. James Connally. Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. 
Moore. Perrin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb; and W\oming-- 
Francis E. Warren 

I46.SI4 ( officers: 96.934 enlisted: 33.222 civilians) 

4.830 (B-25. B-29. B-47. C-4.5. C-47. F-51. F-8(). F-84. F-86. F-89. 
F-94. F- 1 00. H- 1 3. H- 1 9. H-23. L- 1 9. L-2 1 . T-28. T-29. T-33, T-34) 



I combat crew training w ing: 

3fi4.Sth (Fighter). Laughlin AFB TX 
4 aircraft obsei\er tiaiiiin>! wings: 

3.'^l()lh (Med Bomb). Randolph AlB TX 
3.520th (Med Bomb). McConnell AFB KS 
3.'i.^0th (Interceptor). Moody AlB CiA 
3.'>5.5th ( Adv Interceptor). Perrin AFB TX 
3.595th (Fighter). Nellis AFB NV 
3600th (Fighter). Luke AFB AZ 
3625th (Adv Interceptor). I'yndall AlB FL 
3635th (Survival). Stead AFB NV 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565lh. James ConnalK AFB TX 
3605th. Ellington AFB IX 
36 lOth. Harlingen AFB TX 

2 Hying training wings; 

3585lh (Liaison Helicopter), lidward Gary 

.361.5lh. Craig AFB AL 



8 pilot training wings: 

35()()lh (Basic Muiti-Eng). Reese AFB TX 
3303tli (Basic Single-Eng), Greenville AFB 



3525th (Basic Single-Eng). Williams AFB AZ 
3530th (Basic Single-Eng I. Bryan AFB TX 
3545th (Basic Multi-Eng). Goodfellow AFB 

3560th (Basic Single-Eng). Webb AFB TX 
3575th (Basic Miilti-Eng). Vance AFB OK 
3640th (Basic Single-Eng). Laredo AFB TX 

9 independent pilot training groups (contract 

330()th. Graham AB FL 
3301st. Moore ABTX 
33()2d. Spence AB. GA 
3303d. Bartow AB FL 
3304th. Hondo AB TX 
3305th. Maiden AB MO 
3306th. Bainbridge AB GA 
3307th, Marana AB AZ 
33()Sih. Stallings AB NC 

TECHNICAL. Gulfport MS: 

7 lechiiical training wings: 

3310th. .Scott AFB IL 

3320th. Amarillo AFB TX 

3345th. Chanute AFB IL 

3380th. Keesler AFB MS 

3415th, Lowry AFB CO 

3450th. Francis E. Warren AFB WY 

3750th. Shcppard AFB TX 

3 military training wings: 

3275th. Parks AF-B CA 
3650th. Sampson AFB NY 
3700th, Lackland AFB TX 

1 mobile irauiing wing: 

34Wlh. Chanute AFB II 


Lieutenant General Myers continued to ser\e as 
the ATC commander, and Major General Underbill 
remained vice commander. 



Gary AFB, Texas 

On 1 September 1955. ATC redesignated Gary as 
Edward Gary AFB. 

Contract Primary Bases 

For simplicit) sake, since 1952 ATC had listed all of 
its contract primary fields as air bases, except 
Columbus and Greenville AFBs. However, the 
command did not make those designations official 
until I November 1955. Also, on 25 April 1955. ATC 
redesignated all of the contract primary squadrons as 
pilot training groups (contract primary). 

Columbus AFB, Mississippi 

On I April 1955. ATC transferred jurisdiction of 
Columbus AFB lo SAC. Since 1951. Columbus had 
hosted contract primary flying training. All of the 
Columbus flying training mission moved to Moore 
Air Base. Texas. 

Moore AB, Texas 

Between December 1954 and March 1955. ATC 
moved the contract flying training program at 
Columbus to Moore Air Base. Texas, including the 
330 1st Pilot Training Squadron. Between the 
mid- 1 954 announcement that contract pilot training 
would move to Moore and the activation of the base 
on 1 January 1955, builders repaired and added to 
base facilities so that Moore could begin training on 
3 January. 


3645th Combat Crew Training Wing 
Laughlin AFB, Texas, and its 3645th Combat Crew 
Training Wing (Fighter) transferred from Crew 
Training Air Force to Flying Training Air Force 
effective 1 September. 


Project Jericho 

During the year. ATC officers put together a plan to 
relocate the command headquarters from Scott to 
Raiukilph and to inactivate the Crew Training Air 
Force and combine its mission with Flying Training 
Air Force. That plan was called Project Jericho. 
Officials in ATC realized that the Air Force was 
Hearing its gi)al of establishing 137-wings. Once that 
happened, training demands would decrease. By 
consolidating and relocating. ATC believed the Air 
Force would sa\e money and personnel. Ho\\e\er. 
Headquarters USAF disagreed. Project Jericho died, 
but the command still continued its efforts to reduce 


_ 1955 

Prior to takin<; oft on a routine traininj: llij^ht. an instructor and student at Br\an MB. Texas, discuss last 
minute details with the cre\> chief. 

operating costs. On 3 October 1955. ATC reorgan- 
ized its iieadquarters, reducing its authorized strengtii 
from 782 to 580 positions. The command reahzed 
this savings by putting only planning, policy-making, 
and flying and technical training inspection functions 
in the headquarters. At the same time, the head- 
quaiiers changed the designation of two Deputy 
Chiefs of .Staff (DCS). The DCS/Comptrolier Office 
became DCS/ Comptroller, anti the DCS/Operalions 
Office became DCS/l'ians and Operations. Earlier in 
the year, on 1 Februur\. ATC dissolved its Deputy 
Chief of Staff. Programming Office. This function 
then became a part of the DCS/Operations Office. 



Changes in Basic Flying Training 

Ai sears end. singie-engme programs existed at 
Bryan. Green\ille. Laredo. Laughiin. and Webb. 
(Williams transferred its program to Laughiin in 
September, in preparation for assuming an advanced 
tighter training role.i Mulli-engine training look 
place at Goodfellow. Reese, and Vance. Looking 
ahead. .ATC wanted to end multi-engine training by 
F""Y 58 and conduct all basic training in jet T-.^."? 

It \ inceni I). Mexer and .lohn Ixsori record the 
last student llij;hl in the 1-6 aircraft at Moore AB, 
Texas, on 22 .June 1955. 

trainers. During 1955. ATC removed all T-28s from 
the multi-engine program, leaving only B-25s. The 
r-28s were needed for the primary (lying schools. 
The command planned to begin all-jet basic training 
al Reese and Vance in 1957 and at GoodlelUiw in 



Field Training-A Revised Concept 

A LombiiKition of taLlnrs--li)v\ leenlistiiient rates, 
fuiluie of tactical units to maintain adequate on-the- 
job training (OJT) prtigrams, too lengthy formal 
training followed by increased instances of mal- 
assignment. and a mobile training program with 
limited capability— caused the Air Staff to take a 
closer look at the way people were trained. Of key 
importance was ATC's ability to produce "combat- 
ready" personnel. From the Air Staff perspective, 
ATC's training responsibilities went beyond 
graduation from technical training. What was needed 
was a well-organi/ed system of continuation training. 
The Air Force directed ATC to explore the possibility 
of providing continuation training through field 
training detachments (FTD). Officials at ATC 
suggested that continuation training should include 
the use of mobile training units and on-the-job 
training. Headquarters USAF agreed, and ATC 
prepared to test the FTD concept at Hamilton AFB, 

California, a base belonging to Air Defense 
Command; Smoky Hill AFB, Kansas, a SAC 
installation: and Foster AFB, Te.vas, a TAC station: 
however, a shortage of qualified instructions delayed 
the test. (Only one mobile training wing existed in 
the entire Air Force-the 3499th at Chanute. This 
unit, with its over 170 detachments, was to become 
the nucleus of a new field training program.) It was 
early 1956 before the test began. If the test proved 
successful, the Air Staff proposed sending 95 percent 
of all new enlistees to formal technical training, with 
only five percent receiving direct-duty assignments. 
All technical training courses would be revised to 
include only the basics, and more specific instruction 
would be provided either by OJT or through mobile 
training units. 


Basic and Technical Training Integrated 

In early 1955. Headquarters LISAF proposed that 
ATC integrate its basic military and technical training 
programs. Officials in ATC conducted a study and 
determined that the best way to proceed was by 
retaining the cLirrent recruiting system, a minimum of 
two basic military training bases, and seven technical 
training bases. However, instead of providing all 
basic military training at these two bases. ATC 
suggested that the military training bases process, 
test, and classify all basic airmen and provide the first 
six weeks of basic training. Then those airmen 
selected for technical training would receive the last 
six weeks of their basic military training at a 
technical training center. Headquarters USAF 
approved this plan, and ATC put it into effect on 
2 January 1956. Not included in this program were 
prior service and WAF personnel. 

Ihiouj;!) the Mutual Defense Assistance Program, 
a student ofllcer from I huiland iecci\cs h\draulic 
systems training from an instructor at Chanute. 



In the Air Force, ATC remained the hirgcst major command, hut strength was dropping as the demand 
for training decreased. At a I SAF conference in August l')56. otficials made phtns to reduce annual pilot 
production to the point where ATC thought it \>ould he able to drop two priniarv bases in \\ 5S and two 
basic schools in ¥\ 59-possibly Marana, Stallings. C;reen\ille. and (ioodleilow. ^earl^ pilot production lor 
F^ 58 \>as set at 4.(100 and at 3,800 for h\ 59. By 31 December 1956, ATC oftlcials had changed their plans, 
partially because the number of foreign students had increased and partiall\ because the command was 
receiving new T-37s earlier than expected. Instead of recommending four bases for closure, A IC only 
identified one-Stallings. Besides Hying training, ATC also was concerned with both the quality and quantity 
of new trainees received. Training was expensive. Retention had become a major problem. First-termers 
accounted for about 70 percent of all enlisted strength; and manv Hrst-termers didn't remain for a second 
term. Instead they were lured away by civilian industry. Ci\ilian industry was ready to recruit those in 
highly technical fields. On the officer side of the house, the Air Force found it equally as difficult to attract 
qualified officer candidates as it did to retain them. 

Lackland built a new hospital in the mid-1950s, later named W ilford Hall I SAl Medical C iniu. ii iLpLKcd 
temporary structures first occupied in .lune 1942. 


(;is ol 3! DccL-inbci- I95(ii 



Alabama-Cruig: Ari/onu-Luke. Marana. and Williams: Calit'(irnia--Malhcr 
and Parks: C:()loradO"Lowry: Florida-Barlow. Graham, and Tsndall: 
Georgia-Bainbridge. Moody, and Spence: Kansas-McConnell: Illinois- 
Chanute and Scott: Mississippi-Greenville and Keeslcr: Missouri-Maiden: 
Nevada-Nellis and Stead; North CaroJina-Slallings: Oklahonia- Vance: 
Tcxas-Amarillo. Bryan, Lllington. Goodfellow. Harlingen. Hondo, James 
Connally. Lackland, Laredo. Laughlin. Moore. Perrin. Randolph. Reese. 
Sheppard. anil \\ ehlr. and Wyoming-Francis E. Warren 



l3y,S3i (I.^.^.W olTiccrs; S(),S()> enlisted: 43,488 

4.179 (B-:.";. B-47, F-84. F-86. 1-89. F-94. F-IOO. 
H- 1 3, H- 1 9. H-2 1 . KC-97. T-28. T-29. T-33, T-34) 




3 training air forces; 
CREW, Randolph AFB TX 

9 combal crew training wings: 

351()th. Randolph AFB TX 
352()th (Med Bomb). McConneil AFB KS 
3525th (Fighter). Williams AFB AZ 
3550th (Interceptor). Moody AFB GA 
3555th (Interceptor), Renin AFB TX 
3595lh (Fighter), Nellis AFB NV 
360()th (Fighter). Luke AFB AZ 
3625th (Interceptor). Tyndall AFB FL 
3635th (Survival). Stead AFB NV 


1 flying training wing: 

3615th. Craig AFB AL 

4 na\ igator training wings: 

3535th, Mather AFB CA 
3565th. James Connally AFB TX 
36()5lh. Ellington AFB TX 
361()lh. Harlingen AFBTX 

5 pilot training wings: 

35()()th (Basic Miilti-Hng), Reese AFB TX 
35()5th (Basic Single-Eng), Greenville AFB 


3530th (Basic Singlc-Eng), Bryan AFB TX 
3545th (Basic Multi-Eng), Goodfellow AFB 

356()th (Basic Single-Eng). Webb AFB TX 
3575th (Basic Mulii-Eng). Vance AFB OK 
364()th (Basic Singlc-Eng), Laredo AFB TX 
3645th (Basic Single-Eng), Laughlin AFB TX 

9 independent pilot training groups (^contraci 

3300th, Graham AB FL 
3301st, Moore ABTX 
3302d. Spence AB. GA 
3303d. Bartow AB FL 
33(Mth. Hondo ABTX 
3305t!i. Maiden AB MO 
3306ih. Bainbridge AB GA 
3307th Marana AB AZ 
3308th, Stallings AB NC 

TECHNICAL, Gulfport MS: 

1 USAF recruiting wing: 

3500th, Wright-Patterson AFB OH 

7 technical training wings: 

331Uth. Scott AFB IL 

3320th. Amarillo AFB TX 

3345th. Chanute AFB IL 

3380th. Keesler AFB MS 

3415th. Lowry AFB CO 

345Uth. Francis E. Warren AFB WY 

3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 

I military training wing: 

3700ih, Lackland AFB TX 
I mobile training wing: 

3499th, Chanute AFB IL 


Lieutenant General Charles T. Myers continued to 
serve as the ATC commander, and Maj Gen Edward 
H. Underbill remained vice commander. 



Sampson AFB, New York 

Air Training Command discontinued its basic 
training school at Sampson AFB on 1 Jul_\ 1956. 
Shortly thereafter. ATC discontinued Sampson's 
3650th Military Training Wing. Three months later, 
on 1 October. Sampson transferred to Air Materiel 

Edward Gary AFB, Texas 

The command inacti\ated Edward Gary AFB on 
14 December 1956. Earlier ATC had discontinued 
the 3585th Flying Training Wing (Liaison- 
Helicopter). For several years the Edward Gary AFB 
had served as a helicopter training school for Air 
Force and Arnn personnel. When the Defense 
Department anmuinced in early 1956 that the Army 
would resume its own aviation instruction. ATC 
moved its helicopter training to other Then for 
a short period o( time late in the year, an army 
contractor used base facilities until Air Training 
Command closed the installation. 




Recruiting Wing Reassigned 

Air Traming Command reassigned its 35(H)th USAF 
Recriiiiini: Wing at Wright-Patterson AFB. Ohio, 
from the headquarters to Teehnical Training Air 
Foree. effective 1 January 1956. The reason for that 
reassignment was because of the new program that 
integrated basic military and basic technical training. 
Between this consolidation and an earlier 
headquarters reduction. .ATC had cut its authorized 
personnel strength by about ! 0.000 spaces. 

3645th Combat Crew Training Wing 

Flvuig Training .Air Force redesignated its .'^645lh 
Combat Crew Training Wing (Fighter) at Laughlin as 
the 3643th Pilot Training Wing (Basic Single- 
Engine), effective 1 January 1956. 

3525th Pilot Training Wing 

An Iramuig Command redesignated the 3525th Pilot 
Training Wing (Basic .Single-Engine) at Williams on 
1 January, h became the 3525th Combat Crew 
Training Wing (Fighter). A month later, on 
1 February 1956. ATC reassigned the 3525th from 
Flying Training Air Force to Crew Training Air 


Randolph had ended all B-29 training; (sh(i>\n 
btldw) b\ Ocloher 1956. sii that space would he 
a\ailablf Id support inconiinji K( -97 combat crew 
trainino. However KC-97 training did not he<:in 
until 29 January 1957. 

Possible Headquarters Move 

Early in the year. USAF officials considered the 
possibility of moving Headquarters .ATC from Scott 
to Randolph: Military .Air Transport Scr\ice from 
Andrews AFB. Mar\land. to Scott; and Headquarters. 
Air Research and Development Command from 
Baltimore, Maryland, to Andrews. However, no 
dellnite decision had been made by year's end. 

DCSIManpower and Organization 

hfleclivc I March. AlC elevated lis manpower and 
organization function to deputy chief of staff level. 


Training Flow 

In l'^54 (Icneial Myers suggested to the I'S.AF that a 
stable flow of airmen in the basic and technical 
courses could be provided if frequent procurement 
changes and lack of operational control and recruiting 
pressures could be eliminated. Headciuarters CSAF 
grantetl that request in December 1954 and provided 
ATC with the annual procurement objective for FY 
56. but in spite of this agreemenl. the Air Staff 
continued to provide ATC with monthly procurement 


US Army Aviation Training 

In mid-April the Departmciii of Detense notified the 
Secretarv of the .Armv antl the Secretar\ of the Air 
Force that the Army wouitl again be responsible for 
conducting aviation training reL|uired in support of 
current Arniv activities. .As a result ol thai 
announcement, in late December ATC transferred 
Edward Garv .AFB. Texas, to the Army for use in 
pilot training. The ,ATC helicopter mechanic courses 
at Edward (iarv moveil to Sheppard. and pilot 
training wciil lo Randolph. 

Williams AFB, Arizona 

On S January 1956. .ATC discontinued the single- 
engine basic pilot school at Williams and replaced it 
with an advanced fighter school. (Williams had 
transferred its single-engine training responsibilities 
to Laughlin in September 1955.) Providing the 
training was the 3525th Combat Crew Training Wing 
(F-is:hter). On the tlrsi of the following month, ATC 
relieved Williams from assignment to Flying 
Training Air Force and assigned it to Crew Training 
Air Force. 



Basic Flying Training 

B\ 1 .luK a\TC'> ri\e single-engine pilot training 
bases— Bryan, Greenville. Laredo. Webb, and 
Laughlin— had phased out T-28s and converted all 
training to the T-33. 

McConnell on 5 November. Two flights were 
scheduled each month, one from Randolph and one 

from McConnell. 


Observer Training 

All four ATC observer schools— Ellington, Harlingen. 
James Connally. and Mather— were redesignated as 
USAF Navigator Schools on 15 September. Effective 
15 November 1956, HQ USAF directed the term 
navigator be substituted in all cases for observer or 
aircraft observer. That directive resulted in the 
redesignation of ATC's four observer training wings 
as navigator training wings. 

Navigational Proficiency Flights 

Willi the assigniiK'iU of B-47 and KC-97 crew 
training to support Strategic Air Command. ATC 
asked Headquarters USAF for permission to conduct 
continuatit)n training of navigator instructors in 
overwater navigation. The Air Staff agreed, and the 
first night, a T-29 to Ramev AFB. Puerto Rico, left 

Changes in Technical Training 

Air Training Command began new instructional 
programs for the semiautomatic ground environment 
(SAGE) defense system, guided missiles, and field 
training. It would be through the SAGE system that 
the Air Force entered the age of computers. Prior to 
SAGE, radar systems operated manually. Beginning 
in 1953. the Air Force contracted with Western 
Electric Corporation to develop a semiautomatic 
system. That system was created at Lincoln 
Laboratory. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
The first training took place at the laboratory 
beginning in 1956. Not long after, ATC moved 
operations training to Richards-Gebaur AFB in 
Missouri and located maintenance instruction at 

An insti uclor provides hands-on training for students in a flight training devices course at ( hanute AFB. 



Aviation cadets at Ellington AFB, Texas, i.ikc part in a 42-«L't'k na\iuaiiipii muisi. which iiKludid ISii hours 
of in-flight training. 

Instructor Ratio 

The manpower costs of providing technical training 
continued to climb, even though ATC had managed 
to reduce its student-instructor ratio from 2 students 
to I instructor down to 2.9 to 1. At mid-year. 
DCS/Manpower and Organization suggested estab- 
lishing a required ratio of 4 to I for all technical 
training groups. 

Project Big Triangle 

While ATC carried a high instructor ratio for the first 
half of the year, it was a false reading. Most 
instructors were only marginally c|ualified. primarily 
because ATC" had taken gradualcs directly out of 
technical school and assigned ihcm lo msiructor duty. 
They had no practical experience. The An Force 
needed these individuals to fill combat positions, 
while ATC needed more skilled airmen to fill 
instructor jobs. So, in ,lul\ ihc Air force initiated 
Project Big Triangle, a program that transferred 
experienced airmen direct from overseas assignments 
lo instructor positions. However, the program was 
only in existence for a short period of time, because 
of the success of Project Home Front. Under Home 
Front, a large number of insiructor jobs vsere filled by 
civilians. In addition, the .Air Force stabilized military 

insiructor Uniis lor two years in scarce skills and 
three vears in all others. All of these efforts improsed 
ihe insiruclor manning situation in .ATC. 

Guided Missiles 

In lale ly.'i^. I'lesidenl Dwighi D. Fiscnhower 
approved recommendations of the National Security 
Council to research and develop an iniercontinenlal 
ballistic missile program. .At the same time, all ot the 
services were preparing plans for their individual 
missile programs. In the Air Force, training 
responsibility remained with ATC. Lowry and 
Keesler developed the First general courses in I9.'if), 
and plans called for other courses to open at Chanute 
in l')57. Amarillo in 1M>S. and Sheppard in 1959. 

Career Field Terminology Changed 

Beginning in Juls. the .Air Force ilisconlinueil the use 
of the terms hard core and soil core v\hen describing 
career Fields. Instead, career fields were di\ieled into 
lour classes: highly technical, technical, seini- 
icchnical. anti non-technical. 





Parks Training Transferred 

On 21 Ni)vembcr Air Training Command discon- 
tinued the basic military and air defense schools at 
Parks. By year's end. ATC also had discontinued the 
3275th Military Training Wing at Parks. That left the 
command with a single installation providing basic 
military instruction — Lackland. Originally. ATC had 
intended to move air defense training to Lackland, 
but an April 1956 study had found that Lackland did 
not ha\'e enough space to support such a program. 

Project Home Front 

As the Air Force neared its goal of establishing 137 
wings, it became more difficult to find military 
personnel to fill positions. In an effort to work around 
this problem, the Air Force decided to convert a 
number of military jobs to civilian. By putting 
civilians in certain positions, military personnel 
would then be available for assignment to combat 
units. In ATC officials identified almost 15.500 
military positions to be filled by civilians. 

Students in the aerial photography course at Lowry .\FB, Colorado, familiarize themselves with the 
equipment used in aerial ph(>tomappin<>. 



In fiscal >c'ar 1958. the Air Force reduced its traininj; budjiet l)> S75 million. To operate under such 
circumstances, A I C initiated an K.conom\ Resources I'roiiram. For example, at ( hanute (iHlcials instituted a 
ci\ilian hirinj; free/e. reduced civilian authorizations l)\ 259, decreased overtime b> 94 percent, sliced I l)N 
travel bv 6(1 percent, and reduced lransportatit)n costs bv 10 percent. At Keesler, almost halt' of the training 
equipment in the bud<;et was put on hold. In addition, all of the technical training centers cut back an the 
number of special training courses offered. Overall, lechnical Training Air force generated about SS million 
in savings. FIving Training Air Force reduced living hours and dropped its pilot and navigaloi training rates. 
It was able to do that because in August 1957 the Air Force had lowered its new pilot training rate to 2.700 
per year. In addition, the command projected a large savings from the consolidation of ( rew and FIving 
Training Air Forces and the movement of ATC headquarters from Scott to Randolph. Alter vears of talking. 
the Air Staff had approved these changes. By the end of the year. Congress had loosened its purse strings, 
primarily in response to the tremendous scientific advances that had taken place in the Soviet I nion in 1957. 
specifically the space race and the successful launching of Sputnik 1. 


(as ol 3i Dcccmhci l'^>?7) 



2 Iraining air forces: 
FLYING. Randolph AFB TX 

1 n> ing training wing: 
3615th. Craig AFB AL 

7 pildt trainini! wings: 


Alabama— Craig; Ari/mia- 
Colorado-Lowry: Florida- 
Moody, and Spencc: 
Mississippi— Greeinille 

-Luke and Williams; Cahtoinia--Malher: 

-Barlow and Graham; Georgia— Bainbridge, 

Kansas-McConnell; lilinois-Chanuie: 

and Keesler; Missouri--Maiden; 

350()th (Basic Mulli Hng). Reese AFB TX 
35()5th (Basic Simile Fns:). Greenville AFB 



35.3()lh (Basic Single Fng). Bryan AFB TX 
354.'^th (Basic Multi Hng). Goodleliow AFB 

35W)lh (Basic Single Fng). Wehh AFB TX 
357.'Sth (Basic Mulli-Fng), Vance AFB OK 

Nevada-Nellis and Stead; Oklahoma-Vance; Texas--Aniarillo. Bryan. 
Ellington. Gootlfellovv. Harlingen. Hondo. James Connally. Lackland. 
Laredo. Moore. Perrin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb; and 
W'yoming--Francis F. Warren 

1 13.279 ( 12.X()S otTicers; 6S.,S17 enlisted; 3 L6.';4 civilians) 

3.783 (B-2.S. B-47. C-.^4. F-84. F-Sft. F-89. F-l()(). 11 13. 11 1'^. II 21, 
KC-y7. T-28. T-2y. T-33. T-.34. T-37) 


364Uih (Basic Single Fng). Laredo .\FB TX 
4 na\ isialor irainint; wings: 

3.'S3.'ith. Mather AFB CA 
356.'>lh. .lames Connally AFB TX 
36().'^ih, I'llinglon AFB I'X 
361()lh. Harlingen Al H IX 

8 combat crew training wings: 

3.^10(11. Randolph Al B IX 
.3.'^20lh (Med Bomb). McConnell AFB KS 
3525lh (Fighter). Williams AFB AZ 
3.'^.'^0th (Interceptor). Mood> AFB (iA 
?>55f>ih (Inlerceplor). Perrin AFB TX 
3.'i9.Sih (lighter). Nellis AFB NV 
36()()th (Fighter). Luke AFB AZ 



Between July and October 1957, ATC transferred its headquarters from Scott AFB, Illinois, to Randolph 
AFB, Texas. The new headquarters was located in Building 900, which originally served as the aviation cadet 
administration building and more recently was home to the Crew Training Air Force. 

combat crew training wings (contd) 

3635th (Survival), Stead AFB NV 

1 independent combat crew training group: 

3623th (Aircraft Controller). Tyndall AFB FL 

7 independent pilot training groups (contract 

3300th. Graham AB FL 
3301st. Moore ABTX 
3302d. Spence AB GA 
3303d, Bartow AB FL 
33()4th. Hondo AB TX 
33()5th. Maiden AB MO 
3306lh. Bainbridge AB GA 


I lield training wing: 

3499th. Chanute AFB IL 

1 military training wing: 

370()th. Lackland AFB TX 

7 technical training wings: 

3310th, Scott AFB IL 
3320th, Amarillo AFB TX 
3343ih. Chanute AFB IL 
3380lh. Keesler AFB MS 
3415th. Lowry AFB CO 
3450ih. F.l£. Warren AFB WY 
3750;; Sheppard AFB TX ' 

I USAF recruiting wing: 

3500th, Wright-Patterson AFB OH 


Lieutenant General Charles T. Myers continued as 
the Commander, Air Training Command. Effective 
20 April 1957. Maj Gen Henry R. Spicer replaced 
Maj Gen Edward H. Underbill as ATC vice 
commander. Underbill became Commander of 
Eastern Air Defense Force and Continental Air 
Defense Force, Eastern Continental Air Defense 
Region. Then on I July 1957, General Spicer became 
the Flying Training Air Force (Advance) commander. 
Succeeding him as the ATC vice commander was 
Maj Gen Carl A. Brandt, who had been Commander 
of Technical Training; .'\ir Force. 


Project New Home 

For almost two years. ATC officials tried to convince 
the Air Staff that Randolph would make a belter 
command headquarters because it was located closer 
to ATC's major installations. However, politics kept 
the Air Staff from appro\ ing such a move. Then in 
June 1957, the Air Staff reversed itself, approving the 
ATC move to Randolph. While Scott AFB lost ATC. 
it gained Headquarters, Military Air Transport 
Service; Air Weather Service; and Airways and Air 
Communications Service. The ATC move took place 
between July and October. On I August 1957. 
Headquarters ATC (Ad\ance) came into being at 



Randolph. Headquarters ATC (Rear) vsas esiahlished 
at the same lime at Scott and discontinued on 
30 September. Effective I October, control o\' Scott 
AFB transferred from ATC to MATS. By the end ol' 
the year, all technical training courses at Scott either 
had moved or were in the process of moving to other 
ATC bases. Most went to Keesler and Lackland. 

also had transferred to Air Defense Command. Also 
on I July. ATC discontinued the 362.^lh Combat 
Crew Training Wing (Interceptor) at Tyndall. The 
only remaining ATC assets at Tyndall were the 
362.'Sth Combat Crew Training Group (Aircraft 
Controller) and its subordinate units. 


After months of discussion. ATC decided to combine 
all Hying and crew training responsibilities under a 
single headquarters. Effective I July 1957, the 
command discontinued Crew Training Air Force at 
Randolph and transferred its mission, personnel, and 
assets to Flying Training Air Force. Eight wings and 
one independent group were included in that move; 
the 332.'ith. 35':)5th. and 36()()th Combat Crew 
Training Wings (Fighter); the 352()th CCTW 
(Medium Bombardment); the 3.5.'i()th and 333.5th 
Combat Crew Training Wings (Interceptor); the 
3310th CCTW: the 3635th CCTW (Survival): and the 
3625th Combat Crew Training Group (Aircraft 
Controller). The command established Headquarters 
FTAF (Advance) at Randolph on the same day. 
Between July and October, Flying Training Air Force 
relocated its headquarters t>om Waco to Randolph. 

3499th Field Training Wing 

i:ilccli\e 24 June 1937. ATC discontinued the 
34Wth Mobile Training Wing and aclivated the 
3499th Field Traming Wing at Chanute. The new 
wing operated the command's extensive field training 


Laughlin AFB, Texas 

One of .AlC's basic pilot training installations. 
Laughlin graduated its final pilot training class on 
27 April. Jurisdiction of the base passed from ATC to 
SAC on I April, and ATC inactivated its basic pilot 
school on 15 May. 

Parks AFB, California 

Parks AFB disconlinuetl all trainmg in lale 1956. On 
1 January 1937. AI'C iransferrctl Parks to Contin- 
ental Air Command. 

Tyndall AFB, Florida 

Inlcrccpior jnliH Iraunng cndctl at f>ndall on 20 June 
1957. Less that two weeks later, on 1 Jul\. ATC 
transferred control of the base to Au Defense 
Command. Loss of lyndall meant the transfer of 
navigator radar intercept training to James Connally 
AFB in Texas. Tyndall's F-86Ds moved to Moody. 
Moody sent its F-89Ds to James Connally, and James 
Connally gave its F-94Cs to the Air National Guard. 
Tyndall kept the interceptor weapons school, which 

M^ J I 

The group commander at Bainbrid^e AB, Georgia, 
Lt Col E. L. Masters, and M. W. Davis, General 
Manager, Southern Airways School, stand with 2Lt 
T. W. Beaghen foNowing his first flight in the T-37 
jet trainer on IX .luly 1957. Ihis flight was part of 
Project Palm-the suitability testing of the 1-37. 


Primary Flying Training 

In April 1957 AI'C proposed that contract Hying 
training schools at Marana and Stallings be closed. 
The Secretary of the Air Force approved the 
recommendation. On 2 September ATC discontinued 
the 3307th Pilot Training Group at Marana. and on 
1 October it discontinued the 3.^0Sih Pilot Training 
Group at Stallings. This left ATC with seven contract 
groups still providing primary pilot training. 


Field Training 

On 6 March 1937. after a lengthy test, the Air Force 
appro\cd establishment of a new field training 
program under the control of .ATC. The field test 
conducted in 1956 had proved highly successful. It 
showed that ATC could cut training costs, increase 
productivity of nrst-termers. and still maintain 
training quality. By establishing Held training det- 
achments (I'll)) to provide hands-on training. ATC 
also hllcd ihc heavy burden of OJT from the user. 



A flight instructor at Randolph AFB, Texas, uses a simulator to explain the operation of a KC-97 aircraft 
to an aircrew member. 

Unforturiiilely. ATC had lo delay implementation 
until sutTieicnt personnel were available tor 
assignment to the FTDs. In July ATC organized the 
first of its planned 70 FTDs. By the time all 
detachments were in operation in 1958. ATC had 32 
in SAC, 18 in TAC, and 20 in ADC. If these proved 
successful, then consideration would be given to 
adding FfDs to other commands 

McCormick Board 

In 1957 Technical Training Air Force formed a base 
utilization board to examine all TTAF facilities, 
looking at existing and future training requirements. 
That board concluded that two bases could be 
released-Francis E. Warren in V\)(iming and Scott in 
Illinois. The Wyoming base had a number of strikes 
against it, including poor weather conditions that 
limited training to seven months of the year, lack of a 
flying field, and many inadequate buildings. Board 
members also considered Scott supertluous. because 
Keesler had the facilities available to absorb Scott's 
communications training, and Lackland had the 
capability to absorb Scott's personnel training 
program. For political reasons, the .Mr Force made no 
recommendations for closing either base, but by 
year's end. Air Training Command had closed most 
of its operation at Scott and transferred the base to 
Military Air Transport Ser^Mce. 


Changes in BMT 

In 1957 basic militar\ training was an 11-week, two- 
phase program. .'Ml male, non-prior service personnel 
selected for technical training were scheduled to 
complete four weeks of BMT at Lackland and the 
remaining seven weeks at a technical training center. 
Female airman and others not selected for technical 
training took the entire basic military training course 
at Lackland. The most significant change to take 
place in the BMT program in 1957 was the decision 
to use experienced noncommissioned officers as 
BMT instructors, rather than continuing the practice 
of Using recent graduates. This change came about as 
the result ol an inspection, which had found that 
many of the program's shortcomings were 
altributeable to immature instructors, who had not 
developed the leadership skills needed to fill such 

Marksmanship Center 

Etiective I December 1957. ATC established a 
USAF Marksmanship Center at Lackland and 
assigned it to the .^7{)()th Military Training Wing. The 
school was established in response to a USAF 
directive to place greater emphasis on small arms 


These iiidbilc triiinin^ unit 
iiistrtictoi's prcpiiif a mock-up 
of the \N/AI(;-3() radar lo In- 
used in cdnduelin'i trainin<^ on 
the I-S4(.. 


Massive Facilities Upgrade Needed 

In Ncneiiiber 1957 Headquarters USAF sent a survey 
team to the field to \ iew firsthand the effects of 
reduced spending in training. Officials in Air 
Training Command were especiail\ concerned about 
facilities. Less than 20 percent of the buildings (2,467 

out of I. ■^.117) on ATC bases were of permanent 
construction. The a\erage age of ATC bases was 20 
years. Just to bring 2.^ ATC bases-- IS in 1-lying 
Training Aw Force and 7 in Technical Training Air 
Force--up to prescribed Air Force standards was 
estimated to cost over .$892 million--more than the 
cunent value ($667.4 million) of those 25 bases. In 
ATC's opinion, the best way to deal with the problem 
was to reduce the luuiiber of actise bases. 

As part of their indoctrination 
into the Air Force, new VV.\F 
officers in the Officer Basic 
Mililar> ( ourse at Lackland 
.AFB, Texas, receive lessons in 
personalilx development. 





Over the years a story has made the rtninds about a 
disastrous hailstorm at Reese AFB in the late 1950s that 
so decimated the B-25s used in multi-engine training 
that the Air Force decided to switch to a single-track 
generalized UPT program. Despite the staying power of 
this tale, there is no documented link between the 
hailstorm and the decision to move from specialized 
dual-track training to generalized UPT. 

A haiisiorm did strike Reese on the afternoon of 
Friday, 24 May 1957. For six long minutes, hailstones 
two to three inches in diameter pelted the B-25s parked 
on the ramp and damaged 84 aircraft. Among the items 
damaged were 168 control surfaces and 156 window and 
windshield panels. 

To help the wing fix the B-25s. the San Bernadino 
Air Materiel Area at Norton AFB, California, dispatched 
a C-124 with the Air Material Area's entire supply of 
control surfaces. Additionally. Reese's C-47 picked up 
more control surfaces from Vance and Goodfellow. 
Throughout the weekend. Reese personnel, both civilian 
and military, worked almost around the clock patching 
and installing ct)ntrol surfaces, and forming, trimming, 
and installing windows and windshield panels (using all 
the plexiglass on base, including some taken off desk 
tops and wall charts. By Monday morning most of the 
aircraft had been repaired, and the wing was only one 

sortie short of meeting its flying commitment for the 

Although the hailstorm severely damaged Reese's B- 
25s. the decision to switch from specialized to 
generalized UPT was made long before the storm hit. 
Air Training Command had hoped to acquire a 
conventional multi-engine aircraft to replace the B-25, 
but the Department of Defense deleted funds for that from the FY 54 budget because of the high cost 
involved. By May 1956 ATC had decided to phase out 
the B-25 and rely exclusively on the T-33 in the basic 
phase of UPT. 

Plans called for Vance to begin the conversion to 
single-engine training in October 1957 and complete it 
in March 1958. Reese was to begin converting to the 
T-33 in September 1958 and Goodfellow was to follow 
suit in late 1959 or early I960. Vance completed the 
conversion as scheduled and began single-engine 
training on a full-time basis on 1 April 1958. 
Goodfellow never got to offer single-engine training; the 
last B-25 class graduated on 15 August 1958. Shortly 
thereafter, on I October 1958, the base transfeixed from 
ATC to the USAF Security Service. Multi-engine 
training at Reese came to a close with the graduation of 
the last B-25 class on 24 January 1959. 



By the end of 1957. ATC basing structure had ehanjjed eonsiderahly as the result of taetical eommitmenls, 
decreased student h)ad, and fund shorta<jes. Iwo primarx contract schools had closed, and three other bases 
transferred to other commands. During 1958 AFC discontinued its I l>in<; rrainin<; and lechnical Irainin}; 
Air Forces: transferred Francis F'.. Warren and McConnell to Strale^jic Air Command; F"llin<;ton to 
Continental Air Command; and F.ukc. W illiams, and Nellis to Tactical Air C ommand. .lust the losses to SAC 
and TAC cost AFC 762 aircraft. 1 hese reassi<;nments came about as the result of a ISAI -directed stud> of 
the feasibility of putting all combat view trainin<i under the appropriate /one of interior operational 
commands. Already, SAC had sole responsibility for tanker and bomber courses. From the results of the 
study, the I SAF directed the transfer of tanker and bomber training to SAC but left interceptor, helicopter, 
and survival training in ATC. Effective 1 .July, the Air Staff passed the lighter training program to FAC . Also 
on 1 July, the traveling instructor teams responsible for nuclear weapons delivery training and delivery 
training material for fighter, interceptor, and bimiber weapons systems were reassigned to appropriate 
stateside commands. 


las ol 31 December 145S) 



Alabania-Craig: Calit'oniia--Mather: C(ilorad()--Lt)vvry: Florida-- 
Bartow and Graham; Georgia--Bainbiidge. Mood\. and Spence; 
Illinois-Chanute; Mississippi-Greenville and Keesler: Missouri- 
Maiden: Nevada-Stead: Oklahoma-Vance: Texas-Amarillo. 
Harlingen. James ConnaJly. Laekiand. Laredo. Moore. Perrin. 
Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. Webb 


87.396 (y.4.-^!S olhcers; }3'^) warrant olTieers; 53,574 
enlisted; 24.025 civilians) 


2.802 (B-25, C/VC-45. C/VC-47, CrVC-54. C-119. 
C-123, C-131, F-86, F-89. H-13. H-19. H-21. T-28, 
T-29. T-33. T-.34. T-37. U-3) 


1 fieiii training u ing: 

.3499th. ChannleAIH IL 

5 rising training wings: 

3510th. Randolph AFBTX 

355()th (Advanced Interceptor). Moody AFB GA 

3555th (Advanced Interceptor). I'errin AFB TX 

3615th (Basic). Craig AFB AL 

3635th (Advanced). Stead AFB NV 

I militars training w ing: 

37()0th. Lackland AFB TX 

Fledgling aviation cadets and student pilots 
participate in flight training on the simulated 
parachute jiiini) rig at I ackland MB. levas. 



3 navigator training wings: 

3535lh. Mather AFB CA 
3565th. James Connally AFB TX 
3Ai()th. Hariingen AFB TX 

5 pilot training w ings: 

35()()ih (Basic). Reese AFB TX 
3505th (Basic). Greenville AFB MS 
3560th (Basic), Webb AFB TX 
3575lh (Basic). Vance AFB OK 
3640th (Basic). Laredo AFB TX 

5 technical (raining wings: 

3320th. Amarillo AFB TX 
3345th. Chanute AFB IL 
3380th. Keesler AFB MS 
3415th. Lowry AFB CO 
3750th. Sheppard AFB TX 

I USAF recruiting wing: 

3500th. Wright-Patterson AFB OH 
3 independent groups or group equivalents: 

3450th Technical Training Group. F.E. Warren 


3545th USAF Hospital. Goodtellow AFB TX 
3625th Technical Training Group (Weapons 

Controller). Tyndall AFB FL 

6 pilot training groups (contract primary): 

3300th. Graham AB FL 
3301st. Moore ABTX 
3302d. Spence AB GA 
3303d. Bartow AB FL 
3305th. Maiden AB MO 
3306th. Bainbridge AB GA 


l,t Frederic H. 
Smith. Jr. 

At the end of July. Lt 
Gen Charles T. Myers 
retired as Commander. 
Air Training Command. 
Named as his replace- 
ment was Li Gen 
Frederic H. Smith. Jr.. 
Commander. Fifth Air 
Force. General Smith 
assumed command on 
1 August 1958. Major 
General Brandt con- 
tinued to serve as vice 


Headquarters Consolidation 

In January 1958 Air Training Command announced 
that it would consolidate its headquarters with Flying 
Training and Technical Training Air Forces. By 
merging the three. ATC estimated it wnuld save 
almost S5.6 million in operating costs and reduce 
headquarters manning by 780 authorizations. 
Effective I April. Flying Training Air Force ceased 
to exist. Technical Training Air Force closed on 
I June. All assets transferred directly to Headquarters 
ATC. Both of these air forces had served .\TC since 


Ellington AFB, Texas 

The Air Force directed ATC to transfer Ellington to 
Continental Air Command on 1 .-Xpril 1958. With the 
termination of na\igator training at Ellington. ATC 
no longer had a need for this base. 

Hondo Air Base, Texas 

Another contract primary pilot training school closed 
in 1958. Air Training Command discontinued its 
3304th Pilot Training Group at Hondo on 1 July. 
Training had stopped on 30 June, and ATC released 
the base on 3 1 October. 

Stead Unit Renamed 

.Air Training Command redesignated the 3635th 
Combat Crew Training Wing at Stead on 15 Jul\. Il 
became the 3635th Flying Training Wing (Ad- 
vanced). The reason for the redesignation was 
because helicopter pilot training had transferred from 
Randolph to Stead, and the 3635th had become 
responsible for that training, as well as operation ot 
the sur\ ival school. 

Bryan AFB, Texas 

Basic single-engine training ended at Bryan on 
1 2 June. The command discontinued Bryan's 3530th 
Pilot Training Wing on 25 October and placed the 
base on inacti\e status until it transferred to .Mr 
Materiel Command on 1 .April 1960. 

Francis E. Warren AFB, Wyoming 

Xu franinig Command linall\ rcccned permission 
trom Headquarters USAF to phase out its training 



piogranib at Francis E. Warren AFB. Effective 
1 February 1958. the base transferred from Air 
Training Comnuiiid to Strategic Air Conunand. 
Sheppard AFB gained coniminiications iiperations. 
wire maintenance, and utilities courses. Aircraft and 
engine maintenance training went lo ("hanute. ;uui 
Amariilo took administrati\e aiKJ sLippl\ iraming. 

Goodfellow Transfer 

Basic pdol liamnig ended at ("modfeiiow in 
September. On 1 October .-^ir Training Command 
transferred the base to the US.'XF Security Ser\ice. 
The only active ATC unit remaining on Goodfellow 
,AFB was the 3545th USAF Hospital. It continued to 
ser\'e the base until its inactixation on .>() .lune 1471. 

Combat Crew Reassignments 

Etfecti\e I July. A TC passed jurisdiction of four of 
its bases to SAC and TAC. McConnell AFB in 
Kansas became a S.AC asset, while Williams and 
Luke in .Ari/i)na. and Nellis in Nevada went to 
Tactical An Command. 


3510th Redesignated 

On Nunc .ATC redesignated the .v'ilOth Combat 
Crew Training Wing at Randolph AFB as the 3510th 
FIving Training Wing. The w ing pro\ ided jet 
qualification training. 

Interceptor Wings Redesignated 

Ihe command renamed two ol its interceptor uings-- 
the 3550th and 3555th Combat Crew Training Wings 
(Interceptor)--on 15 August. They became the 3550th 
and 3555th Flying Training Wings (Advanced 

Pilot Training Wings 

All of ATC's basic (multi- and single-engine) pilot 
training wings changed designations on I September, 
becoming pilot training wings (basic). The change 
came about when ,\TC decideil lo close its 
multi-engine program. 


Internal Headquarters Reorganization 

.After assuming command ol .AlC. Lt Gen Frederic 
H. Smith orilered an in-depth study of the head- 
quarters structure-particularK. the huge Deputy 
Chief o( Staff (DCS). Plans and Operations. General 
Smith also wanted to elevate technical and Hying 
training directors to DCS le\el; to reduce 
DCS/Maiipower and Organization lo directorate 
level: and to create a new DCS/Plans. Programs, and 
Operations Services. Based on (he studs and General 
Smith's directives. Air Training Command submiited 
a proposal tt) Headquarters USAF to reorganize the 
headquarters. The Air Staff apprined the plan, and by 
year's end. .ATC had three DCS-le\el organizations: 
flying training: technical training: and plans, 
programs, and operations ser\ ices. 

At right, the flight commander (if Ihe 35(>7ih 
Naxigator I raining Squadron. .James ( onnall> 
,\FB. Texas, uses a iie« astrononiiial triangle 
to brief celestial navigation instiiictors. \n\ 
portion ol Ihe heavens could l)e projected on 
Ihe ceiling of Ihe Spit/ planelarium at .lames 
( onnalh IbrsludN l)\ lun igation sliidenls. 

Weapons Controller 

As ground-conirollcd interception s\ stems became 
more complex, the Air Force realized separate career 
fields were needed-one for aircraft controllers 
directing airborne intercepts and the other for those 
concerned only with air traffic control. The new 
career field, established in August 1958. was called 
weapons controller. For that reason, on 15 August 
ATC discontinued the 3625th Combat Crew Training 
Group (Aircraft Controller) at Tyndall and 
concurrently organized the 3625th Technical 
Training Group (Weapons Controller I. 


Fighter Weapons School 

The command IkkI suspended liaunng at its Nellis- 
based fighter weapons school in late 1956. The 
reason for the suspension was because of the almost 
total failure of the F-86 aircraft used at Nellis. The 
school was to have received F-l()()s in FY58. Instead, 
those aircraft went to tactical units. In January 1957 
the ATC commander told the Air Force chief of staff 




Pilots received rescue sling instruction using the H-5 helicopter during survival training. 

Like the shutlleeoek in a budininton game, 
helicopter pilot training had been batted back and 
forth over the years, from base to base and service to 
service. The Army Air Forces Training Command 
(AAFTC) initiated helicopter training at Freeman 
Field, Indiana, in June 1944. Six months later 
AAFTC moved the training to Chanute Field, Illinois, 
so it could consolidate the tlying training operation 
with helicopter mechanic training. Helicopter pilot 
training remained at Chanute until 1 June 194.^ when 
it transferred to Sheppard Field. Texas. A year later, 
on .^1 May 1946, it moved yet again--to San Marcos 
Field. Texas. 

in (lie years after the war. ihc lielico|ilcr training 
pipeline slowed to a trickle. Army Ciround Forces 
had a small contingent of helicopter pilots, but 
training for any additional pilots stopped altogether in 
July 1946. When the Air Force became a separate 
service in September 1947, it reestablished helicopter 
training for the Army and collocated it w iih ,\u- Force 
training at San Marcos. There it remained until 1 
March 1949 when ATC moved the course to James 
f"nnnally AFB, Texas. 

Korean War generated more than a tenfold 
Vrmy requirements. Because San Marcos 

had access to a number of small auxiliary fields and 
was located in the midst of rough terrain 
approximating that of Korea. ATC decided to return 
helicopter training to San Marcos. At the same time, 
since the preponderance of pilots in training were 
Army students, the Army made a bid to take over its 
own helicopter training, so it could tailor the course to 
better suit its requirements. However, responsibility 
for providing that training remained with the Air 
Force throughout the war. It was not until 1956 that 
DOD gave the Army appro\al to train helicopter 
pilots. To accommodate the transfer of training, the 
Air Force also gave the Army two Texas bases— 
Wolters in July 19.56 and Edward Gary (formerly San 
Marcos) in December 19.56. 

Before transferring Edward Gary, the Air Force 
relocated its helicopter training program to Randolph. 
Two years later ATC mo\ ed the school to Stead AFB, 
Nevada, to take advantage of the varying conditions 
that location offered— desert, water, snow, mountains, 
and high altitude. Stead was also the site of the Air 
Force's sur\ival school, and the collocation of the 
schools presented opportunities for invaluable 
collateral training. 

From the bciiinnins:. the .Air Force had restricted 


entr\ into hclicuptcr liainiiii: lo those who were alreads 
rated pilots. This approacli meant a helicopter student 
pilot spent 17 months in flying training. That changed 
in July 1964 when the Air Force instiUited the 
Undergraduate Pik)t Training (Helicopter) program 
which consisted of 26 weeks of instruction in T-28 
fixed-wing aircraft and 21 weeks in H-19 and H-21 
helicopters. This UPT helicopter program remained in 
effect until July 1967 when the Air Force again decided 
that all helicopter students had to he graduates of the 
standard undergraduate pilot training program. In the 
meanwhile, helicopter training moved from Stead AFB 
in Nevada (which was closing) to Sheppard AFB. Texas, 
early in 1966. 

As the war in Vietnam droned on. it became clear 
that the Army had assumed the dominant role in the 
employment of helicopters. In December 1969. the 
Department of Defense directed the Air Force and Navy 
to abandon their practice of requiring helicopter pilots to 
have first completed fixed-wing UPT. As it so frequent- 
ly did. the Navy went its own way. The Army agreed to 
provide undergraduate helicopter pilot training for the 
Air Force in a two-phase program: the first phase wciuld 
be at Fort Wolters. Texas, and Fort Rucker. Alabama. 
would conduct the second phase. Students received 
their wings upon completion of the training at Fort 

In 1973 the Army closed Fort Wolters and 
consolidated both phases of helicopter pilot training at 
Fort Rucker. For the next several years the Air Force 
sent first assignment instructor pilots, other instructor 
pilots, and recent UPT graduates with banked 
assignments through the Army's Rotarv Wing Qual- 
ification course to meet its modest requirements. 

that the only way ATC could continue to operate the 
school was if the Air Force would agree to provide 
first-line aircraft on a timely basis. If that couldn't be 
agreed upon, then ATC felt the school mission should 
be handed to TAC. In December USAF officials 
announced that TAC would assume responsibility for 
the fighter weapons school, which it did on 
I February \95X. 

Advanced Flying Training 

When the Air Force transferred tanker and bomber 
training to Strategic Air Command and fighter 
training to Tactical Air Command. ATC found itself 
with a much smaller advanced flying training 
program. /\ll that was left was interceptor training at 
Moody and Perrin. helicopter and survival training at 
Stead, weapons controller instruction at Tyndall. and 
jet qualification and flight surgeon indoctrination 
training at Randolph. Jet qualification training had 
been taught at Craig, but b\ moving it to Randolph, 




During the late 1940s and early 1950s. .\TC 
conducted helicopter pilot training at James 
Connally AFB in lexas. 

The .Army continued to pio\ ide training at Fort 
Rucker until late in 2001. when it decided lo retire the 
UH-IH. The ."Mr Force chose to upgrade a portion of 
these aircraft and adopt a new. independent training 
program to meet the needs iif its pilots. 

Air Tranimg Command was able to tree Ciaig lor 
basic pilot training and close Bryan. 

Multi-Engine Training 

Goodfellow and Reese were the last two bases to 
offer multi-engine pilot training. On 1 October ATC 
closed its Goodfellow school and handed jurisdiction 
of that base to the USAF Security Service. At about 
the same time, the .3300th Pilot Training Wing at 
Reese changed its mission from mulli- to single- 
engine training: howe\er. it was early I9.'>9 before 
Reese completed multi-engine training and 
concentrated solely on single-engine jet training. 

Nuclear Weapons Training 
Beginning on I January. Air Training Command 
consolidated all of its nuclear weapons delivery 
training at McConnell. Courses at Randolph 
transferred. Other nuclear weapons training con- 
linueil al I.owrv and Kidland. 



I '^ ■ill I I I I I 

' I i I Ml I 

* u 

Basic military trainees practice on the firing range at Lackland AFB. Texas. 

Helicopter Pilot Training 

At Randolph trainers had divided the hehcopter 
course into three stages: H-I3s. H-19s. and H-2ls. In 
January 1958 ATC added a fourth phase—operational 
flying at Stead using the H-i9. At the same time. 
ATC proposed to the Air Start' that ail helicopter pilot 
training be moved to Stead AFB in Nevada. If that 
happened. Randolph could assume a jet tlNing 
mission. The .-Xir Staff approved the mo\e. and on 
I Jul) .\ir Training Command discontinued the 
Randoliih school and. concurrently, established a new 
helicopter pilot school at Stead ,\FB. The H-l.^s were 
retired to Davis-Monthan .AFB in .Arizona, while all 
the H-19s and H-21s moved to Stead. The new 
school was collocated with the survival school. 

T-37s in Primary Training 

Baiiibridge was the first primar_\ pilot training base to 
begin using T-.^7s. The first class trained with a 
combination of T-34s and T-.37s was Class 59-9, 
beginning 2 1 January 1958. 


Using Television in the Classroom 

LovwA was ilic first technical liaiiung base to study 
the po'^'iibility of using television in the classroom. 

The first telex ised training program began in 1958 for 
bomber na\ igalion systems. 

USAF Sentry Dog Program 

In early 1957 the Army announced that it would close 
its dog training school at Fort Carson, Colorado. The 
Air Force established similar training at Lackland in 
FY 58. One of the first courses was set up to train air 
policemen as sentry dog handlers. It began on 
8 October. 


Marksmanship Center 

By carl) Januar), Lackland had seemed instructors 
and equipment for its new marksmanship center, but 
no acceptable training site had been located. The 
department of the .Arm) had refused .ATC's request 
to transfer Camp Stanley to the Air Force. So, 
Lackland officials began looking at other options, 
such as acqiuring property on Leon Springs 
Reser\ation. which encompassed Camp Stanley and 
Camp Bullis. Also being studied were sites in the 
vicinity of Hondo. 



A major change in llight trainin<; occurri'cl in I'^S') \\lH'n the I'SAK shifted from spcciali/i'd to <;(.'ncrali/c'd 
trainin<;. Rather than select students for either sin;;le-enf;ine or multi-en<;ine training, each pilot no\> went 
through the same trainin<; and «as considered uni\ersall\ assi<;nahle. As part of the ehanjie, the Air j-orce 
decided to end contract primar\ traininu and establish an iinder<;raduate pilot training program. usin<j 
niilitarx instructors throu<;hout. B\ \car's end. the Air Force had h)\>ered its pilot production ^oal from 2.2(t() 
to 1.5110. At the same time, the Air Force decided it no lon>^er needed aviation cadets in pilot traininj;. Also 
during the second half of the year. C ongress le\ied deep budgetary and manpower cuts on the Air Force. The 
service's solution was to reduce all headquarters structures from 10-20 percent. In A l( those savings were 
made by abolishing the materiel function at each of the technical training centers and passing those 
responsibilities to the maintenance and supply group commanders. 


(as ol 31 DcccinlxT IMS^) 



Alabaiiiii-Cniii:; C'aliforiiia--Mathci-; C\>lorado--LinM\ ; I-|(iiKla--Baili)\\ and 
Graham: Cieorgia--Bainbridge. Moody, and SpenLc; Jllinois-Chanute; 
IVIississippi--Greenville and Kcesler: Missonri--Maldcn: Nevada-Stead; 
Oklalioma--Vance: Texas-Amarillo. Brooks. Harlingon. James Connally. 
Lackkind. Laredo. Moore. Perrin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. Wehh 

S.S.Wy (9.997 olTicors; .^.19 warrant ottlLers: 54.20?: enhsied: 24.460 civiliansi 

2.713 (B-25. C-45. C-47. C/TC--54. C-119. C-123. C-131. F-Sb, F-89, H-13, 
H- 1 9. H-2 1 . T-28. T-29. T-33. T-34. T-37) 


ft nninhered air force oc|Lh\ alenl nnits: 

Lackland Mil Trng Center. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarilio Tech Trng Center. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanule Tech Trng Center. Chanule AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Center. Keesler AFB M.S 
Lowry Tech Trng Center. Lowry AFB CO 
.Sheppard Tech Trng Center. Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing equivalent units; 

IISAF- RecruiliuL' Service. Wriuhl-Palterson AFB 


USAF Aerospace Medical Cenier. Brooks AFB 

."^ tlyiiig training wings: 

3.Sl()th. Rand.ilph AlinX 

3.'i.S0th (Advanced Interceptor). Moody AFB GA 

3555th (Advanced interceptor). Perrin AFB TX 

36i5th (Basic), Craig AFB AL 

3635th (Advanced). Stead AFB NV 

3 nav igator training w ings: 

3535lh. Mather AFB CA 
3565ih. James Connally AFB TX 
.^61()ih. Harlingen AFBTX 

5 pilot iranung vvmgs: 

3.5()()th (Basic). Reese AFB TX 
35()5th (Basic), (ireenville AFB MS 
356()th (Basic). Webb AFB TX 
3575lh (Basic). Vance AFB OK 
364()th (Basic). Laredo AFB TX 

2 indepemlenl group or group equiv alents: 

3545th LISAF flospiiai. Gooiltellow 

3625th Technical iraimng (Weaiions Controller). 

Tyndall Al B 1 L 

6 pilot training groups (ct)niracl primary); 

3.3()()th. Graham AB FL 
3.^0 1 St. Moore ABTX 



3302d. Spence AB GA 
3303d, Bartow AB FL 
33()5th. Maiden AB MO 
3306th, Bainbridge AB GA 


James E. Briggs 

Lieutenant General Frederic H. Smith was 
selected lor his fourth star and assigned as 
Commander in Chief, United States Air Forces in 
Europe and Commander. Foiuth Allied Tactical Air 
Force. General Smith departed ATC on 5 July. For a 
short period of time the vice commander. Major 
General Brandt, acted as the ATC commander. Then 
on 1 August, Maj Gen James E. Briggs, the former 
Superintendent of the llnited States Air Force 
Academy, received his third star and assumed 
command of ATC. 



Brooks and Aerospace Medical Center 

In 1959 the Air Force put medical education and 
training and space medical research responsibilities 
under the direction of Air Training Command. 
Headquarters USAF directed that Continental Air 
Command transfer Brooks AFB, Texas, to ATC on 
I October. At the same time, ATC activated the 
USAF Aerospace Medical Center at Brooks, and, 
concurrently. Air University issued orders re- 
assigning the School of Aviation Medicine at Brooks 
to ATC and the aerospace medical center. In 
addition, ATC reassigned the USAF Hospital 
Lackland from the Lackland Military Training Center 
to ,''e medical center. The last action, the 
organi/ation of the 379()th Epidemiological 
Laboratoi-y at Lackland, took place on 1 November: 
ATC assigned the lab to the medical center. The 
addilioii of all of these units increased ATC's 
assigned personnel strength by 4,965. 


Technical Training Bases Reorganized 

Concerned thai the si/c of each of the technical 
training bases was more than a single commander 
could successfully manage, in late 1958 General 
Smith asked Headquarters USAF for permission to 
redesignate the technical training wings as training 
centers. Headquarters USAF approved the request. 
Effective I January 1959, ATC renamed its military 
training wing and all five of its technical training 
wings. The 370()th Military Training Wing became 
the Lackland Military Training Center; while the 
3320th Technical Training Wing was redesignated as 
Amarillo Technical Training Center; the 3345th, 
Chanute Technical Training Center; the 3380th, 
Keesler Technical Training Center; the 3415th, 
Lowry Technical Training Center; and the 3750th, 
Sheppard Technical Training Center. 

USAF Recruiting Service 

During the first half of 1959, there was much 
discussion about renaming the 3500th USAF 
Recruiting Wing as a higher-level organization. 
However, because the new unit would have greater 
status than the current wing. Headquarters USAF 
ordered discontinuance of the 3500th and activation, 
on 8 July, of the USAF Recruiting Service, assigned 
to ATC. Recruiting Service remained headquartered 
at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. Also on this date, 
ATC assigned six recruiting groups to the new 
service. They were located at Mitchel AFB in New 
York. Olmsted AFB in Pennsylvania. Robins AFB in 
Georgia, Lackland AFB in Texas, Chanute AFB in 
Illinois, and Mather AFB in California. 

3499th Field Training Wing 

Effective 1 September 1959. ATC discontinued the 
3499th Field Training Wing at Chanute. This unit had 
managed field training operations, but ATC had 
decided that there would be less duplication of effort 
if field training responsibilities were reassigned to the 
technical training centers. The command established 
field training squadrons at Sheppard on 15 June, at 
Amarillo on 15 July, and at Chanute on 15 August. 


Officer Military Schools 

Besides the Oflicer Candidate School, the preflight 
training school, and the officer basic military training 
courses, Lackland's Officer Military Schools added 
an additional organization, on I July, the USAF 
Officer Trammg School (OTS). (While OCS was a 
six-month program, OTS only lasted three-months. 
Besides length, the other major difference between 
the two schools was that OCS required only two 










ft. ---^i^ 

Students at Stead AFB. Nevada, learn how to sui\i\e in water. Stead adapted the base's recreational 
swimming pool for Interim use until a permanent heated facilit\ could be built. Students wore waterproof 
suits in winter to protect them from the cold water. 

years of college for entrance, while Officer Training 
School required a four-year degree.) 



The Deputy Chief of Staff. Installations became the 
DCS/Ci\il Engineering effective 21 April. 

Office of Information 

l-.ltccli\e 1 October, headquarters olTicials renamed 
the Information Services Agency as the Office of 

services in primary mission functions such as flight 
instruction and aircraft maintenance, but ATC was 
not opposed to contracting semi-technical or indirect 
support functions such as food services and 
petroleum, oil. ami lubrication (POL) operations. 


Final T-33 Delivered 

1 he most uuicK used aircraft in ATC was the T-}?i. 
first produced in 1448 by Lockheed. The company 
ended production in \959. and ATC t(H)k possession 
of its last T-}} in early September at James Connally 


Civilian- vs Military-Conducted Training 

In early \9?iH. Headquaiters L S.Af duccted .A I'C to 
restudy the issue of training pro\ ided by civilian 
contractors as opposed to training conducted by the 
military. General Smith reported back to the Air Staff 
in November that while the use of some contracting 
services was advantageous to the Air Force, he did 
not think civilian contracting would solve the 
manpower and money problems facing the Air Force. 
By mid-19.'iy. ATC had convinced the Air Staff that 
there should be no further expansion of contractual 



To study equilibrium, specialists at the School of Aviation Medicine. Randolph Field, 
Texas used the blueprints of Danish inventors to build this Danish Balancing Chair. 

u'l from the School of Axiation Medicine 

^ picssure suit equipmenl as liiev prepare 

'M\ in a sealed altitude chamber at 

The Ru<;}jles Orientator, de>eloped b> Maj 
William Oclier and C apt ( arl Crane in the 
l')3()s. was used in prefliyht testing to give 
students the feel of instrument living. A hood 
>>as placed o>er the cockpit lo simulate the 
conditions of fixing at night or under nonxisual 



From l*).^! imlil 1459. the School of A>iation Midiciru' was hKatid a) Kaiulolph AKR. Icxas. "hiiiiipon 
it moved across t(»\ii to Brooks AFB. Shown abo\c is the research laborat()r\ at Randolph. 

Doctors check the reaction of ll> in<i cadets to a self- 
halancinc test. 

Scientists developed the iIIiIm"^ chair in an attempt 
to solve the puA/le ollhc xanishin^ hori/on. 

In the lV3(ls. the WobhU iiu ii i \Nas used as a 
screeninj; dcNiee to check halance and 

Primary Training 

B\ Auyiisi IMSy li\c of ATC's coniract primary pilot 
irainini: hasos-Bainbridiic. Graham. Barlow. Moore, 
and .Spcncf-had begun using T-37s in place of 
T-2Ss. Only Maiden kcpl (he old training progranv- 
r-34s and T-2Xs--since il was to be closed in the 
early IWiO.s. 



Observer Training 

In Maaii ATC directed Mather to move its primary- 
basic observer training to Harlingen by early 1962. 
This training had to be relocated so that Mather could 
take over Keesler's electronic warfare officer (EWO) 
training by early 1963. As a part of EWO training, 
students used TC-54 aircraft. However, jet aircraft 
were to replace the TC-54. and Keesler did not have 
the facilities to support jets. Even if Keesler had been 
in a position to expand its runways, there was no land 
available. While reluctant to lose the training. Keesler 
officials gained needed space for new family 
housing, as the transfer of EWO allowed this gulf 
coast base to close one runway. 

number of teachers available. To help turn the 
situation around. Headquarters USAF approved a 
minimum three-year tour for military instructors and 
authorized 100 percent manning of instructor 
authorizations, whenever possible. 

Project Tight Fist 

During the 1950s, weapon systems became more 
complex. That, in turn, led to an increased need for 
highly trained technicians, and that often meant 
longer and larger technical training courses. All of 
this resulted in increased costs in personnel and 
support-costs that the Air Force found difficult to 
explain to Congress. Officials at Headquarters USAF 


In 1959 AlC bcf;an phasing out its hist World War II trainer-thc B-25. Almost 30.000 pilots had earned 
their ^Ings in B-25 cockpits, logfjing nearl> 2.5 million tl>in<i hours. With the graduation of the last B-25 
class at Reese in January 1960. specialized UPT came to an end and generalized training began. 


Francis E. Warren and Scott End Training 

Training ended at Francis F. Warren on 24 March, 
but it was 1 May before ATC discontinued its 345()th 
Technical Training Group. At Scott the last students 
graduated in late February, and ATC inactivated the 
33inih Technical Training Group. 

were of the opinion that the commands were 
overstating their training requirements. They 
recommended a complete review of job standards, a 
consolidation of similar courses, greater use of field 
training detachments, and elimination of subject 
matter that could be prov ided in an OJT program. Air 
Training Command called this review Project Tight 
Fist. As a result of this reexamination, ATC was able 
to shorten 93 technical trainina courses. 

Instructor Shortage 

Throughout hs history, one of the most difficult tasks 
ATC had was that of meeting its instructor 
requirements. For example, in 1959 ATC was short 
of instructors in its Officer Military Schools at 
Lackland. The turnover in instructors at Keesler was 
so high it was impossible to maintain a high level of 
field-experienced teachers in the classroom. At 
Lowry critical shortages existed in atomic weapons 
courses, and at Amarillo supply courses had a limited 

Missile Training 

.Although ATC had trained personnel in various 
missile career fields since 1951, graduate totals had 
been fairly small. However, that changed in FY 59, 
when the command graduated more personnel in 
missile career fields in this 12-month period than in 
all prcN'ious years combined. Various ATC bases 
conducted a total of 2 1 9 courses during the year and 
araduated 8.004 students. 






Students in the missile training; course at Sheppard AFB, Texas, learn the intricacies of inter-continental 
ballistic missile power production. 

commanci coultl dperate with 6 training centers and 

MISCELLANEOUS '^ flying training bases. Many huiklings had fieen 

constructed during World War 11 and wcie in sueli 

r. ..... poor shape it wasn't eeononiicaiiy teasihle to repair 

,, r-,- ^^ 1 c\ CO Axr- K,..» ct.-,i,ti,rp them. .Also, as more and more sensitive electronic 

Between h\ .~i> and Fy ^M. AlLs base stiucture • , , ■ • i 

1 J <• 1:1 . T« • ■„ ..,n.,t;„.,. \\/„u equipment arrived on the training scene, there v,ere 

decreased from 43 to 2? pnmarv installations. With ^ r , , o 

,. .... ..,.. . , , , I ,u, problems with environmental controls. .Some support 

more modern tacililies. iitticials believed the • 

Students in nuclear weapons iraininj; at l.o«r\ Al B. ( oloriul... karn lo male llic re- 
entry vehicle to the Ihor intermediate ranye ballistic missile. 



fiicililles, such as warehouses, shops, and a hospital. 
IkuI tarpaper exteriors. And many of the flying 
training bases had support facilities liiat wcic built 
for conventional aircraft and were not adaptable tii jet 
flying. Unles.s these problem areas received attention, 
ATC planners felt training in the coming decade 
would be handicapped. However, to make these 
changes, the command estimated it would cost almost 
$110 million— money Congress seemed unlikely to 
approve anytime soon. 

Recruit Testing 

On 1 April 1958. Recruiting Service began pre- 
enlistment testing and selective recruiting of non- 
prior service airmen. The purpose of such actions was 
to improve the quality of incoming recruits and 
ensure "untrainables" were not enlisted. 

Missik' students :il ( haniilc MR, Illinois, learn h(»^^ to handle li(|iiid ()\><;en (l.()\). used 
as a missile filial oxidizer. Ileie, students transfer l,().\ Irom storafje to mobile ser\ice 



Durinj; the first halt Ot 1960. Air riainin<; C ommaiul aiinounceil thai lutiiie prctlijiht, primary, and basic 
pilot traininj; pr()<;ram would he consolidated and <;ivcn by military instructors at LISAF-owned facilities. 
Iraininfi at all contract primary schools was to end by December I960, and all ot those bases would close by 
March 1961. I his plan caused some problems in the cancellation ol lacilily projects and the departure of 
personnel. Civilians left their jobs in such large numbers that certain contractors had difficulty hiring 
experienced replacements for short-term employment. Also through the end of the year, budget limitations 
presented AIX from acquiring the high performance jel aircraft and e(|uipment it needed for training 


(as of 31 December 1960) 

Amarillo TTC 

Air force MTC 

Sheppard TTC 

Lowrv TTf- 


Alabania--Ciaig; Ari/ona--Willianis; Caliroinia-Mather; 
Coloiado-Lovvry: Florida- Bartow and C.raliain; Gcorgia- 
Bainbridge. Moody, and Spence: Illinois-Chanute: 
Mississippi-Greenville and Keesler: Nevada-Stead: 
Oklahoma-Vance: Texas-Aniarillo. Brooks. Hariingen. 
James Connally. Lackland. Laredo. Moore. Perrin. 
Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Wehh 


sy.fiMZ ( 10.4.^0 olTieers: .'i.'i..\'i-"^ enlisted: 2?.i)(W ei\ iliansi 


2.202 (C-47. C-54. C-12.'?. C-I3I. F-86. 1-S'J. 1-100, 
F/TF-102. H-i9. H-21. H-43. T-28. T-29, T-33. T-.34. and 


Keesler ITC 

C hanule ITC" 



6 nunibeicd air force cqui\ ak-nt units; 

Lackland Mil Trng Ctr, Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr, Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr, Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr, Lowry AFB CO 
.Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr, Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing equivalent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service, Wright-Patterson AFB 

USAF Aerospace Medical Ctr, Brooks AFB TX 

4 flying training wings: 

33l()th, Randolph AFB TX 
3550th (Adv Interceptor), Moody AFB GA 
3555th (Adv Interceptor). Perrin AFB TX 
3635th (Adv), Stead AFB NV 

3 navigator training wings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th, James Connally AFB TX 
361()th. Hariingen AFB TX 

6 pilot training wings: 

35()(Mh ( Basic). Reese AFB TX 
35:5th. Williams AFB AZ 
3560th (Basic). Webb AFB TX 
3575th (Basic), Vance AFB OK 
36 L5th (Basic). Craig AFB AL 
3640th (Basic). Laredo AFB TX 

3 independent groups or group equivalents: 

3545th USAl- Hospital. Goodlellow AFB TX 
3505th Tech Trng. Greenville AFB MS 
3625th Tech Trng (Weapons Controller). Tyndall 

5 independent pilot training groups (contract 

3300th. Graham AB IL 
3301st. Moore ABTX 
33()2d. Spence AB GA 
3303d. Bartow AB FL 
3306th. Bainbridse AB GA 


Continuing as the ATC commander was Lt Gen 
James E. Briggs. On 16 November 1960. the vice 
commander. Maj Gen Carl A. Brandt, retired. He was 
succeeded by Maj Gen Henry K. Mooney. former 
commander of SAC's Sixteenth Air Force. Mooney 
had served as the ATC assistant vice commander 
since September. 



Bryan AFB, Texas 

In caretaker status since 1 October 1958. Air Training 
Command transferred Bryan to Air Materiel 
Command on 1 April 1960. 

Maiden Air Base, Missouri 

With pilot production decreasing, the ATC 
commander suggested closing Maiden, a contract 
flying training base, in early 1959. However, it wasn't 
until late December that Headquarters USAF 
approved the ATC request. The last primary class 
graduated on 29 June 1960. and one day later ATC 
terminated its training contract. On 26 July the 
command discontinued the 3305th Pilot Training 
Group (Contract Primary), That left ATC with five 
contract primary schools still in operation; ATC 
released Maiden on 1 September. 

Williams AFB, Arizona 

On 1 October Tactical Air Command transferred 
Williams AFB to ATC. This Arizona base would 
become part ol' ATC's new consolidated pilot training 
program. On the same date. Tactical Air Conuiiand 
reassigned its 4530th Combat Crew Training Wing 
(Tactical Fighter) and subordinate units at Williams 
to Air Training Command, and ATC discontinued the 
wing. ConcuiTcntly. Air Training Command used 
assets from the 4530th to organize and establish the 
3525th Pilot Training Wing. 


Preflight Training 

Harh in U)6() ihe Air Force authorized ATC to 
discontinue pilot and navigator preflight courses at 
Lackland. Pilot preflight training became the 
responsibility ot the primary training bases, and 
na\igator preflight moved to the navigator schools. 
Lackland graduated its last preflight class in early 
May. and ATC discontinued the school on 1 July. 
Preflight had accounted for more than half of the 
training load under the Officer Military Schools. The 



Two German students work (in their English language pronciines ai I ackland Al B. Allied students 
already schooled in English learned colloquial and technical language prior to entering flying training. 

contract sc1k)oIs were the first to use the newly- 
pubhshed syllabus for consolidated pretlight-primary 
pilot training, beginning on 1 July. New navigator 
training programs went into effect at Harlingen on 
6 April and at James Connally on 14 April. 

USAF Language School 

On I January 19W). ATC established the USAF 
Language School at Lackland and assigned it to the 
USAF Officer Military Schools. The school provided 
Fnglish language instruction to foreign students 
coming tt) the United States for training under the 
Military Assistance I'rogram. Manning for the new 
organization came from the 3746th Preflight Training 
Squadron (Language I. which the command had 
discontinued on I January. 

Chaplain School Opened 

Since July 1953 the Air Force had conducted a 
training course for chaplains at Lackland. That course 
evolved into a separate school when, on 1 June 1960. 
ATC established the USAF Chaplain School at 
Lackland and assigned it to the Officer Military 
Schools. The new school prmidcd instruction for 
chaplains as well as legal otficers. 


3505th Pilot Training Wing (Basic) 
Air Training Command discontinued its 35()5th Pilot 
Training Wing (Basic) at Greenville .-XFE, 
Mississippi, on 1 December. Future plans called for 

the base to otter some type of technical training. 


First OTS Class Graduates 

On 9 February the US,\F Otticers Training School at 
Lackland graduated its first class. Ninety-four 
students had entered the 12-week class, and eighty- 
nine completed the course, receiving their 

Foreign Language Training 

In carK I9(il). IIQ US.M suggested the foreign 
language training program. cunenll> conducted at 22 
colleges and universities, be transferred from Air 
University control to ATC. After considerable study, 
the Air Force passed control of the program to .-XTC 
on I July. At that time, the tiannng program covered 
59 languages. Air Training Command subsequently 
assigned management responsibility to the Chanule 
Technical Training Cenler. Unlike the Lackland 



program, which provided language training tor 
foreign students, this program provided language 
instruction lor L'SAF personnel. 


Consolidated Pilot Training 

With pilot production continuing to fall. ATC began 
looking at a new training concept-combining 
prcllight. primar>. and basic instruction into 
consolidated pilot training (CPT). Secretary of the 
Air Force Dudley C. Sharp approved the idea in 
March 1960. and Air Training Command intended to 
ha\c the training program in operation by March 
1961. At the same time. Secretary Sharp approved 
initiation of a consolidated pilot training program, 
ATC decided to replace all civilian flying instructors 
with military officers and to phase out all contract 
primary schools. The six bases selected for CPT were 
Craig, Webb, Vance, Reese, Williams, and Moody. 
however, by year's end. Laredo had been added. In 
addition, USAF officials sanctioned contracting base 
support functions where beneficial. As a part of the 
implementation plan, Williams had to be transferred 
from TAC to ATC. the basic instructor school at 
Craig moved to Randolph, basic tlying tiaining ended 
at Greenville, interceptor training ceased at Moody, 
and the remaining contract primar\ schools-Graham. 
Moore. Spence. Bartov\. Maiden, and Bainbridge— 
closed. All contract primary training ended in late 
December. The new undergraduate pilot training 
program (UPT) contained three phases: picflight. 
primary, and basic. Only jet aircraft (T-.^7s and 
T-33s) would be used. 


The Air Force first programmed the F-102 for use in 
ATC training programs in 1955. At that time, the 
USAF followed an aircraft allocation program where 
a portion of the first production units of newly- 
designed aircraft went to ATC so that trained 
crewmembers could be supplied to operational 
commands at the same time they were equipped with 
the weapon system. That policy changed in 1956 
when Gen Nathan B. Twining. Chief of Staff of the 
Air Force, on a visit to Russia, witnessed the flyover 
of a fleet of jet bombers known to have 
intercontinental range, but which USAF officials had 
thought were still in the prototype stage. Twining 
altered this aircraft allocation policy, directing that 
ATC not receive new fighter-interceptors until all 
requirements of operational units were filled. As a 
result. ATC did not receive F-102 aircraft until 
25 May I960, when the first TF-I()2 landed at Perrin. 
The first class of students began F-l()2 training on 
12 August. By year's end, Perrin had transitioned 
from F-S6LS to F-102 and TF-102 aircraft. 

Interceptor Training 

LIntil the arri\'al of the F/TF-I02s. ATC's two 
remaining interceptor training bases— Perrin and 
Moody-used T-33s and F-86Ls. Moody stopped 
interceptor instruction on 3 November 1960 and 
became one of ATC's new undergraduate pilot 
training schools. As the only remaining interceptor 
trainer. Penin began transitioning to the new 
F/TF- 1 02 aircraft. 

Firefighters and Helicopters 

Beginning on 19 April, the helicopter trainmg 
program at Stead added a new program of instiuclion. 


A Co 


' -102A "Delta Dag<jer" trainer lands at Edwards .\FB, C alitbrnia, with a drag chute. This 
IS, trainer was similar to the F-102 A but had a wider front fuselage seating two side-b\- 



The schoul taught hchcoptcr pilots aiul tirclightcis td 
operate tire suppression equipuienl using the H-43B. 

B-25 Phased Out 

The coninKiiki iih.iscd out its last B-2S on IS .laniiar\ 
1960 at James ConnalK. This aircraft had been in 
ATC's inventory siiiee ,lul\ 1M43. 


Instructor Shortage Continues 

Even though the technical training centers trained 
over 5.000 instructors in \arious formal resident 
courses during the year, the command still had 
problems filling critical instructor vacancies. Part of 
the problem w as that tununer in personnel continued 
to be high. 

Electronic Counter Countermeasures 

In earl\ l^.'^'-) during the Berlin crisis, the Air Force 
found its transport forces had inadequate capability to 
conduct i>perations in an electronic countermeasures 
environment. The Military AW Transport .Service 
recommended to the .Air Staff that ATC develop a 
field training program to provide initial and refresher 
training for transport aircrews. Air Training 
Command established that training in mid- 1 96 1. In 
addition. .ATC initiated an electronic counter 
countermeasures ground training program at Keesler 
for personnel in Military Air Transport .Service and 
Tactical Air Command. The first class began on 
1 7 October. 

Greenville Begins Technical Training 

in mid-Uctober basic pilot training 
ended at this west central Mississippi 
base. While ATC officials would have 
preferred to close the installation, for 
political reasons they had to find a new 
training mission for Greenville. 
Between November 1960 and mid- 
1961. Greenville received six personnel 
courses from Lackland and two tire 
protection courses from Lovvry. 


BMT Revised 

During the last half of 19.59. (he Air 
l-orce announced it was short l.^..^()4 
personnel to meet critical new 
requirements in Strategic Air Command 
and overseas. The Air Staff asked all 

major commands to look ior wavs to release 
personnel to fill these important vacancies. Officials 
in ATC dctcrinmed thai thev could release almost 
3, (KM) military aiithori/ations bv cutting three Hying 
training bases. The command also tound it could save 
another 89.^ positions by reducing basic military 
training from 1 1 weeks to 8. Headquarters USAF 
approved the BMT reduction, ettective 1 February 

Marksmanship Center 

The Air Force diicctetl lormation of a marksmanship 
school at Lackland in late 1957. By the end of IM5S. 
the center had a three-part mission; training, 
dev eloping USAF competitive teams, and performing 
weapons research and maintenance. One ot the 
problems the center had faced from its beginning was 
a lack of range space. In FY 60 .ATC finally began 
construction of four carbine ranges at Lackland, and 
the command signed a joint use agreement w ith the 
Army for construction of a range at Camp Bullis. 


Flying Ended at Brooks 

In carlv I'Hill. the remaining living activities 
(medical evacuation and operational support airliltl at 
Brooks AFB. Texas, transferred to either Randolph or 
Kelly. Brooks officially ended all living activities on 
2?< June. To that date, it was the oldest continuously 
active Hying establishment in the nation, its Hying 
mission datin>; back to World War I. 

.\ niililarv traininj; inslriiclnr inspects basic tiaiiiees at Lackland 
.\\\i. Itvas, in the l')6(ls. 




In the late 195()s. the four officer sources- Air Force 
Academy. Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), 
Officer Candidate School (OCS). and direct 
commissioning--vvere not producing the needed mix of 
skills and knowledge, especially in technical, 
engineering, and scientific fields. With four-year 
maturation periods, the Air Force Academy and ROTC 
were slow in responding to programmed manpower 
requirements. The Air Force was also reluctant to rely 
too hea\ ily on direct commissioning. The solution was 
to tap into a significant manpower pool that had largely 
been ignored— graduating college seniors who had not 
participated in ROTC. 

To train those graduates, the Air Force resurrected a 
concept tried during World War II— an officer training 
school (OTS). On 1 July 1959. the Air Force activated 
OTS at Lackland AFB. The first class entered OTS on 
18 November 1939 and graduated on 9 February 1960. 
Believing that college graduates needed a shorter, but 
more intense course than OCS, the Air Force established 
a three month course for OTS, versus six months in 
OCS. .At the same time, the Air Force created the 
Airman Education and Commissioning Program 
(AECP). allowing qualified airmen to complete degree 
requirements and earn a commission through OTS. 

The OTS system had several advantages over OCS. It 
provided a more expeditious and responsive pro- 
curement system, and training costs per graduate were 
less. Also. OTS met the Air Force's desire to make a 
college degree the minimum educational standard for its 
officers. Officer Training School expanded rapidly, 
turning out 320 graduates in FY 60. 2.265 in FY 62. and 
5.371 in FY 63. The school quickly outgrew its quarters 
on Lackland and in 1961 moved to nearby Medina Base. 
With the tremendous growth of OTS and the 
establishment of AECP, OCS was phased out on 1 July 

Officer Training School soon turned into the major 
supplier of Air Force officers. Not only did OTS absorb 
OCS's production quotas after 1963. but the Vietnam 
War soon accelerated officer procurement. As its peak, 
OTS produced 7.894 officers in FY 67. The 
unpopularity of the war on college campuses resulted in 
significant drops in ROTC enrollment, and OTS had to 
take up the slack. After the war. AFROTC scholarships 
proved very attractive and the military became more 
accepted on campuses. Eventually, the ratio between 
ROTC and OTS reversed itself with ROTC dt)ubling 
and even tripling OTS production. By the end of 2002. 
OTS had produced over 108.000 Air Force officers. 



I ^ 

' *• * • 



Grartuates of OTS celebrate their commissinninu as second lieutenants in the United States Air Force. 



On 25 July 1961. President John F. Kennedy addressed the nation, outlining the erisis developinfj in Berlin 
and eallin<; lor a military buildup to eope \>ith the <;ro"in}i tensions in Fast-West relations. At the same time. 
Kennedy asked Congress tor authority to order to aetive duty eerlain reserve and guard personnel and to 
extend by one year enlistments and active duty tours. Congress gave its approval, and the Air Force 
immediately took steps to increase the strength and readiness of its forces. It recruited more people, especially 
in electronic and aircraft support career fields, and the rapid buildup caused some disruption in training 

Parked in front of Base Operations at Randolph AFB, lexas. are the three aircraft— T-37 (primary phase). 
T-41 (Hight screening), and the T-38 (basic phase)— the 351(tth Flying Iraining \Mng used in I PI. 


(as 111 31 DcLCinhci I'Xil i 




Alabania-Craig: Aii/ona-Wiiiiams: Califoinia--Mather: Coiorado-- 
Lowry: Geoigia--Moody: lllim)is--Chanute: Mississippi--Greenville 
and Keesler; Nevada--.Stead: Oklahoma-- Vance; Texas-Amarillo. 
Harlingen, James Connaily. Lackland. Laredo. I'crnn. Randolph. 
Reese, Shepparcl. and Webb 

83,283 (8,967 officers: .^2,144 enlisted: 22.172 civilians) 

1.954 (C-47. C-54. C-123. C-131, F-86. F-89. F/TF-I()2. H-19. H-21. 
H-43, T-28. T-29. T-33. T-37. T-38. T-.V). and U-3) 




6 numbered air force equi\ alenl units; 

Laekland Mil Trng Ctr, Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lov\ rv Tech Trng Ctr. Low ry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

2 w ing ec|ui\ alent units: 

Medical Ser\ ice School. Gunler AF Station AL 
USAF Recruiting Service. Wright-Patterson AFB 

3 llying training w ings: 

3.'^l()th. Randolph AFB TX 

355.^th (Ad\ hiterceptor). Renin AFB TX 

3fi.\Sth(Adv). Stead AFB NV 

Metal identifi- 
cation ta<is are 
stamped out on a 
machine. All 

basic trainees re- 
cci\ed two tags, 
»hich they re- 
tained for the 
duration of their 
ser\ice in the Air 

3 navigator training wings: 

3.'S35lh. Mather .\\-\i CA 
33fi.>th. James Connally AFB TX 
3610th. Harlingen AFB TX 

8 pilot training wings: 

35()()th. Reese AFB TX 
3.'>2.'ith. Williams AFB AZ 
355()th. Moody AFB GA 
3.SW)th. WebbAFB TX 
357.^ih. Vance AFB OK 
36i5lh.Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3643th. Lauiihlin AFB TX 

3 independent groups or group equivalents: 

3545th USAF Hospital. Goodfellow AFB TX 
3505th Tech Trng. Greenville AFB MS 
3625th Tech Trng (Weapons Controller). Tyndal 


Lieutenant General James E. Briggs continued as 
the ATC commander, and MaJ Gen Henry K. 
Mooney remained vice commander. 


New Mission Statement 

The Air Force published a new mission statement for 
ATC in late December 1961. Added to its previous 
taskings were marksmanship training, instruction in 
foreign language and area studies, assistance training 
for friendly foreign powers, prisoner training, on-the- 
job training advisory service, and operational read- 
iness training to support missiles. All of these were 
duties ATC already performed, but they had not been 
spelled out in pre\ ions mission statements. 


Harlingen AFB, Texas 

In March, durnig his budget message to Congress. 
President Kennedv announced that the Department of 
Defense would close 73 military installations (70 
stateside), including Harlingen AFB. Texas, the only 
ATC base on the list. Harlingen entered its last group 
of students into navigator training on 9 August. From 
that point on. James Connally AFB provided all 
undergraduate na\ igator training. 

Medina, Texas 

Air Training Commanti had iiilcni.lei.1 to move both 
the LISAF Officer Training School and the Officer 
Candidate School from Lackland to the Medina 
annex in 1961. However, in response to the Berlin 
crisis, production rates for both schools increased to 
the piiint where only OTS could be accommodated at 
Medina annex. However, that move was not 
completed imtil 30 June 1962. 

Brooks AFB, Texas 

On 1 NoN ember 19(il. .-XTC translerred Brooks AFB 
to Air Force Systeins Command (AFSC). This was 
all part of an Air Force plan to reorganize aerospace 
medical research. Along with the transfer of Brooks. 
ATC passed to AFSC (and its newly formed 
Aerospace Medical Division al Hiooksi control of the 



USAF Aerospace Medical Cenler, the School ot 
Aerospace Medicine, the USAF Hospital Lacklatid. 
and the 3790th Epidemiological l.ahoiatory. (The 
School of Aviation Medicine had been ledesignated 
as the School of Aerospace Medicine on S May 
1961.) However, the Medical Ser\ ice School at 
Gunter remained in the command, reassigned from 
the medical center to Headquarters ATC on 
I October. 


Contract Primary Bases Closed 

While tiaining at the contract schools ended hi 
December 1960. Air Training Command did not stop 
operation of the training units until early 1961. 
Effective 16 January. AJC discontinued the 3.^06th 
Pilot Training Group at Baiiibridge. and on 
1 February the other four groups--the 3300th at 
Graham, the 3301st at Moore, the 33()2d at Spence. 
and the 3303d at Bartow ceased to exist. The 
command had intended to shut all five bases by 
March, but an Air Foice- imposed free/e on shipping 
property delayed closuie. Finally. ATC released 
control (if Bainbridge and Spence on 31 March. 
Bartow on 19 May. and Graham on 31 .August. 
Moore Air Base remained on inacti\c status until 
15 July 1963, when part of the installation was sold 
to private concerns and the rest transferred to the 
Department of Agriculture. 

Training Wings Redesignated 

On .^ Januar_\ 1961. .\1C' rcdcMgnalcd Inc of Us pilot 
training wings-the 3.'^0()th. 3.^60th. 3.57.'Sth. 361.Sth, 
and 3640th--b\ dropping the parenthetical notation 
(basic). In addition, the 3.5.'iOth Flvin>; Trainnm Wini; 

(Advanced Interceptor) alst) underwent a name 
change, becoming the 3550lh Pilot Training Wing. 

3645th Pilot Training Wing 

l-.llccli\c 16 October l')6l. .\ fC designated and 
organized (he 364.5lh Pilot 1 lauimg Wing at Laughlin 
.AFB. Texas, The purpose ol the acti\'ation was so 
thai .A rc couki transfer half of its training mission 
Ironi Larctlo (where facilities were substandard) to 
Laughlin. Between 19.^2 and 19.^7. ATC had tiained 
pilots at Laughlin. and then the base iransferied to 
SAC. Air Tiaining Command hoped to reacquire 
Laughlin within a number of months, when S.AC 
moved its L'-2 mission to another base. 


T-38 "Talon" 

At Randolph on 17 March 1961. ATC look pos- 
session of its Inst T-3S. ATC's first supersonic Hying 
tiainer was intended to replace the T-33 in pilot 
training. B\ mid-year \5 "Talons" had arrived at 
Randolph to take pait in an extensive test and eval- 
uation pixigram. The first ATC students who had the 
opportunitv to lly the new T-3Ss came from Webb's 
Class 62-F. By year's end. Ramlolph hai.1 44 new 
T-3Ssand Webbhad21. 

Undergraduate Navigator Training 

Like the consolidation ol ihe juloi naming program. 
in 1961 ATC decided to combine prefhght aiitl 
primary-basic nav igator training into a new program 
known as imder<:raduate navi'jalor Irainini; or UNT. 




l{> larlv September Kandolph had taken possession ofits first five T-39As. Air Trainiii}; ( oiiimand inlonded 
to use till' Sabrellnirs in the inslriimenl pilot iiislriulor school. Ihen in November two oflhe I -.^9s and 13 
mililarv persoiuul took part in Operalion Loiij; Le<;s ILa inonlli-lon-; uoodwill loiirol Laliii Anuriea. 



An instructor at Chanute AFB, Illinois, uses a training aid to teach students about the B-52 
electrical svstem. 

James Ci)nn;ill\ wouki cdihIul-I UNT. and Mather 
woLikl prmidc advanced training. The command 
planned ti) have the program in full operation by 
mid- 1962. 

personnel at Perrin. Training began in September and 
ended in November. 


Interceptor Program 

By the end of the year, only Perrin trained interceptor 
pilots. The school noted two special events in 1961- 
graduation of its first class of F-102 pilots in 
Fehruarv and graduation of its last class of F-86L 
pik)ts in .hiK . 

Space Systems 

In IVdl Al( hail a hmiieil space training program 
that covered the Samos (a reconnaissance satellite) 
and Midas (a missile detection and alarm system) 
research and development program. Field training 
detachments provided instruction (primarily theory) 
because the Air Staff had not made funding available 
to ATC for purchase of training equipment. 

Yugoslav Pilot Training 

In January the United States agreed to sell 135 
surplus F-86 "Sabrejets" to the Yugoslav govern- 
ment. As part of the agreement. US officials 
promised to train four pilots and four maintenance 

Field Training 

When ATC first established its field training 
program, its puipose was to support Strategic Air 
Command. Tactical Air Command, and Air Defense 
Command. In 1961 ATC agreed to expand its field 
program pro\ ided necessary instructor authorizations 
came from the gaining commands. Headquarters 
USAF agreed with that proviso, and during the year. 
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) and United States Air 
Forces in Europe (USAFE) transferred slots to ATC 
for the establishment of field training detachments in 
those coinmands, 

EWO Instruction 

The last electronic warfare officer (EWO) course 
began at Keesler on 13 December. Students 
graduated in August 1962. Beginning in January 
1962. Mather provided all EWO instruction in ATC. 





Overcrowding at Lackland 

While the command had the funding and personnel to 
support basic military training at Lackland, it did not 
have dollars for new construction. As a result. 
Lackland continued to operate with limited barracks 
space. Not onl> were crowded conditions unpleasant 
for incoming trainees, but the\ also were possible 
hazards to health. To alle\ iate the problem of over- 
crowding. Lackland officials began looking at other 
options, such as using facilities at the Medina annex 
near Lackland or putting all phases of basic military 
training at the technical training centers. However. 
Lackland found a temporary fix by phasing out 
pretlight training at Lackland, transferring personnel 
courses to Greenville, and receiving funding for 
huildint: remnation. 

Family Housing 

Hundreds of lamil\ housing units constructetl in the 
late 194()s and early ly.SOs also received facelifts in 
the early UXiOs. Soon after taking the oath of office. 
President Kennedy directed acceleration of housing 
contract awards as a means of bolstering the sagging 
econoniN. In ATC not only were older units 
refurbished, biii h\ \ car's end, contractors had 930 
new famil) housing units under construction at 
Brooks, Keesler, and Mather. 

I sinjj operational training aids, tiitiire missile enjjine nieclianics Icjirn Jhc compUv joji of sitn ii-in<i an Mlas 
missile at C hanutc A IB. Illinois. 





Cadets wait outside the main gate at Randolph AFB, 
Texas, the "Home ol the Aviation Cadet." 

The aviation cadet program was the source of 
most rated officers until the late 1950s. 
Originally called flying cadet, the program 
started during World War I in an effort to build 
up the nation's air arm. The term was often used 
restrictively to denote a pilot cadet, but in its 
general application included persons in cadet 
training to become a rated officer. When the 
United States entered the war, it had a total of 65 
rated pilots and two flying schools. By the end 
of the war. over 10.000 pilots had been trained 
on 41 American bases or by allies in Europe and 

To qualify as a flying cadet, an applicant had 
to be "under 25, have 2-3 years of college, be 
athletic, honest, and reliable." This was a far cry 
froin the extensive battery of physical, mental, 
and psychological tests required in later years. 

.\viation Cadets in basic flight training head for their planes. 



Although the cadet pruiirani ended with 
the amiistice. Congress authorized its 
resumption in \'-)\'-). hut hniited the numbei' 
on acti\e dut\ to 1,300. Austerity hit the 
air arm in the 1920s: by 1926 the 
authorized number of cadets on duty had 
dropped to 196. A cadet who earned his 
wings could either serve out his enlistment 
or take a discharge and enter the Officers' 
Reserve Corps as a second lieutenant. In 
1929. during the midst of a five-year 
expansion program, the law changed, and 
cadets had to serve three years— one in 
flying school and twn either as a reserve 
officer on acti\e duty or as a regular Army 

The term flying cadet changed to 
aviation cadet in 1941. just prior to the 
expansion of the cadet program during 
World War II. Although the cadet program 
normally required at least two years of 
college, this was reduced to a high school 
diploma. At the close of the war. aviation 
cadet training came to a standstill. It was 
not until 1948 that aviation cadet training 
began again in earnest but at the modest 
rate of 5,000 pilots per year. With the start 
of the war in Korea, flying L|uotas again 
began to rise. 

During the war. the educational 
requirement for the cadet program was 
again lowered to a high school diploma, but 
more and more officers commissioned 
through the Air Force Reserve Officer 
Training Corps (AFROTC) began entering 
flying training. Alter the Air Force 
Academy (AFA) graduated its first class in 
1959. the number of AFROTC and AFA 
graduates entering pilot and navigator 
training continued to rise. In 1961 the Air 
Force discontinued aviation cadet pilot 
training, and in 1965 it ended aviation eailel 
navigator training. Since then, applicants 
for either pilot or navigator training hail to 
ha\e a college degree. 

Colonel \iU\:i\ Kd\>ards prest'iits the rcfjlnu'iilal colors 
duriii<; a cerenionj at Randolph VFB. 

Soon after their arrival at Randolph. Ihisc I930s-era 
cadets are Ultcd for (heir initial uniform issue. 



Contracting Base Support 

Also as a part i)t the consolidation of ail pilot 
training, the Air Force directed ATC to test the idea 
of using contractors to provide support services at 
pilot training bases. During the test, the command 
contracted for all support services at Vance, while at 
Craig all operations were to be provided by military 
personnel. Craig's expenditures were not to exceed 
those at Vance. The other pilot training bases--Reese, 
Webb. Williams, and Moody--used civilian contrac- 
tors in a limited capacity in such areas as food 
.service, housing, transportation, garbage collection, 
custodial and photographic services, and aircraft 
refueling. The command completed its year-long 
study in June 1962 and recommended that Vance be 
returned to normal military operation as soon as 
possible. However, because of the cost savings. 
Headquarters USAF disagreed and, instead, directed 
the Vance contract be renewed. 

Modernization of Facilities 

Early in 1959 the Air Force noted it had limited funds 
available for military construction projects. To stretch 
the dollars, USAF officials suggested renovating i)ld. 

structurally sound facilities. That could be done at 
half the cost of building new facilities. At Chanute, 
Keesler. Lowry. Perrin. and Sheppard. open bay 
barracks were gutted and divided into rooms holding 
three men each. At Lackland the same World War II- 
vintage barracks also received a facelift inside and 
out. However, they remained open bay barracks. Also 
at this time, the Air Force released additional funds to 
pay for modernization of over 200 buildings at 
Amarillo, Chanute, James Connally, Keesler, 
Lackland, and Sheppard. Part of that modernization 
included the installation of air conditioning in 
barracks at Keesler, James Connally, and Sheppard. 
By mid-June 1961, contractors had completed most 
of the renovation work. The entire project cost $18.6 
million and rehabilitated 551 buildings. 

Command Motto 

ATC conducted a command-wide contest in 1961 to 
find a motto that best described its mission. A family 
member at Greenville AFB, Mississippi, had the 
winning entry: "Prepare the Man." The command 
used this motto until 29 October 1974. 

In October, because ATC no longer 
conducted base search and rescue 
operations, it transferred its H-43A 
helicopters at Stead to Military .\ir 
Transport Service. However, H-43s 
still remained at the flying bases to 
pro\ ide fire rescue scr\ ice. 



In the summer of 1962, the Soviets began inereasinj; their militiir\ assistanee to Cuba. Intelbfjence reports 
indicated that the Russians Here plaein<; oltensi\e weapons, ineUidinfj ballistic missiles, in Cuba. On 
22 October, in an address to the nation. President Kennedy said the So\iel Linion was buildin<: lon<;-ran<;e 
missile bases in Cuba. Kennedy ordered an air and sea quarantine of the island. For its part. A IC provided 
personnel and materiel support. Also, one of its ne»l\ -acquired bases, Laughlin, played a major role in the 
Cuban crisis, as it was home to the SAC U-2s that first spotted missiles in C uba. 



(as of 31 IX-ccnilxT l'>(i2) 


Alabama— Craig: Arizona--Willianis; California-Mather: Colorado - 
Lowry: Georgia— Moody: illinois-Chanute; Mississippi— Greenville 
and Keesler: Nevada— Stead; Oklahoma— Vance: Texas— Amarillo. 
James Connally. Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. KaiHlol|ih. Reese. 
Sheppard, and Webb. 

80.0.S7 (S.S()3 olTicers; .sn.3')l enlisted; 20,863 civilians i 

1,782 (C/VC-47. C/TCA'C-54, C-123. C-131, CH-21. HH-43. T-28. 
T/NT/VT-29. T/.IT-33. T-37. T-3S. T-39. U-3. and UH 14) 

6 numbered air force equivalent units; 


S pilot traming wings: 

Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute .APR 11. 
Kecslcr Tech Trng Clr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr, Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppartl Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing ci|in\alcnl units; 

USAF Medical Service School, (iunlcr AFS AL 
USAF Recruiting Service. Wright-I'atterson AFB 

2 Hying training wings: 

3510th. Randolph AFB TX 
363.'ith (Advanced). Stead AFB NV 

2 navigator training wings; 

3.'i3.'ith. Mather AFB CA 
356.'>th. James Connally AFB TX 

3.^(X)th. Reese AFB TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
3550ih. Moody AFB GA 
3560ih. Webb AFB TX 
3575lh. Vance AFB OK 
3615th.Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
.3646th. Laughlin AFB TX 

3 ini-lcpcndeni groups or gidiip et|uivalents; 

3503th Tech Trng, Greens ille AlB .MS 
3545th USAF Hospital. Goodfellow AFB TX 
3625th Tech Tmg (W'eapons Coiiti'oller). T\iulall 
AFB Fl. 


Lieutenant General James F. Briggs continued as 
the ATC commander and Maj Cien I leiiiy K. Mooney 
as vice commander. 





Perrin AFB, Texas 

In 1958 when SAC and TAC took responsibility for 
conduct of their combat crew training, ADC had 
refused the opportunity to train pilots as all-weather 
interceptor crews, so that mission had remained in 
ATC. Then, in March 1962, Air Defense Command 
decided it wanted to merge Perrin's interceptor assets 
with other air defense resources. The plan was to use 
Perrin to provide tactical alert training. Air Defense 
Command acquired Perrin AFB, Texas, on 1 July and 
with it the 3555th Flying Training Wing. However, 
on the same date. ADC discontinued the 3555th and, 
using the wing's assets, formed the 4780th Air 
Defense Wine (Trainim;). 

Laughlin AFB, Texas 

Strategic Air Command transferred juris- 
diction of Laughlin to ATC on 1 April 1962. 


Officer Military Schools 

Hlfcciixc I Jui\. ATC discontinued 
Headquiulers. Officer Military Schools at 
Lackland. The Path Finder study, mentioned 
below, found this headquarters unnecessary, 
.since the Officer Candidate School was about 
to go away, leaving only the Officer Training 


3646th Pilot Training Wing 

On l.^lcbruar\ .Alt' rcdcsigiuited its 3645lh 
Pilot Training Wing at Laughlin as the 364fiih 
Pilot TrainiuL' Win". 

Headquarters ATC was too large. They proposed 
reorganizing the headquarters and transferring certain 
functions to the training centers and wings to allow 
Headquarters ATC more time to focus on policy- 
making and mission. The command implemented 
most of the study's recommendations. 

Foreign Language Training 

The Department of Defense, in early 1962. assigned 
the US Army responsibility for all DOD foreign 
language training. Headquarters USAF opposed the 
move because the Air Force program at Lackland 
was oriented toward language used in flying and 
technical training. To answer Air Force concerns, the 
Defense Department directed the Army to establish a 
Defense Language Institute; however, the institute 
was to have only technical control over Lackland's 
foreign language program. Air Training Command 
would retain operational control. 

Students attendin<; the Nuclear Weapons Specialist 
(Rcentr\ \ chicles) Course at Lowry Technical Training 
Center, Colorado, "learn by doing" as they attach the 
Mark \!!l \>arhead to the Mark III nose module. 

3610th Navigator Training Wing 

Air Training Command discontinued its 361()th 
Navigator Training Wing and subordinate units at 
Harlingen AFB. Texas, on 1 July. At the same time, 
the command placed Harlingen on inactive status. 


Path Finder Study 

In November 1961 the ATC commander appointed a 
Path Finder study group to assess the connnand's 
ability to meet future training requirements and 
provide new ideas that could be applied to training 
technology. Group members completed the study in 
May 1962. Their major finiling was that 

Operation Overhaul 

In Jiil\ 1462 .ATC imtiated Operation Overhaul, an 
effort to improve the Officer Training School (OTS) 
program. The School had expanded to the point 
where it provided the Air Force with more than half 
of its newly-commissioned officers. By implement- 
ing Operation Overhaul. ATC adjusted the OTS 
program so that it more nearly retlected job 
requirements of a jiniior officer. 


Foreign Pilot Training 

Air Training Command began using the T-28 in 
foreign pilot training in 1958 at Graham Air Base in 
Florida. When that contract school closed in early 




With a cheerful assist iKim his fellii« \ ietnamcse 
Air Force students, this air cadet takes his 
traditional dunkin<i following his first solo ni*;ht in 
the 1-28. The cadet \>as a member of the last class 
to train in the 1-28 pro<;ram at Keesler AFB. 
Mississippi. Ihis class "graduated in 1973. 

1961. this training moved to Moody AFB in Georgia. 
In early 1962 the number of South Vietnamese 
students entering this program began lo increase 
sharply. As a result, the Air Force stopped disposal 
action on all T-28s stored at Da\ is-Monthan .AFB in 
Arizona. Twenty-six of those aircraft moved to 
Moody, plus the Navy transferred four. Besides the 
pilot training, the Air Force also directed Air 

Training Command to torm a 4.^-mcmber mobile 
training team to go to Southeast Asia to train T-28 
maintenance personnel. 

Undergraduate Navigator Training 

In carls June. Harlingen AFB. Texas, closed its UNT 
program, leaving James Connally AFB. Texas, as the 
only base providing this training. The command 
published a new syllabus during the year, which 
extended training by six weeks. That extension was 
needed to cover the basic electronics instruction 
added hack to the course from the advanced 
navigatoi traniing program. This was a shift back to 
the way training was conducted in 1957. before basic 
electronics was moved to the advanced training 

SAC KC-97 Operations 

Snicc Jul) 1^).'^S. Strategic .Air CommaiKl had 
conducted KC-97 training at Randolph in a tenant 
status. Its 4.^97ih .Air Refueling Wing oversaw the 
training program. Hov\e\er. .ATC wanted S.AC to 
relocate so that Randolph could be used for other 
ATC programs. While Headquarters USAF agreed 
with ATC. it was reluctant to push the relocation 
issue, since the KC-97 mission was soon to end. 
However, a series of delays pushed that inactivation 
to 30 June 1962. 

In a 1960 technical Irainin-; class at Keesler \FB, Mississippi, students learn to iiiaiiilaiii the 
semiautomatic "round en\ironment (.SAGE) air defense system. 




SAGE Instruction 

On 1 Jul) ATC ended its semiautomatic ground 
environment (SAGE) system training program at 
Richards-Gebaur AFB in Missouri, From that point 
on. Keesler conducted all SAGE training. 

FIRF-4 Training 

Although the An Force didn't expect to receive its 
first F/RF-4C until late 1963. the technical training 
centers at Amarillo and Lowry were already 
preparing lesson plans for courses that would support 
these aircraft. In addition. ATC trainers also were at 
work developing field training programs to support 
the new aircraft, 

intelligence Training 

On 14 March Headquarters USAF notified ATC that 
the Defense Department had assigned responsibility 
for all DOD air intelligence training and advanced 
training in photographic, radar, and infrared 
interpretation to the Air Force, Sheppard already 
conducted some intelligence training. However, late 
in the year, Lowry officials proposed placing all 
intelligence training at Lowry, and both ATC and the 
Air Staff atireed. 

Field Training 

Air Training Command moved closer to worldwide 
training coverage when, in the second half of the 
year, it began providing field training support to 
Military Air Transport Service and Alaskan Air 


Student Housing Problems at Lackland 

In 1960-61 ATC thought it had found a fix for the 
crowded housing conditions on Lackland, Otticials 
made plans to move the language school to Lowry 
and to put medical helper training at Greenville, 
However, by 1962 ATC learned that Lowry's training 
load was going to increase substantially. There would 
not be room for the language school. Rather than 
moving the language school, ATC instead transferred 
medical helper training to Greenville in July, and in 
August and September the command moved 
cryptographic operator courses from Lackland to 
Sheppard, These training relocations were just band- 
aid fixes. The only way the housing problem could be 
corrected was by building new facilities. 

Jungle Jim 

In January 1961 Soviet Premier Nikita S. Krushchev 
announced his regime would support national wars of 
liberation. At that time the Defense Department had 
no troops specially trained to oppose insurgent 
forces. In response, the Chief of Staff of the Air 
Force. Gen Curtis LeMay. ordered establishment of a 
combat crew training squadron at Eglin that would 
develop forces able to instruct US allies in counter 
guerrilla operations. The Air Staff also directed ATC 
lo establish a special survival course for Jungle Jim 
personnel (those assigned to the squadron). Stead 
personnel began that training in April 1961, It was 
because of projects like Jungle Jim that ATC 
redesignated its USAF Sur\ ival School as the USAF 
Survi\al and Special Training School on 1 March 

Physical Fitness Testing 

For the first lime, in October 1962 ATC began testing 
the physical fitness of its military personnel. 

A sur>i\al trainin<; instructor al Stead .\FB, 
Nevada, demonstrates how to slice meat to 
preser\ e as jerky. 



The Air Force established a standard wing structure— a dual deputy concept—in 1963. While there was 
some reluctance in ATC to implement such a s\stem, in ,lul\ seven of the I PI Mings— Reese, Moody. 
Williams. Laughlin. Laredo, Wehh, and Mather-reorganized. Each of the «ings had a Depulv Commander 
for Operations, a Deput> Commander for Materiel, an air base group, and a medical function. In early 
August. ATC replaced the Deput> C ommander for Operations with a l)epul\ C Ommandcr for Iraining. The 
remaining fixing training wings and technical training centers \>ere scheduled to reorganize under the dual 
deput) concept on I Januar\ 1964: however, lack of support b\ Headquarters ATC officials caused the plan 
to be rescinded in January 1964. In July, the command closed the doors on the Officer Candidate School, 
which had commissioned second lieutenants into the Air Force since 1942. Finallv. Af(. which had 
particular interest in personnel matters because of its mission of recruiting and training, stood up the I SAF 
Military Personal Center at Randolph AFB. 


Aerial view of l,o\\r\ AFB. { olorado. in 1"»():. \i ilii- center is the head(|uarlers lor I owry 
Technical I raining (enter. I he l)uilding was (he Agnes Memorial Sanitarium until the cil\ of 
Denver donated it to the Arm) in 1937 to help establish Lowry Field. 




With the enormous expansion of the Army Air 
Forces (AAF) in the early years of World War II. an 
increasing burden was placed on officers, especially the 
small group of flying officers. To ease that burden, a 
large number of administrative officers had to be trained 
to relieve the flying officers of their non-flying duties. 
In 1942 Lt Gen Henry H. Arnold, Chief of the AAF. 
directed Maj Gen Walter R. Weaver, head of the 
Technical Training Command, to establish an Officer 
Candidate School (OCS). In response. General Weaver 
quickly opened an officer candidate school in February 
1942 at several Miami Beach. Florida, resort hotels. 
Officer candidates were selected from two categories: 
former aviation cadets eliminated for flying or medical 
deficiency and waiTant officers and enlisted men. Their 
qualifications included age limits of 18 to 36 years. 
demonstrated capacity for leadership, and a score of 1 10 
or higher on the Army general classification test. These 
requirements remained in effect without major 
modification until after V-E day. In succeeding years. 
however, these requirements changed in response to the 
fluctuating need for officers. 

Initially the OCS course was 12 weeks in length, 
and the academic curriculum was uniform for all 
candidates. In January 1943 the curriculum was 
divided into two phases. The first phase involved 
military indoctrination and leadership, while the 
second prepared candidates for duty in a particular 
field. To handle the expanded curriculum, officials 
extended the OCS course to 16 weeks in June 1943. 
The school remained at Miami Beach until it moved 
in June 1944 to the Aviation Cadet Center in San 
Antonio. Texas. In June 1945, only two months before 
it was temporarily suspended, the school moved to 
Maxwell Field, Alabama. During the war, over 29,000 
men graduated from Officer Candidate School. After 
the war. the Officer Candidate School closed for a 
short period of time and then resumed its 16- week 
course in September 194.'i. 

The following February. OCS returned to San 
Antonio. Although only a shell of its former self, the 
school continued to graduate newly commissioned 
reserve officers at a rate of 300-600 per year for the next 

Folding up the OC S flag for the last time are (left to right) Lt C ol J. \ . O'Brien, 
Commander. OCS; Maj (;en P. M. Spiccr. Commander. Lackland Military 
Training C enter: and C Ol B. H. Settles, Director of Operations at Lackland 
Military Training Center, .\fter 21 years of operation, OCS officially closed its 
doors on 1 .lulv 1963. 



Follo\\in^; graduation. (ittKir candidates have a 
private ceremon> of their o«n. 

17 years, save for the Korean War when there was an 
increase in production. The curriculum remained sub- 
stantially the same during this period, although the 
course was extended from 16 to 24 weeks in length. 
There were some changes in eligibility requirements, 
however. When OCS reopened in 1946. only enlisted 
men and warrant officers were eligible. The following 
year, the school was open to civilians, who had at least 

two _\ears ol college or passed a college-lc\el test. In 
1948 women also became eligible. Then in 1952 the 
educational requirements for OCS were lowered. Two 
years of college were no longer necessary, and high 
school graduates could now enter. In 19.55. however. 
OCS applicants were required to have completed one 
year of active duty. 

In the late 195()s. the Air Force also modified OCS's 
mission. From producing primarily administrative and 
other nonrated officers, the school began to send about 
one-half of its graduates to preflight school, responding 
to the Air Force's need for more aircrew members. In 
1959 when the Air Force, realizing that it had to expand 
officer procurement to meet its growing needs, opened 
Officer Training School (OTS). OCS's days were 
numbered. For over 21 years, OCS had afforded 
airmen an opportunity to earn an Air Force 
commission. Faced with the .Air Force's increased 
emphasis on college graduates for its officer corps and 
the concomitant growth of OTS. as well as the 
establishment of the Airman Education and 
Commissioning Program (AECP) in 1960, OCS was 
phased out on 1 July 196,^. During its existence, OCS 
produced over 4 1 ,000 officers. 

Officer candidates eat a "square" meal in the OCS dininu hall at Lackland AFB. 





ot 31 DecLMiibor 1^63) 


Alabama--Craig; Arizona-Williams: California- Mather: Colorado-Lowry: 
Georsia-Moody: Illinois-Chanute: Mississippi-Greenville and Keesler: 
Nevada-Stead:' Oklahoma-Vance: Texas- Amarillo. James Connally. 
Lackland, Laredo, Laughlin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb 



6 numbered air force equivalent units: 

Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr, Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr, Chanute AFB IL 
Kccslcr Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing equi\ alenl units: 

USAF Medical Service School. Gunter AFS AL 
USAF Recruiting Service. Wright-Patterson AFB 

2 Hying training wings: 

351()th. Randolph AFB TX 
3635lh (Advanced). Stead AFB NV 

2 navigator training wings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th. .lames Connally AFB TX 

8 pilot training wings: 

350()th. Reese AFB TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
355()th. Moody AFB GA 
3560th. Webb AFB TX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 
3615th. Craig AFB Al. 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th. Laughlin AFB TX 

2 independent groups equivalent units: 

3505th Tech Trng, Greenville AFB MS 
3545th USAF Hospital, Goodfellow AFB TX 

79.272 (8.524 officers: 50.521 enlisted: 20.227 civilians) 
Body text with one carriage return below. 

Lt Gen Robert W. 


On 1 August 1963. Lt Gen Robert W. Bums 
assumed command of ATC from Lt Gen James E. 
Briggs, who retired after 35 years of service. Before 
his ATC assignment. General Burns had ci>ncuiTently 
served as the Chairman of the Intcr-Ameiican 
Defense Board and as the senior Air Force member 
of the Military Staff Committee at the United 
Nations. Continuing as vice commander was Major 
General Mooney. 



Air Intelligence 

Httccti\c 1 July 1963. An rrainiiig Command estab- 
lished the Armed Forces Air Intelligence Training 
Center as a named activity at Lowry AFB. Colorado. 
The center was assigned to the 3415th Technical 
School, USAF at Lov\r\ . and its First students entered 



training on 17Jui\. By establisliing the training 
center. ATC consulidaied all intelligence training at a 
sintile base. 

,\n instructor of laser photo reconnaissance 
systems at Lowry AFB, Colorado, demonstrates 
polarl/ed light with a laser light source. (Note the 
master instructor badge used in the 1950s and 


3625th Technical Training Group 

With the reduction in weapons controller training 
requirements. ATC decided to redesignate its training 
group at Tyndall as a squadron and assign it to the 
3.^8()th Technical School. USAF at Keesler. On 
1 July ATC renamed the group the 3625th Technical 
Training Squadron (Weapons Controller). 

Pilot Training Groups Discontinued 

As a pari ol cost cullnig measures duected b_\ the 
Department of Defense. ATC discontinued six pilot 
training groups on 1.5 July: the 350()th at Reese, the 
352.5th ai Williams, the .V55()th at Moody, the 3560th 
at Webb, the 364()th at Laredo, and the 3645lh at 


Instructor Shortage 

Duiuig 1963 AIC reported a shortage of captains 
assigned. Because a inajority of officer instmctor 
authorizations called for captains, this meant the 
command v\as unable to fill its otficer instructor slots 
with skilled personnel. Flying training missions 
confronted similar manning ilifficulties because most 
pilots arul na\igators lacked field experience. As a 
result, training quality suffered. 


Undergraduate Pilot Training 

In the first half of the year, the Office of the 
Secretary of Defense finally approved Laredo as the 
eighth .ATC base lo provide undergraduate pilot 
training. The command had first decided to add 
Laredo to its list of UPT bases in 1960. though 
money was needed to repair the aging airfield. It took 
almost \\\a years for the Defense Department to 
release limited funds for runway repair. Other 
changes in pilot iraining included the relocation of 
foreign pilot training from Moody AFB. Georgia, to 
Randolph. That ga\e Mood\ the capabilit> to support 
jet pilot training. Also, after months of waiting. SAC 
finalK mo\ed its U-2 wing from Laughlin to Davis- 
Monthan .AFB. Arizona, giving ATC the additional 
space it needed to conduct pilot training more 
effecti\ely from Laughlin. 

T-38 Conversion 

During I9(i3 A IC continued to accept T-3S "Talons" 
into its insentory. and by December the coinersion 
from T-33s to T-38s was one year ahead of schedule. 
Of the eight UPT bases, only Laughlin. Laredo, and 
Craig had noi begun conversion. 

Pilot Attrition 

Although attrition rates during 1963 were lower than 
programmed, there was one category of student 
whose attrition was higher ihaii an\ other. This was 
the officer training school (OTSi graduate entering 
pilot training. During FY 62. OTS trainees had a 43 
percent attrition rate. In the tiist lull ot F^' 63. that 
figure rose to 46.5 percent. .Among the contributing 
factors was the lack of previous association with a 
military or Hying situation, as well as a need for more 
careful screening of OTS graduates before they 
entered pilot training. One of ATC's actions, 
prompted by an IG inspection, was to transfer staff 
supervisory responsibility of OTS from the Deputy 
Chief of StatT, Technical Training lo the Deputy 
Chief of Staff. Operations. 

Airspace Concerns 

Since the miroduciion of the supersonic T-38 in 
1961. ATC hail problems with civilian agencies in 
allocating airspace. Recurring negotiations took place 
between ATC and the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) in 1963. Representatives from 
several Air Force commands, including .ATC. SAC, 
and TAC. convened at Randolph AFB in December 
1963 and sorted out long- and short-lcrm solutions to 
the problem of airspace. Follow ing that meeting, the 
FAA told its regional directors that there was an 
urgent need to reexamine .ATC's T-38 training 
program and to absorb as many training operations as 
possible into the "area positive control" (APC) 


environment-the airspace between 41,U0U and 
60,000 feet. Conferees agreed on a tentative schedule 
that would integrate training into the APC at the 
several flying training bases. 

Simulator Versus EWO Flying Training 

Perioilicall_\. ATC had made eflorts to modernize or 
replace the eight TC-54D simulators used in 
electronic warfare officer training since 1958 but 
with little success. In August 1963 the Air Force 
disapproved an ATC request to modify a dozen T-29s 
at a cost of $1.2 million, because funds were not 
available. At the same time. Headquarters USAF 
began looking at the possibility of reassigning 
electronic countermeasures-equipped T-29s from 
SAC to ATC for EWO training: however, that option 
also failed when Mather officials determined these 
aircraft did not meet the needs of students in 
electronic warfare training. Instead, the command 
slowed its disposal of TC-54s and decided to 
continue use of its current simulators. 


Missile Training 

In I9(i3 Chanute discontinued Bomarc missile 
training and. at the same lime, prepared course 
outlines for SAC's Minuteman II program. 

In the lorcground of the Chanute missile training 
facillt>. is the Titan missile area. Titan and .\tlas 
components arc in the center, and the Atlas 
missile area is in the background. 


Cuban Brigade 

A small part of Lackland's nnhtar\ Iramnig program 
commanded attention at high lc\els in March. 
Veterans of the 2,'i()6th Cuban Brigade, which had 
participated in the Bay of I'igs debacle, reported to 
Lackland under a DOD program that permitted 
Cuban officers and enlisted men to join one of the US 
services and receive military and language 
instruction. Lackland's chief coiuribiuion was 

language training. Although some Cubans wanted 
flying duty, training was confined to seven fields: 
supply. aircraft maintenance, transportation, 
financial, motor vehicle maintenance, air police, and 


Personnel Operating Functions to Transfer 

For many years. USAF officials had discussed the 
idea of consolidating personnel operating functions 
into a single personnel center or command. In fact, 
between the end of World War II and 1962, the Air 
Force had examined that possibility in 26 separate 
studies. Air Training Command had a special interest 
in the consolidation issue because it possessed two 
major personnel functions-recruitment and training. 
Then in 1962 the Office of the Secretary of Defense 
introduced Project 39, which was directed at cutting 
headquailers strength by 15 to 30 percent. That 
brought renewed interest in consolidation, because 
moving personnel functions to Randolph could save 
over 1.000 authorizations at the Pentagon. In mid- 
1963 the Air Force moved various personnel 
functions from Washington. D.C., to Randolph. The 
move was wrapped in controversy, because of discus- 
sions to consolidate personnel functions possibly 
with ATC-in effect, creating an Air Force Training 
and Personnel Command. Much of the opposition to 
consolidation came from senior air commanders who 
feared they would lose control over their sources of 
manpower, if ATC managed all personnel. This 
consolidation never happened, but the various 
personnel offices were combined at Randolph into a 
separate USAF Military Personnel Center on 
2 November 1963. 

The ne>\ IS AF Military Personnel (enter stood 
up on 2 No\ ember 196.V 


As the year progressed, plans for moving the liSAF Recruiting Service from Wright-Patterson AFB. Ohio, 
to Randolph continued to mature. Another dexelopnienl in 1964 «as the phasedo«n of Cilreen\ille AFB, 
Mississippi. I'he spin characteristics of the T-37 aircraft continued to cause concern, hut the problem was 
studied and resol\ed during the >ear. Possibly because of the escalation of the war in \ ietnam, the Air Force 
experienced an unusualU good recruiting year. During early 1964, ATC submitted its proposals for cuts 
mandated b\ the Air Force under Project ICE~increased combat effecti>eness. Despite chronic problems 
with contractors and slipped milestones, ATC moved ahead with training plans for the Minuleman II missile. 

Students in basic training at lackland AFB, Texas, learn how to handle and control incendiaries as pari of 
chemical warfare training. 


(ah ul 31 December 1904) 



Alab;im;i--Ciaij;; Aii/<)na--Vv'illiains; {'alirornia-Malher; Coloiatlo-I.dwry: 
Cic()riiia--M()ody: llliiKiis--C"liaiuitc: Mississippi--(iiccinillc and Keeslor: 
Nevada-Slcad: ()klahoma--VaiKc: Tcxas--Amarill(i. James Connally. 
Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Wehh 


77,696 (8.8.^5 officers; 48,856 enlisted; 20.()0.S civilians) 




1.663 (C-47. C-54. C-l 18. C-123. C-131. CH-3. CH-21. HH-43. T-28, T-29, 
T-33. T-37. T-38. T-39. T-41. U-3. UH-19) 


6 mimhered air force equivalent units: 

Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr, Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing equi\ alent units: 

USAF Medical Service School. Gunter AF Station 

USAF Recruiting Service, Wright-Patterson AFB 

2 flying training wings: 

3.Sl()th. Randolph AFB TX 
3635th (Advanced). Stead AFB NV 

8 pilot training wings: 

330()th. Reese AFB TX 
3525th, Williams AFB AZ 
3550th. Moody AFB GA 
3560th. Webb AFB TX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 
3615th, Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th, Laughlin AFB TX 

2 navigator training wings: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th, James Connally AFB TX 

2 independent groups or group equivalents: 

3505th Tech Trng. Greenville AFB MS 
3545th USAF Hospital. Goodfellow AFB TX 



William \\ . Momver 

On 1 1 August 1964. Ll Gen William W. Momyer 
replaced Lt Gen Robert W, Burns as Commander. 
Air Training Command. General Momyer had 
previously served as the HQ USAF Assistant Deputy 
Chief of Staff. Programs and Requirements. General 
Burns retired. Major General Mooney remained as 
vice commander. 


Reserve Medical Units 

In early 1964 the Continental Air Command 
reorganized its reserve medical program. Between 
April 1964 and March 1965, reserve medical units 
were established at all ATC bases. In May 1964 units 
at Keesler. Amarillo. James Connally. and Lowry 
were ordered to extended acti\ e dutv. 



T-29S and T-33s Eliminated in IPIS 

The coniinand cinninalcd the use i)f T-29s and T-33s 
in instrument pilot instructor school after a survey 
showed school production had exceeded Air Force 
demand. .Another factor possibly contributing to the 
removal of the two types of aircraft from IPIS was 
the saturation of airspace and air traffic at Randolph, 
as observed by officials during a management 
inspection of ATC in late 1963. 



Simulators and Weapons Controllers 

Tlic iiiosi signit'icaiil c\cnt inriLiciicins: ilie weapons 
controller training program was the proposed transfer 
of resources for pro\iding "live" intercept training. 
From 1953 until l'-)58. the Tyndall course had used 
T-33s to conduct ground control intercepts. After 
1958 ATC placed less emphasis on live aircraft 
support, so that by early 1963 only ten T-33s 
remained in ilic 3625th Technical Training Group's 
inventory. .Ai that time a disagreement de\eloped 
between Air Training Command and Air Defense 
Command as to the need for live intercept training. 
Officials in ATC believed that adequate training 
could be provided through simulation. It took almost 
a year to accomplish and on 1 April 1964. .-XTC 
transferred all 1 1 aircraft and 59 manpower author- 
izations to Air Defense Conniiand for simulator 


Minuteman Missile 

As Minuteman I missile training phased out. ATC 
prepared to teach maintenance training on the new 
generation of Minuteman missiles— Minuteman II. 
Instructors began receiving contractor-conducted 
training at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, in January 
1964. Then in April the first ATC instructors- 10 
from Chanute-entered a ballistic missile analysis 
course given by Boeing. 

Sh()\>n is a vic» of communications 
equipment used >%ilh the Minuteman 
launch training facilitv. 

At \ancc AFB. Oklahoma, pilot trainees use the allilutle chamber to simulaie IImmu at hijih 





Project ICE 

At the end of 1963, Gen Curtis LeMay, Air Foree 
Chief of Staff, advised all major commands that the 
Air Force had to intensify economy measures 
because of budget reductions, decreases in man- 
power, and ever-increasing fixed costs. The plan was 
called Project ICE [increased combat effectiveness]. 
Its purpose was to cut costs elsewhere so that greater 
emphasis could be placed on combat effectiveness. 
Among the cuts ATC identified in 1964 were 
reducing the number of women in the Air Force, 
consolidating medical training, reducing activities in 
the Office of Information, and consolidating common 
training for the services. 

Humanitarian Aid 

On 19 August 1964. Stead AFB provided helicopter, 
medical, water-carrying, and earth-moving support to 
civilians fighting a 200.000-acre brush and grass fire 
in Nevada. In September Laughlin personnel assisted 
with emergency rescue efforts when floods hit the 
Del Rio. Texas, area. Then in December 1964 and 
January 1965. Stead again provided helicopters, 
supplies, and personnel to assist in disaster relief 
efforts in northern California and southern Oregon, 
where winter floods had devastated the area. 

Students learn how to handle parachutes durin<; the Parachutc/Lifc Support Course at Chanute .\FB, Illinois 



During the year, the I'S government esealated American military involxement in Metnam. This had a 
marked effect on indi\idual technical and militar> (raining centers. I'or example, in Deeemher 1964 Keesler 
Technical I raining Center had 1(1.(1X9 students in training; in December 1965 it had 16.495. Despite A IC's 
efforts, the >var in Southeast Asia siphoned off most of the command's best ins(ruc(()rs. Iea\ing it «i(h a 
significant lack of experienced, qualified personnel. Ihe number of graduates from basic militar\ (raining 
increased dramaticall>. To accommodate the increased production, ATC reverted to a split-phase basic 
militar> training program. 



(as 1)1 31 IX-cemher 1465) 


6 numbered air force equivalent iiriits: 

Alabama--Craig: Ari/A)na--Willianis: Calilornia-Mather: 
Colorado— Lowry: Georgia--Moody: Illinois—Chanute: 
Mississippi-Keesler; Nevada-Stead: Oklaiioma- Vance: 
Texas— Amarillo. James Connaily. Lackland, Laredo, 
Laughlin, Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb 

76,7.^2 (S.3I.^ officers; 47.677 enlisted: 20.760 cnilians) 

L876 (C-47. C-34. C-I2.\ C-13L CH-.\ HH-43. T-28. T-29. 
T-33. T-37. T-38. T-39. T-4L U-3, UH-19) 


Lackland Mil Tmg Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Tmg Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Tmg Ctr. Chaniite AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

2 wing equivalent units: 

USAF Medical Service .School. Gunter AF Station 

USAF Recrmting Service. Kaiulolph AlB TX 

3 flying training s\ ings: 

3."^ I nth. Randolph AFB TX 
36.30th. Sheppard AlB TX 
363.'ilh (AiKancedl. Stead AFB NV 

2 navigator training wings; 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 
3565th. lames Connalh AFB TX 

S pilot traiiung v\ings; 

35()Olh. Reese AFB TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
355()th. Moody AFB GA 
356()th. Webb AFB TX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 
36l5lh.Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th. Laughlin AFR T\ 

I intlependent grouii equivalent unit: 

3545lh USAF Hospital. Goodfellou AlB IX 



Airmen in the technical missile courses at Sheppard AFB, Texas, march to the mess hall alter morning; classes. 


The ATC commander. Lieutenant General 
Momyer. designated Major General Mooney, ATC's 
vice commander since 16 November 1960, as the 
new Lackland Military Training Center commander. 
Stepping in on 1 August as the new vice commander 
was Maj Gen Nils O. Ohman. Previously, General 
Ohman served as the ATC Deputy Chief of Staff, 
Technical Training. 


HQ ATC Reorganization 

In earl) lebruary, the ATC commander announced 
that the headquarters would undergo an extensive 
reorganization to better group functions ami promote 
more efficient management of the head(.|uarters. 
Those changes began on 1 March, when the l)eput\ 
Chief of Staff, Flying Training became the Deputy 
Chief of Staff, Operations and the Deputy Chief of 
Staff, Plans, Programs, and Operations Services 
becanie the Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans. All Hying 
activiies in ATC then fell under Operations, as did 
the con . 1 t-ist, weather, and operation services. 
Operations transferred functional responsibility for 
monitoring Officer Trainina School and general 

military training to the Deputy Chief of Staff, 
Technical Training. Staff surveillance of the Judge 
Advocate School passed from Operations to the Staff 
Judge Advocate, and the Chaplain School came 
under the command chaplain. 


Greenville AFB Inactivated 

In December I9(i,i Secreiar\ of Defense Robert 
McNamara announced that Greenville AFB would 
close in 1965. During the first half of 1964. ATC 
began moving medical training from Greenville to 
Gunter AFS in Alabama. Personnel courses 
transferred to Amarillo, and firefighting went to 
Chanute. On 1 April 1965, ATC inactivated 
Green\ ille and its 35()5th Technical Training Group. 
At the same time, ATC assigned the base to Kecsler 
in caretaker status, until it returned to civilian control 
on 27 October 1 066, 


USAF Recruiting Service Relocated 

By I July 1965, the USAF Recruiting Service moved 
its headquarters from Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, 
to Randolph. The move had a two-fold purpose, to 
nunc Recruitinn Ser\ice from its old warehouse 



An instructor at Lowry AFB, Colcirado. makes a point to a ;;n)up oJ munitions maintenance students. 

facility, which was in need of major repairs, and to 
put it closer to command headquarters. 

Judge Advocate Course Realigned 

Elfcctne 14 Scplcmber \'-)h5. the Judge Advocate 
course moved from jurisdiction of the USAF 
Chaplain School to the Officer Training .School, This 
move was made in preparation for ihe transler ol liie 
chaplain school to Maxwell AFB m 1966. 


3630th Flying Training Wing 

The commaiul ilesigiialcd and organized the .Vi.^Olh 
Flying Training Wing at Sheppard and assigned it to 
Headquarters ATC effective 10 December 196."^. The 
new wing would conduct the undergraduate pilot 
training program foi the Cicrman Air Force. 


Training Expansion 

During ihe last half of 196.'i. Hying training showed a 
small increase; however, military and technical 
training units showed a large expansion, primarily 

because of the situation in Southeast .Asia. At 
Sheppard. for instance, the a\erage daily student load 
grew from 4.()()() ni .lul\ lo almost 9..'S()() in 
December. Keeslers student loail jumped from 
12.675 at mid-year to 16.49.5 al the end of the \ear. 
and Chanute more than doublcil il^ load, climbing lo 
almost 9.200. 


Flying Program Revised 

In early 196.5. ATC decided to replace its 55-week. 
252 tlying-hour training program with a new course. 
Known as the 30/90/1 20-Hour Program, the new 
class was 5?> weeks long and included 240 Hying 
hours (.30 conventional and 210 jet). Class 67-A was 
ihe lirsi lo enter the new program, beginning on 

Flight Screening Program 

Ihe mam dilleiencc bclween the previous UPT 
program and the 30/90/120 program was the addition 
of a light plane phase, in which civilian contractors 
provided 27 days of instruction and 30 hours of 
Hying in the T-41. To provide flying hours for the 
T-41. ATC reduced the primary phase to 90 hours 
and left the basic phase unchanged al 120 hours. The 



flight screening program began in July 1965 when 
ATC revised its Hying training program, cutting two 
weeics from the course. Jet flying hours dropped from 
252 to 210. Civilian contractors conducted the 
training near each of the undergraduate pilot training 

training at Freeman Field. Indiana. The school moved 
to Chanute in late 1944. to Sheppard in 1945. to San 
Marcos in 1947. James Connally in 1949. back to San 
Marcos in 1951. to Randolph in 1956. and to Stead in 


Ms Carol VVcnheimer. the only female contract 
instructor pilot, walks out to a waiting 1-41 trainer 
at Stinson Field in San Antonio, Texas. Ci>ilian 
contractors conducted the light plane phase of 
undergraduate pilot training at flying facilities 
located near each of A IC's IP I bases. 

Undergraduate Navigator Training 

Air Trainnig Command reached a milestone in 
undcrgraduale navigator training during the first half 
o\' 1965 when the aviation cadet program came to an 
end at James Connally AFB. During the year, 
personnel at James Connally spent most of their lime 
preparing for the TAC takeover in early 1966. All 
navigator training would relocate to Mather AFB in 
California, along with a number of T-29s. 

Helicopter Training 

Ail framing Command activated the 36.^7th I-'lying 

Training Squadron (Helicopter) at Sheppard on 

I October and assignetl it to the Sheppard Technical 

Training Center. Then in December, with the 

activation of the 3630th Flying Training Wing. ATC 

reassigned the st|uadron from the center to the wing. 

'Vith the coming closure of Stead AFB in 1966. the 

'dron woukl assume helicopier training at 

■d. The command hail operated a helicopter 

e March 1944 when it opened helicopter 

Amarillo Announced as Closure Base 

In early 1965, ATC began making plans to close its 
training activities at Amarillo and transfer the base to 
Air Defense Command by mid- 1968. The command 
would relocate 29 technical courses: 7 to Chanute, 
10 to Lowry. 5 to Sheppard. and 7 to Lackland. 


Split-Phase BMT Reborn 

In early 1965. President Lyndon B. Johnson 
announced that the United States would begin 
increasing the number of its forces in Southeast Asia. 
In response to a USAF request and not wanting to be 
caught unprepared as it was with Korea. ATC 
conducted a comprehensive study of Lackland's 
housing capacity to determine the greatest basic 
military training load the base could handle. Officials 
found that Lackland could hold 20.000 nonprior 
service students "until the winter months by doubling 
up practically all personnel." However, rather than 
expecting Lackland to handle the basic military 
increase alone, on 9 August 1965. Air Training 
Command returned to a split-phase basic military 
training program. In order to handle the influx of 
nonprior service airmen, most basic military training 
students selected for technical instructit)n received 
four weeks of BMT at Lackland and the last two 
weeks of the six-week course at either a technical 
training school or the medical service school. Airmen 
designated as direct duty assignees, all Women's Air 
Force members, and Air National Guard and Air 
Force Reserve personnel took the entire BMT course 
at Lackland. The split program remained in effect 
until 5 April 1966. when all basic military training 
returned to Lackland. 


Manpower Shortfalls 

.An liaimiig Command continued lo have problems 
keeping qualified, experienced instructors, and the 
problem worsened as more and more personnel 
received assignments to Siiutheast Asia just as ATC's 
training requirements increased. Weapon systems 
support training and aircraft and motor vehicle 
maintenance courses ai Chanute. administrative and 
supply courses at Amarillo. electronics training at 
Keesler. and a variety of other courses at Lowry and 
Sheppard hadn't the number of experienced 



instructors needed to provide qualil\ instruction. 
Even some flying training units reported shortages of 
instructor pilots, maintenance and supply specialists, 
and survival instructors. To allc\iatc these problems. 
Air Training Command increased I'ormal instructor 
training, shifted some instructors from well-manned 
fields to those with chronic shortages, froze military 
instructor assignments. hired more civilian 
instructors, and filled nian\ other iiisii iictor slots with 
new graduates. 

ATC Response to Southeast Asia Conflict 

Hscalalion of the war in Vietnam had a corres- 
ponding effect on ATC's Prime BEEF (base engineer 
emergency force) teams. Here was just the sort of 
contingency envisioned in the BEEF concept. The 
first deployment took place at mid-year. On 30 June 
the Air Force directed ATC. SAC. and ADC to alert 
skilled personnel in certain specialties for short- 
notice, temporary deployment to Southeast Asia as a 
composite team. The expected tasks were site layout, 
construction cribbing, and steel revetments. No ATC 
base had a full\-nianned BEEF team from which to 
draw, but a detailed screening of personnel records at 
HQ ATC identified 24 airmen at 8 bases who met 
most of the criteria. While the Prime BEEF program 
was still in development, the requirement was 
regarded as a foretaste of the future and justification 

tor an immediate review of the command's manning 
and training resources. 

Project Sparrow Hawk 

In mid-Decembcr l'Xi4. the US Air I'orce established 
Project Sparrow Hawk, a high priority requirement 
for evaluating six A-6A, six A-4, and six F-.'SA 
aircraft in the tactical mission environment. The 
object ol' the icsi was lo delcrniiiic ihc capability of 
these aircraft to perform close air support. Tactical 
Air Command conducted the lest al liglin AFB in 
Florida, with ATC providing T-.38 aircrew transition 
and ground crew training. The Air Staff also directed 
ATC to coordinate with TAC on training require- 
ments. By -lO June 1965. .Air Training Command had 
completed its support of Spamivv Haw k. 

Mission Support Aircraft Reduced 

Earl) m the vcar lleadquarlcis I S,\l looked al the 
possibility of reducing the number of mission support 
aircraft service-wide. .Mr Training Command soon 
learned that its tleet wDuld be reduced by almost M) 
percent--a loss of 59 aircraft, mostly C-54s. C-123s, 
and T-2ys. The command's rcinaining airlift capa- 
bility was to be concentrated at the technical training 

Basic training iciTuits 
priKticf clinil)iii<4 Ihc 
stacked barrels on Ihc 
olistaclc course at 
Aiiiarillo MB, Texas 





Compared to the drastic influx of trainees during the Korean War. the buildup of basic training at Lackland for 
the Vietnam War went smoothly. The modern Air Force of computers and sophisticated management concept 
expanded in an orderly manner. The days of "Tent City" remained just part of Lackland's colorful history. 

Although the Lackland mission did not change during the last half of 196.'i. the growing manpower requirements 
for Southeast Asia were reflected in the increased workload for the Basic Military School. 

All of Lackland's organizations geared for the upsurge when advised by higher headquarters that the USAF 
Recruiting Service had been authorized to exceed the programmed nonprior service enlistment objective for the first 
quiirter of fiscal year 1966. The programmed increase called for 400 additional nonprior service airmen in July. 200 
in August, and 800 in September. Lackland anticipated a student load of 17.900 on 1.^ July and did not expect the 
student load to drop below 17.000 before the middle of October. 

The plan for emergency expansion of basic military training (BMT) called for additional housing facilities to 
accommodate a total on-base load of 10.000. At the time, the Basic Military School only had space for 17.770 
trainees, including guardsmen and reservists. Lackland obtained additional space by consolidating some of its 
technical training students, relocating OTS permanent party personnel to the Lackland Training Annex, housing 
trainees in the transient airmen's quarters, and regrouping permanent party personnel. Still, Lackland had to increase 
the size of each flight from 60 to 65 in order to find enough room. By 18 September the trainee population had 
climbed to 20,037. 

The Vietnam buildup necessitated a brief return to split-phase training from August 1965 to April 1966. This 
program provided for 22 days at Lackland and 8 days at a technical school, with directed duty assignees receiving 
the full .^0 days at Lackland. When BMT returned to a single phase on 1 April 1966. it was cut back to 24 days for a 
brief period from April to July 1966. After that, basic training stabilized at a length of six weeks, called the 
"minimum essential" program. Ironically, this was the same length as the program used by the Army Air Forces 
when Lackland opened as a basic training base 20 years before. 

During 1966. no other single incident had as significant an impact on the Lackland training center as the death of 
an airman basic on 10 February 1966. The cause of death was spinal meningitis. Before it was over. 10 cases of the 
dreaded disease had been confirmed. Luckily, there were no other deaths. Training officials took immediate steps 
to halt the spread of the virus. They increased the distance between tables in the basic trainees' dining halls and 
canceled all nonessential activities requiring gatherings of basic trainees. Officials also curtailed the use of chapels, 
theaters, service clubs, and all activities requiring exertion. In addition, they cut the size of flights to 55 and 
canceled all town passes. 

Largely because of the meningitis outbreak. Headquarters USAF diverted incoming recruits to Amarillo AFB. 
Texas, which was scheduled to close in July I96S. Lackland sent a sizeable cadre of permanent party personnel to 
Amarillo to assist. Recruits began arriving on 18 February 1966. It was not until the latter part of March that 
Lackland v\ as back to normal. However, due to the influx of trainees for the Vietnam buildup. .Amarillo conducted 
BMT until November 1968 and did not close until 31 December 1968. 

During the late 1960s. Lackland went through a building boom. Five huge dormitories, each capable of housing 
1.000 airmen, were constructed. These giant dormitories had living areas, dining halls, classrooms, and training 
areas for an entire basic training squadron all under one roof. The base also acquired a personnel processing facility, 
a dispensarv. a sentrv dog \eterinary clinic, two \ isiiint' officers' c|uarters. and several recreational tacilities. 



The escalation of the «ar in \ ietnam in\ol\ed XVC in <ireater recruitment on behalf of the Air Force. The 
fiscal jear 1966 fjoal for enlistinj; non-prior ser\ice personnel for four \ears of acti\e duty. Ilrst set at 88,535, 
stood at 139.491 on 18 January. By the end of ^^ 66, the »oal had increased to 162.868. Pilot shortages 
pro>idcd a theme for much Air Force discussion and recei\ed much attention in Air Training Command. 
Official Air Force projections placed the F\ 67 deficit in pilots at more than 3,000, although the immediate 
demand for pilots was being satisfied by the undergraduate pihtt training program and b\ assigning desk- 
bound rated officers to primary fiying positions. In addition, the >vilhdra\>al of rated officers from ATC 
struck hard at the command's instructor pilot force. 


(as ol 31 December 1966) 



Alabama--Craig; Arizona-Williams; California-Mather: Colorado-Loury: 
Georgia— Moody; Illinois— Chanule; Mississippi -Keesler; Oklahoma -Vance; 
Texas-Amariilo, Laclvland, Laredo, Laughlin, Randolph, Reese, Sheppard, and 


79,327 (7.99()orncers; 49.417 enlisted; 2 1 .920 civilians) 

1.833 (C-47. C-54. C-123. C-131. CH-3, CH-21. HH-43. T-28. T-29. T-.33, 
T-.37. T-38, T-39. T-41. U-3. UH-19) 

President Lyndon B. .lohnson talks to crowds of Laughlin AFB 
personnel who turned out to see the chief e\ecuti\e «hen he 
\isited the base in 1966. President .lohnson «as there on an 
inspection tour of Amislad Dam on the Rio drande Ri\er near 
Del Uio. Fhe giant dam, a joint project of the Inited States and 
the Republic of Mexico «as nearing the half\\a> point in its 
construction. President .Johnson and his part) toured the dam 
site >>ilh Mexican President Gustavo Diaz Orda/. 


7 numbered air force et|iii\alcni units: 

USAF Recruiting -Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanule AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 

Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Low ry ALB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard ALB TX 

2 flying training wings: 

35l()th, Randolph AFB TX 
3630lh, Sheppard AFB TX 



1 navigator training wing: 

3535lh. Mather AFB CA 

8 piKil naming wings: 

35UUth, Reese AFB TX 
3525th, Williams AFB AZ 
3550th. Moody AFB GA 
3560th. Webb AFB TX 
3575th, Vance AFB OK 
3615th. Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th. Laughlin AFB TX 

2 independent group or group equivalent units: 

3545th USAF Hospital. Goodfellow AFB TX 
3636th Combat Crew Trng (Survival). Fairchild 


Sam Maddux, Jr. 

On 1 July Lt Gen Sam Maddux, Jr.. who had 
served as Vice Commander of Pacific Air Forces 
since 1^65. replaced Lt Gen William W. Momyer as 
Commander of ATC. General Momyer became the 
Deputy Commander. Military Assistance Command. 
Vietnam and the Commander. Seventh Air Force. 
Continuing as ATC vice commander was Major 
General Ohman. 



James Connally AFB, Texas, Reassigned 

As ordered by the Secretary of the Aw Force, on 
I January 1966. ATC transferred James Connally 
AFB. Texas, and its 3565th Navigator Training 
Wing, to Tactical Air Command. Only the 3565th 
Navigator Training Group at James Connally 

remained in ATC. assigned on I January directly to 
the headquarters for the purpose of closing the 
undergraduate navigator training program there. 
When that job was completed, on I May ATC 
inactivated the group and its two training squadrons. 

Stead AFB, Nevada 

At the direction of the Department of the Air Force, 
ATC inactivated Stead AFB, Nevada, and its 3635th 
Flying Training Wing (Advanced) on 15 June 1966. 
Stead's helicopter pilot training unit, the 3638th 
Flying Training Squadron (Helicopter) was 
discontinued on I April, and the 3637th Combat 
Crew Training Squadron (Survival and Special 
Training) ceased to exist on I June. Helicopter 
training moved to Sheppard AFB in Texas, and 
survival training transferred to Fairchild AFB in 
Washington. Activated on 1 March 1966 to assume 
survival training at Fairchild was the 3636th Combat 
Crew Training Group (Survival). The group reported 
directly to HQ ATC. 

Flying Activities Ended at Lowry 

In 1938 the first Army aircraft landed at Lowry Field. 
Through the years, many different aircraft operated 
from the field, but in recent years airspace had 
become so crowded that in 1966 the Air Force 
directed Lowry to shift all of its flying activities to 
nearby Buckley Air National Guard Base. 


Medical Service School, USAF 

In the mid-l96()s. Gunter began to find it more 
difflcult to support medical training, as training 
requirements expanded. Air Training Command 
considered several sights for possible relocation--in 
particular, the San Antonio area and Keesler. 
However, it was the cutback in missile training which 
ultimately led to the ATC decision to put the school 
at Sheppard. Between March 1966 and March 1967. 
the Medical Service School at Gunter AFS. Alabama, 
moved to Sheppard along with I 1 5 of its assigned 
officers and 261 airmen. Headquarters, Medical 
Service School. USAF closed at Gunter on 3 June 
1966 and opened the following day at Sheppard 
under control of the technical training center 
commander. The last class endeil at Gunter on 
31 March 1967. 

Recruiting Service 

Since its activation as a wing-level unit in 1954, 
Recruiting Service had undergone considerable 
growth. In recognition of its increased size, the Air 
Force elevated it to numbered air force-le\el effective 
14 June 1966. 



Language School 

Fur iiiaiiN \cais. the USAF Language School al 
Lackland had taught officer and enhsted personnel 
under the Military Assistance Program to understand, 
speak, read, and write enough English to enter 
technical and flying courses. On 1 July that program 
ended when ATC discontinued the language school. 
From that time on. the Arniv -operated Defense 
Language Institute pro\ ided that training. 

Recent graduates of the medical school at Gunter 
.\FS, Alabama (ri<iht). receixe a briefing; from 
their super\isor at Wllford Hall Medical Center. 
Lackland AF"B, Te\as. An instructor (below) 
shows students the correct wa> to administer 
patient care. 


K' _ 






During field training this enlisted survival 
student tries his luck at using improvised 
fishing gear to supplement his 2,500-calorie 
allotment for five and one-half days in the field. 

When the United States entered World War II, the 
thorny problem of recovering downed airmen in the 
several theaters of war quickly came to the attention 
of Army Air Forces officials and US intelligence 
agencies. The success of British evasion and escape 
organizations did not go unnoticed by US intelligence 
agencies. The Army Air Forces, in coordination with 
the Office of Strategic Services, took on the job of 
developing a capability that paralleled the British 
effort. As the scope of the war broadened in Europe, 
so did the business of rescuing downed airmen. With 
the help of well-organized underground forces, the 
Army Air Forces extricated 60 percent of the aircrews 
downed in the Balkans by late 1^44. The task of 
rescuing downed airmen in the Pacific theater was far 
more complex and far less successful. 

After the war. the Strategic Air Command (SAC). 
under Gen Curtis E. LeMay. set out to de\elop a more 
comprehensive aircrew survival capability. The first 
step down that road was the Arctic Indoctrination 
School, established in August 1947 at Marks AFB. 
Alaska. A short while later, SAC established an 
additional survival training capability at l.add AFB. 
Alaska. The school at Marks provided training for 
aircrews exposed to the arctic environment, while the 

facility at Ladd was more limited in scope and 
designed mainly for crews stationed there. Before 
long the survival training program outgrew the 
facilities available at Marks, and in November 1948 
the Air Force consolidated training at Ladd AFB. 
Arctic survival training remained there until 1960. 
when it moved to Eielson AFB, Alaska. 

On 16 December 1949, SAC opened another 
survival school at Camp Carson, Colorado, to teach its 
aircrews how to survive in mountainous teirain. 
Soon. Far East Air Forces, Tactical Air Forces, 
Military Air Transport Service, and the Royal 
Canadian Air Force were all vying for class slots for 
their aircrews. By 1952 the school was so popular 
that it had outgrown the capacity of its Colorado 
location. Hence, the Air Force sought a larger 
training area to accommodate the increase in students. 

In July 1952 Strategic Air Command selected 
Stead AFB, Nevada, as the location for its new land 
survival school and turned over the training area at 
Camp Carson to the US Army. With the Korean War 
in mind, officials in SAC believed the surroundings at 
Stead AFB provided a realistic setting for survival 
training. Ten miles northwest of Reno, the new center 
was close to the high Sierra Nevada mountains on one 
side and a hot, bleak, treeless environment on the 
other. The survival school remained at Stead for 14 
years; however, jurisdiction of the base and school 
transferred from Strategic Air Command to Air 
Training Command on 1 September 1954. Then on 
30 June 1966. the Secretary of Defense announced the 
closure of the base and the transfer of all land survival 
school assets to Fairchild AFB, Washington. 

In this simulated prisoner of war compound at 
Fairchild .VFB. Washington, instructors conduct 
resistance training. 



W nil the tianster of llie solmol lo Fairchild. ATC 
activated the 3636th Combat Crew Training Group 
(Siir\i\al) on 15 March 1966 to cany out that mission. 
In addition to the training pro\ ided at Fairchild. other 
major commands also operated survival training 
programs during the Vietnam War. Tactical Air 
Command, for example, had the Deep Sea Survival 
School at Tyndall AFB. Florida, and the Tropic 
Survival School at .Albrook. AFB. in the Panama 
Canal Zone, while Pacific Air Forces had the Jungle 
Survi\ al School at Clark Air Base in the Philippines. 

The proliferation of programs (ATC estimated there 
were o\er 100 land and water survival and life support 
continuation training schools) prompted the Air Staff 
to consolidate all training centers under one 
command. Air Training Command became the single 
manager for survival training, and the group was 
elevated to wing status on 1 April 1971. By mid- 1971 
the wing had completed the consolidation. It offered 
basic global survival at Fairchild; jungle survival at 
Clark: water surv iv al at Homestead AFB. Florida: and 
arctic survival at Eielson AFB. Alaska. Subsequently. 
Headquarters USAF authorized the wing to conduct 
tropical survival at Albrook. 

.A couple of years after the end of the Vietnam 
War. the Air Force shut down the Jungle and Tropic 
Survival Schools. Operations at Clark ceased in April 
1975. and the school at Albrook closed in June 1975. 
The 3636th Combat Crew Training Wing continued lo 
conduct basic survival courses at Fairchild. while one 
of its squadrons provided water survival training at 
Homestead and a detachment offered arctic surv ival 
training at Hiclson. Hurricane An(.lrev\ devastated 
Homestead AFB in 1992. and the subsequent 
devastation forced the conunand to relocate water 
survival training. The 3613th Combat Crew Training 
Squadron moved from Homestead lo Tyndall .MB. 

The command restructured its wings in 1993 and 
determined that the 3636th Combat Crew Training 
Wing should be a group. On 24 January 1993. 
therefore, the command redesignated the 3636th as the 
336th Crew Training Group, and the 3612th. 3613lh. 
and 3614th Combat Crew Training Squadrons became 
the 22d. 17th. and 66th Crew Training Squadri>ns. 
respectively. Three years later, the group became 
simply the 336th Training Group, but continued its 
mission of providing survival training. 


^^ V 

In the 1950s. \l( ..piraicd a 15-da> surv ival trainiiiu o.iir m at Stead AFB. Ni\ ni.i. Ini .linnw immhcrs. 
Here instructors watch students roast a freshly-cau}>ht rahhil over an optn lln. 



Basic training students at Aniarillo AFB, Texas, 
receive their first pay at the reception center. 
Followins an outbreak of spinal meningitis at the 
Lackland Military Training Center in February 
1966. ATC temporarily diverted incoming recruits to 
Aniarillo AFB. Because of the buildup for the 
\ ietnam War, Aniarillo continued conducting basic 
training until December 1968. Two weeks later, on 1 
.lanuar> 1969. ATC inactivated the base. 

Chaplain School 

In \9b5 Headquarters USAF aniuiiinced that the 
USAF Chaplain School at Lackland would move to 
Maxwell in 1966 and become part of Air L'niversity. 
Air University established a USAF Chaplain School 
on 20 May 1966; however, ATC did not discontinue 
its school until 1 July 1966. The first formal chaplain 
training came into existence in March 1918 at Fort 
Monroe. Virginia. A month later the program moved 
to Camp Zachary Taylor near Louisville. Kentucky. 
Then late in World War II it operated at Fort 
Oglethorpe. Georgia. Fort Slocum. New York, hosted 
the program from 1946 to I July 19.'^.^. when the Air 
Force began training chaplains. On that date. ATC 
established a chaplain's course at Lackland. From 
I9.SS to 1965. judge advocates also reported to the 
chaplain school for training. 


3330th Basic Military School, USAF 

iV'cause of the crowded conditions at Lackland and 
an outbreak of meningitis among the basic trainees, 
on 17 February ATC .<iganized a second basic 
military school, the 3330th, at Amarillo and assigned 
it lo that center. 


Changes in Flying Training Operations 

At Laughlin. the wing commander introduced a new. 
more efficient way to conduct daily launch and 
recovery operations at a flying training base. 
Previously the wing had divided the day into four 
flying periods and launched up to 45 aircraft of each 
type, one after another, into nearby training areas. 
There were forty-one T-38 training areas and thirty 
T-37 training areas, but they were small. 
overcrowded, and difficult for the student pilots to 
manage. Under the Laughlin plan the wing divided 
the training day into three-and-one-half-minute 
segments and that provided 315 takeoff times for 
each type of aircraft. This program allowed the wing 
to enlarge the size of the training areas and reduce the 
number needed. The new training areas were large 
enough for student pilots to fly any kind of T-38 
mission, and the continuous flow relieved the 
congestion experienced under the old block launch 
system. After a test of the new concept at other bases. 
ATC directed all undergraduate pilot training wings 
to adopt the continuous tlow concept. 


Air Base Ground Defense Training 

In 1966 Air Training Command revived air base 
ground defense training after a decade-long gap. The 
new five-day, 40-hour course operated at Lackland 
AFB. Texas, training air policemen for dut> in 
Southeast Asia. 


Project 100,000 

In August an ad hoc Air Force group convened to 
study whether the military services should be 
required to recruit more "lower mental category." or 
Category IV, enlistees. Past studies convinced the 
group that Category IV enlistees encompassed such a 
wide range of abilities that the use of "Category IV" 
itself had little meaning. The study group believed 
that the first consideration in accepting lower ability 
airmen in the numbers proposed (about 10.200) 
would be to establish additional screening criteria to 
determine if the grouping of prospective enlistees 
into Category IV was due to environmental factors 
thai could be corrected (such as poor education ) or if 
the enlistees were really not very bright. This project 
continued into 1967. During that time, well over 
80.000 enlisted entered in this category, and about 
76.000 graduated from technical training. 



Reductions in tralnin<> requirements, recruitinj; ()bjec(i\es. and the budget for fiscal year fJAS allowed Air 
Training Command to reprogram closure actions at Amarillo and save an estimated S4.I million in f)asc 
operatin>; support. The command decided to move suppl\, aircraft and engine mechanic, airframe repair, 
and fuels courses sooner than planned. However, basic militar> training and administrative courses would 
remain active at Amarillo until earlv 1968, as originallv scheduled. 


(Usui 31 DcLcnihci lWi7) 


Alabama--Craig; Aii/ona-- Williams; ("alir()rnia--Malhci'; Colorado-- l.owry; 
Georgia--Moody; lllinois--Chanute; Mississippi— Kceslcr; Oklahoma-- Vance; 
Texas— Amarillo. Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and 


76.629 (8.429 otTiceis; 47,607 enlisted; 20.59.^ civilians) 

1,946 (C-47, C-.'^4, C-I3I CH-3 HH-4.\ T-2S, T-29. T-37. T-3S. T-39. T-41. 
TH-I.U-3A. UH-19) 


7 numbered air force equivalent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Lackland Mil Ting Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Amarillo Tech Trng Ctr. Amarillo AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng^Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

I living training vv ing: 

351()th. Randolph AFB TX 

2 iiidepeiideni grou|i or equiv;ilenl units: 

3-=i4.^th USAl- Hospital. Cloodlcllow AIB T\ 
3636ih Cmbt Crew Trng. laircliild AFB \VA 

3 independent s(.|uadrons: 

32.^()lh Flying iraining. iyndall AIB IL 
32.S I St Flying Training, Perrin AFB TX 
3253d Pilot 'lYainin'j. Peterson Field CO 


navigator training vvmg: 
3.'53.5th. Mather AFB CA 

General Maddux remained commaiulei and Major 
General Oilman vice coniinaiuler. 

8 pilot training wings: 

350nth. Reese AFB TX 
352.^th, Williams AIB AZ 
3550th. Moody AFB GA 
3560th. Webb AFB TX 
3575lh. Vance AFB OK 
.3615th. Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th, Laughlin AFB TX 



Transfer of 3630th Flying Training Wing 

Since 1965, the 363()th Flying Training Wing at 
Sheppard had conducted Hying Iraining for the 
German Air Force. Beginning in early 1967 a liniiled 
iHimber of US trainees joined the program. From its 
activation, the wing had reported directly to HQ 
ATC. However, concerns about duplication of some 



functions and operating costs caused ATC to reassign 
the 3630th to Sheppard Technical Training Center, 
effective 1 April 1967. 

3320th Retraining Group Relocates 

One of the actions ATC took in response to the 
announced closure of Amarillo AFB was the reloca- 
tion of the retraining group from Amarillo to Lowry 
AFB. Colorado. The retraining group, with its 
mission to rehabilitate and return to duty airmen 
convicted of criminal offenses, started the move on 
1 July and completed it on 1 September 1967. 

Students at Chanulc Technical Training Center 
recei^e hands-on electrical training. 

3250th and 3251st Flying Training Sqs 

Randolph phased down pilot instructor training 
during 1967 so it could begin to provide UPT to meet 
pilot production needs in Vietnam. The T-37 pilot 
instructor training program at Randolph transferred to 
Perrin AFB. Texas, in July 1967. where it was 
operated by the 3251st Flying Training Squadron, 
which ATC had organized on 1 April 1967. The 
command activated a second Hying training 
squadron, the 3250th at Tyndall AFB. Florida, on 
I October 1967 to provide T-38 pilot instructor 

"'53d Pilot Training Squadron 

' number of \cars of studs, the Sccretar\ of 
approved a light plane training program for 

the Air Force Academy on 8 December 1966. The 
Air Force designated ATC the training agency, and 
the command acti\ated the 3253d Pilot Training 
Squadron at Peterson Field. Colorado, on 1 October 
1967. Training began in January 1968. 

3389th Pilot Training Squadron 

With the shift of Randolph's T-28 program to the 
Mississippi gulf coast. ATC organized the 3389th 
Pilot Training Squadron at Keesler on 15 January 
1967 and assigned it to the center. The squadron 
provided flying training for foreign students through 
the Military Assistance Program (MAP). The 
majority of students came from South Vietnam. In 
March the squadron added C-47 training, when 
Randolph transferred its C-47s to Keesler. 



USAF Students in GAF Course 

On 21 April a limited number of USAF students 
began pilot training with German Air Force students 
at Sheppard. The program consisted of a single 
course of 55 weeks, as compared to 53 weeks in the 
standard UPT course. It provided 132 hours of T-37 
and 1 30 hours of T-38 instruction, but contained no 
instruction in T-41 aircraft. German students began 
T-38 training on 30 March. 

Wild Weasel Lead-in Training Transferred 

Beginning in mid- 1967, ATC transfeired all Wild 
Weasel electronic warfare lead-in training for rear- 
seat F-4C pilots at Mather to a TAC base. Turnover 
of the training program concluded w ith the transfer of 
the simulator on l6Januaiy 1968. 

UPT at Randolph 

Harl) in I'-'d?. Randolph iransfeiTed its T-28 and 
C-47 courses to Keesler and its pilot instructor 
training to Perrin and Tyndall to make room for 
undergraduate piku training. It would be the ninth 
UPT base in Air Training Command. A contractor 
provided the first phase of training at Stinson Field in 
San Antonio, and primary training began at Randolph 
on 16 May. 


Instructor Badge 

On 1 1 December 1967. the Chief of Staff of the Air 
Force appro\ed a distincti\c badge for ATC 
instructors assigned primary duty in a formal training 



\n instructor at T,(»vr> AFB. 
( iilorado. explains soiiu' oi' llu' Nital 
\\ elements In the F-4C offensive tire 
control s\stem 


Military Training Instructor Uniforms 

Air Training Command authorized and issued 
distincti\e canipaiim iiats, on 1 July 1967. to each 
military training instructor who had direct contact 
with basic trainees. 


Project Mix Fix 

Begnining in \'-)(i5. the Air Force had implemented a 
program to identify those positions that had to be 
filled by military personnel and those that could be 
converted to civilian slots. By early 1967, ATC had 
transferred 1.401 militar> authorizations to ci\ilian. 
Air Force-wide over 14.000 militiiry slots had been 
identified for conversion. 

Changes in Aircraft Inventory 

Sheppard received its first four TH-IF aircraft on 
3 May 1%7. delivered to the .^6.37lh Flying Training 
.Squadron (Helicopteri. Training began in July, and 
by year's end. the 1 1 1- II had replaced most of 
Sheppard's UH-19Bs. AKd in 1967. ATC released the 
last of its T-??is. ()nl\ two bases-Craig and 
Randolph--still used the l-.^.^. The last one departed 
Craig in mid-February, and Randolph said goodbye 
to its final two at the end of June. Because many of 
the T-33s at both bases were fairly new. instead of 
putting them in storage, the Air Force transferred them 

lo Alaskan Air Command. E\eii willi ihe loss of these 
aircraft. Air 'fraining Command saw a substantial 
increase in the number of assigned aircraft-from 
1 .X76 in June to 1 ,946 as of 3 1 December. The reason 
for that expansion was because pilot training goals 
had grown. Of all ATC bases, only Lackland had no 
assigned aircraft. 

( olonel Uoss, DepiilN ( onimaiidi r. 3.^45lh 
Technical School. C hanutc \l H. Illinois presents 
MS};t McCarthy the "Instructor of the Near" 
award for 1967. 



During the 1960s WAFs trained in their o>vn 
separate flights while going through basic 
training. At the left, a trainee is fitted for her first 



The tone of the year was set in .Janiiar\. first «ith the capture of the I SS Piiehlo. then the Tet offensive, 
and llnall> President Johnson's announcement that he \\ould not seek reelection. As more and more forces 
deplo> ed to Southeast Asia, ATC found itself with fewer personnel assiKned. While enough instructors were 
available for pilot training, other areas such as navigator and electronic warfare had less than 80 percent of 
required instructors. E>en basic military training suffered from a loss of instructors. And e\en when enough 
instructors were on hand, training was sometimes less than satisfactorx because instructors didn't have the 
experience needed. 



6 numbered air force equivalent units: 


(as of 3 1 December 196S) 

Alabama-Craig; Arizona— Williams: California— Mather: Coiorado-Lovvry; 
Georgia--Moody: Illinois— Chanute: Mississippi— Kecslcr: Oklahoma- 
Vance: Texas— Amarillo. Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese. 
Sheppard. and Webb 

7.\7I8 (8.233 otticers: 43.593 enlisted: 19.892 cixilians) 

2.1 13 (including C-47. C-.S4. C-131 CH-3 HH-43. T-28. T-29. T-37. T-38. 
T-39. T-41.T-43.TH-1) 


2 indepeniieiit group or group cqiu\alent luiils: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Lackland .Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. SheppartI AFB TX 

I flying training v\ing: 

3510th. Randolph AFB TX 
I na\igator training wing: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 

8 pilot training wings: 

3500th, Reese Al B TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
355nth. Mood\ AFB (iA 
3560th. WchbAl B IX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 
3615th. Craig AFB AL 
3640th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646ih. Lauuhlin AFB TX 

3545th LJSAI- Hospital. Goodfcllow AIB IX 
3636th Combat Crev\ Training (Survival). 
Fail-child AFB WA 

3 indopendcni si|uadrons: 

3250th Flying Training. Tyndall AIB II. 
3251st Flying Training. Perrin AFB TX 
3253d Pilot Training Peterson Field CO 


Lieutenant General Maddux remained as the ATC 
commander. On 15 July 1968. Maj Gen Leo F. 
Dusard. Jr.. replaced Maj Gen NilsO. Ohman as the 
vice commander. General Dusard had served as 
Director of Personnel and Fducation at the Air Staff. 
Ohman became the Commander. Headquarters 
C"ommaiKl in Washington. D.C. 



Since October 1958, when the Air Force first acquired from the Army the task of meeting the Defense 
Department's need for dogs. Lackland handled all aspects of the sentry dog program. 



Center headquarters and supporting units were 
discontinued, and a day later ATC placed the base on 
inactive status. 

Amarillo AFB Closure 

While the lIosmil; oI Amarillo AFB remained a 
scheduled action. DOD postponed it from 30 .lune to 
31 December 1968 to allow more time to prepare 
facilities for the accommodation of relocated courses. 
Throughout 1968, ATC continued to release property 
and facilities. For example, the airfiekl portion of 
1.784 acres and seven buildings were released to the 
city of .Amarillo on I April. Other property and 
facilities were released to civilian control on 1 July. 
Bell Helicopter Company, which repaired helicopters 
at Amarillo for the Army, established and expanded 
operations on the base, and Texas A&M University 
established a technical training institute. .School. 
student, and instructor squadrons were discontinued 
in August and September, and ATC discontinued the 
3220rh Technical Training School headquarters on 
1 October. Technical training ended on 27 August 
1968, when personnel and administration courses 
mcved to Keesler. and basic military training ended 
at ilio on II December, leaving only Lackland 

to I 'e basic militarv training for the Air Force. 
On ■ licr 1968. .J^marillo Technical Training 


Reorganization of the Pilot Training Wings 

All of ATC's eight UPT v\ ings had two pilot training 
squadrons, and each conducted training in both T-37 
and T-38 aircraft. A staff study prepared at Reese 
AFB. Texas, and a test conducted there in 1967. 
indicated that separate T-37 and T-38 squadrons 
would yield manN benefits, such as improved 
scheduling, uniform grading practices, and more 
efficient use of resources and instructors. In addition, 
there would no longer be a need to dual-qualify 
supervisory personnel. General Maddux agreed with 
the test results and ordered the reorganization. 
Beginning in mid- 1968. ATC established a single 
phase-pilot training squadron concept at all UPT 
bases; all T-37 instruction was provided by one 
specialized squadron, and all T-38 training was 
conducted b\ the other. This reorganization did not 
affect T-41 irainin>;. 





AFA Pilot Indoctrination Program 

Air Force Acudom\ cadets began pilot indoctrination 
training on 5 January 1968. Early in the planning tor 
this program, HQ USAF advised that an FAA private 
pilot license should not be considered a prerequisite 
for successful completion of the program, nor should 
instructors be required to have F.A.A certification. 
However, if arrangements could be made at no 
expense to the .Air Force, then F.AA licenses could be 
given. On 5 June 1968. ATC authorized FAA flight 
examiners to fls with cadet trainees. These flight 
checks could be gi\en at any point after 30 hours, 
provided the student received a minimum of 35 hours 
of flight training before being issued the private pilot 

Specialized EW Training for ADC 

Uuruig the latter part of 1967. .Au" Defense Command 
asked ATC to provide special training for officers 
assigned to the EC-121R aircraft. This training 
supported a Southeast Asia operation originally 
designated Project Muscle Shoals, but later changed 
to Igloo White. Between October 1967 and October 
1968. when the course ended. ATC trained a total of 
47 officers. 

Students learn the techniques of removing an 11-4.^ niior 
blade in a lulieo|)ler niainlenanee course. 

USMC Students in UPT 

Because the .An force had the largest undergraduate 
pilot training program in the Defense Department, it 
made sense to use the .ATC program as a means to All 
unexpecteil pilot requirements. Such was the case in 
1967, when DOD requested Air Force assistance to 
meet Marine Corps training needs. On 21 June 1968, 
Class 68-08 graduated at Laredo and Vance-the flrst 
group of USAF-trained Marine Corps pilots to 
receive .Air Force wines. 

Project FLYTE 

During 1967 and 1968. ATC started several 
iiKlcpendent studies aimed at new approaches to 
impi\)\ing undergraduate pilot training. The most 
important ot these was the Project FLYTE | Flying 
Training Esaluation] study. Project FLYTE sought a 
total mission analysis Worn which details of training 
methods and types of nev\ training aircraft and 
simulators could be worked out. It included student 
selection policies, the automated student management 
system, ATC's standardization and evaluation 
program, student evaluation, airspace utilization, 
field evaluation program, and pilot proflciency 

UH-19 Training Terminated 

On 8 .Aprd 1968, A fC ended its L'H-19 helicopter 
pilot training course at Sheppard AFB. The TH-IF 

replaced the UH-19. 


Revision of Electronics Training Courses 

In .\la\ 19Wi HQ LS.Al requested a long-term, 
comprehensive review of all electronics training 
courses taught within the Department of Defense. 
The purpose of the study was to save money and 
authorizations. .Air Training Command issued its 
flnal semiannual report on 19 January 1968. Out of 
the original 146 courses studied, ATC left 32 
unchanged, reduced the length of 96. and discon- 
tinued 18. From these changes, the command was 
able to reduce its instructor force by 242 
authorizations. In all. the review saved ATC nearly 
S.'^.2.^ million. 

Amarillo Course Transfers 

With the announcement that .Amarillo would close, 
ATC considered putting the center's personnel and 
administration courses at Lackland. However. 
Lackland didn't have the dormilorv space to 
support the large student load. Instead, these 
courses moved to Keesler. increasing that base's 
student population hy 20 percent. 



Air Training Command used the Bell TH-IF turbine-engine helicopter in its undergraduate helicopter 
pilot training program. \\ hen the prototype of this helicopter was ordered into production it was 
designated the Hl'-IA and named the Iroquois. The HH designation gave rise to the nickname "Huey" 
\>hich \>as unofficial but more frequently used than Iroquois. 


Consolidated OTS Campus 

Air Training Command provided precommissioning 
training for men and women at Lackland Military 
Training Center's Officer Training SchooL using 
facilities both on the main base and at Lackland's 
training annex (Medina), two miles west of the main 
installation. In May 1968, Officer Training School 
consolidated its campuses at Medina. At the same 
time. Officer Training School became responsible for 
basic military instruction forjudge advocates. 


Enlistment for OTS Lengthened 

On 16 May 1968. when the first FY 69 class entered 
Officer Training School, the ciiiistmeiit period for all 
civilian applicants who specifically enlisted for OTS 
was increased from two to four years, making the 
time consistent with that of individuals enlisting in 
the Regular Air Force. 


A new pre-enlistment test, the Armed Services 
Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). went into 
effect on 1 September 1968, replacing the Airman 
Qualifying Examination. The new test measured nine 
aptitude areas. According to the Defense Department. 
Recruiting Service would serve as the official 
ASVAB Armed Forces Centralized Test Scoring Unit 
for DOD. 

Garden Plot 

With the war in Vietnam hecomiiig even more 
unpopular. HQ USAF assigned ATC new- 
responsibilities under the Garden Plot plans- 
response to civil disturbances. In April 1968 
Sheppard personnel supported airlift of Army troops 
anil vehicles to Aiiilrews AFB in response to disorder 
following the assassination of Dr Martin Luther 
King. Four months later Sheppaid assisted with the 
airlift of Army personnel and equipment from Fort 
Sill. Oklahoma, to the Democratic National Con- 
vention in Chicago, where they guarded against civil 



As the \ ictiiam War raffed on. A TC added anollRi pilot training; l)asc~C Olumbus MB. Mississippi, 
brinjiinji the total to 10. Meanwhile. be<;innin<; in February 1969, the IS Air Force bej;aii working with the 
\ ietnamese Air Force to help it become a self-sufficient. 4((-s(|uadron air arm by the second {|uarler of fiscal 
year 1972. Trainin<i was the foundation of the program, and all elements of .\TC's training establishment 
would play a vital role if this goal were to be achieved. 

The 3630th Flying Training W ing at Shcppard \\ 15. 1 1 \as. provided pilot training for the German Air Force 
and conducted helicopter pilot training. 


(;is ol 31 Dcccinhcr \'-)b'-h 



Alabama--Craig: Ari/ona--Williams: Caliri)mia--Malhcr; 

Colorado- Lowiy: Geoigia--Moody: lllinois-Chanule: 

Mississippi--Columbus and Keesler: Oklahoma-Vance; 
Texas-Lackland. Laredo. Laughlin, Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. 
and Webb 

74.159 (8.412 officers; 46.286 enlisted: 19.461 civilians) 

2.282 (C-.54. C-i31. 01-3. HH-43. T-2S. T-29. T-37. T-3S. T-39. 




6 numbered air force equivalent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service, Randolph AFB TX 
Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr, Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr, Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr, Sheppard AFB TX 

1 flying training wing: 

3fil()th, Randolph AFB TX 

1 navigator training wing: 

3535th, Mather AFB CA 

9 pilot training wings: 

3500th. Reese AFB TX 
3525th, Williams AFB AZ 
3550th, Moody AFB GA 
3560th, Webb AFB TX 
3575th, Vance AFB OK 
.^6l5th. Craig AFB AL 
364()th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th, Laughlin AFB TX 
365()th, Columbus AFB MS 

2 indepeiulent group or group equivalent luiils: 

3545th USAF Hospital, Goodfellow AFB TX 
3636th Cmbt Crew (Surv). Fairchild AFB WA 

3 independent squadrons: 

32.50th Flying Training, Tyndall AFB FL 
3251st Flying Training, Pcrrin AFB TX 
3253d Pilot Training, Peterson Field CO 


Lieutenant General Maddux remained as the ATC 
commander, and Major General Dusard continued as 
the vice commander. 



Stead AFB, Nevada 

Training ended at Stead AFB in mid- 1966, and it 
became an inactive base, with caretaker responsibility 
passed lo an ATC detachment at Mather AFB. On 
6 November 1969. the base reverted to civilian 

control, and ATC inactivated its caretaker 


3650th Pilot Training Wing 

On 15 February 1969, ATC activated the 365()th Pilot 
Training Wing at Columbus AFB. Mississippi. The 
base transfened from Strategic Air Command to 
ATC on 1 July 1969 and became ATC's tenth UPT 
base. The first UPT class--? 1-0 1 --entered training 
thereon 17 July 1969. 

Due to the saturation of Kcesler's single runway. 
Air Force training officials transferred the MAP 
C-47 transition and instrument courses to Tactical 
Air Command, as it more closely resembled 
combat crew training than undergraduate pilot 
training. The move began on I September 1969 
and was completed 18 days later. 


EB-66 EWO Training 

The electronic warfare officer training for officers 
assigned to EB-66 aircraft in Southeast Asia started 
in January 1967 at Mather AFB and was finally 
terminated in May 1969. In all. a total of 310 officers 
were trained in this course. 

Navigator-Bombardier Course 

On 25 March 19(i9. ATC discontinued teaching the 
Navigator-Bombardier Course (ASQ-48) as SAC no 
longer had requirements for these graduates. 

Courses Transfer to Tactical Air Command 

Air 1'raiiiing Conuiiand transferred the H-lllD 
weapon systems training course at Mather to Tactical 
Air Command on 1 February 1969. Then on 1 July. 
the RF-4C na\ igator-reconnaissance upgrade training 
also at Mather shifted from ATC to TAC. 



At Reese AFB. I e\as. a student |)iliit uiulerjjdinji |)h\siiil(i<iical liainin<; is litlcd l)\ his parasaii. 


Military Working Dog Program 

Oil lS.liil\ IM(i'). Alt' iJiitiaiL'd a program to train 
and test the patrol dog's ability to detect marijuana. A 
group ot patrol dogs and their handlers \\ere trained 
tor 14 v\eeks and carried out a preliminary field test 
at Laughlin and Laredo AFBs. A second project 
developed around the use of working dogs in rivers 
and bays. Training managers completed basic 
research on this project in November 1969 at Panama 
City. Florida, in conjunction with the U.S Navy's Ship 
Research and Development l^aboratory. 

Project Pacer Bravo 

As part ol the \ letiiamese Air Force improvement 
and moilerni/alion program, the Air Force 
established Project Pacer Firavo to furnish the 
Vietnamese with trainers and training aids for their 
17 maintenance training courses. Air Training 
Command assigned fabrication of the trainers to its 
military training center at Lackland and the technical 
training centers at Chanute. Keesler, Lowry, and 
Sheppard in June 1969, When the project was 

finished. Chanute hati produced 19.5 trainers, Keesler 
234. Lackland I 1.^. l.owiy 17.^. and Sheppard 155--a 
total of 872. By the end of the year. .^TC had 
shipped all trainers well ahead of schedule. 


Closed Circuit Television for OTS 

CJflicials in () 1 S launched a closed circuit tele\ision 
project in 1968 as a means of putting the school on a 
three-week entry/graduation schedule. The shortened 
schedule was established to meet personnel 
requirements in Southeast .-^sia. In broad terms, the 
project consisted of acquisition and installation of 
equipment, studio construction, and software 
development. The school accepted the first elements 
in October 1969. and limited transmission of lessons 
began in December. Full operation of this project was 
scheduled to be completed by August 1970. 




Draft Lottery Implemented 

The Selective Service Svstem implemented the draft 
lottery method of induction on 1 December 1969. 
This had an immediate effect on the Regular Air 
Force and the Officer Training School, causing 
increased volunteers for the Air Force. 

Project 703 

Announced in August 1969, Project 703 called for an 
FY 70 DOD budget reduction of a billion dollars. 
This resulted in the Air Force slashing procurement 
and training goals, and that, in turn, had widespread 
influence in almost every facet of the command's 

Hurricane Camille 

The Mississippi gulf coast bore the brunt of 
Hurricane Camille when it reached landfall on 
17 August. One of the strongest hurricanes ever 
recorded. Camille left a path of destruction, including 
132 deaths, 27 persons missing. 8.931 injured, and 
5,662 homes destroyed. Utilities and communications 
were inoperable. Fortunately, Keesler AFB sustained 
relatively light damage ($3.5 million) in comparison 
to the surrounding area, so base personnel were able 
to provide immediate assistance, distributing food 
and clothing, providing medical aid, and helping with 
cleanup efforts. Most technical training courses were 
put on hold until 2 September. 

■At Chaniilc \FB, Illinois, student officers perform an ali<;nment of the missile offset and rotation angle. The 
student at kit uses an odolite to determine position as the student in the center records angle readings. 



In its continuing effort to cut costs, the command made some major changes in the undergraduate pilot 
training program. Air Training Command reduced 11*1 in ,lul> \^H) from 53 to 48 weeks and lowered the 
number of living hours each student recei\ed from 240 to 208.5. The 240-h(mr program had consisted of 30 
hours in a light plane and 210 hours in jets. In the shorter program student pilots received 16 living hours in 
a light plane and onlv 192.5 hours in jet trainers. At the same time. A IC introduced an experimental I PT 
curriculum at Moody AFB. Georgia, which provided just 188 hours of living time and cut more deepiv into 
the r-37 and r-38 phases of instruction. Two vears later, A IC would abandon the experimental program at 
Moody and go back to where it started at the other IPT bases with a syllabus that provided for 210 Hying 
hours in jet trainers-90 in the T-37 and 120 in the T-38. 


(as of 31 December 1470) 



Alabama-Craig: Aii/ona--Williams: California-Mather: Colorado— Lowry: 
Georgia— Moody: Illinois— Chanulc; Mississippi— Columbus and Keesler; 
Oklahoma— Vance: Texas-Lackland. Laredo. Laughlm. Randolph. Reese, 
Sheppard. and Webb 

70,530 (8.830 officers; 42.878 enlisted; 1S.S22 civilians) 

2.299 (Co4. C-131. CH-3. HH-43. T-28. T-29. T-37. T-38. T-39. T-41, 


6 numbered air force equiv alent units: 

Lackland Mil Trng Center. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Center. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Center. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Center. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Center. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

1 n>mg training wing; 

351()th. Randolph AFB TX 
I navigator training wing: 

3535th, Mather AFB CA 

9 pilot training wings: 

35()()th, Reese AFB TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
35.5()th. .Moody AFB GA 
3560th, WebbAFB TX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 
3615th. Craig AFB AL 
3640th, Laredo AFB TX 

Shown is a view id an I ndergradnale Navigator 
Training sludenl receiving hands-on training. 



9 pilot training wings (contd): 

3646th, Laughlin AFB TX 
365()lh. Coiumbns AFB MS 

2 independent group or equivalent units: 

3545th USAF Hospital, Goodfellow AFB TX 
3636th Cmht Crew Trng (Survival). Fairehild 

3 independent squadrons: 

3250th Flying Training. Tyndall AFB FL 
325 1 St Flying Training. Perrin AFB TX 
3253d Pilot Training. Peterson Field CO 

plaee in response to the increasing importance of the 
foreign military training program, especially in 
helping the South Vietnamese Air Force become 


Lt Gen 
George B. Simler 

On 1 September 1970. Lt Gen George B. Simler 
assumed command from Lt Gen Sam Maddux, Jr., 
who retired. General Simler previously served as the 
Vice Commander of United States Air Forces in 
Europe. On I May 1970, Maj Gen Charles W. 
Carson. Jr. temporarily replaced Maj Gen Leo F. 
Dusard. Jr. as vice commander. He filled the position 
until Maj Gen John R. Murphy arri\ed on 1 July from 
his position as Director ol Legislative Liaison. Ott'ice 
of the Secretary of the Air Force. 


Office of Foreign IVIilitary Affairs Estabiisiied 

On 15 December 1970. General Simler enlarged his 
headquarters to seven deputy chiefs of staff, when he 
added an Office of Foreign Military Affairs. 
Originally, responsibilities for foreign military 
training plans and programs had been a function of 
the rieputy Chief of Staff, Plans. The change took 

An aircraft hangar at Chanute .\FB, Illinois, serves 
as a classroom for jet engine maintenance training. 



Transfer of Helicopter Training to the Army 

In December 1969. Congress dnected that the 
fixed-wing training of helicopter pilots by the Navy 
and the Air Force be discontinued and that all rotary 
wing training be given by the Army. By April 1970. 
the Air Staff had decided that future Air Force 
helicopter pilots would receive light plane screening 
by ATC; a two-phase undergraduate helicopter pilot 
training program by the Army at Fort Wolters 
(formerly Wolters AFB). Texas, and the US Army 
Aviation School at Fort Rucker. Alabama: and 
combat crew training by Military Airlift Command. 
The first Air Force students entered the Army portion 
of this training on II October 1970. 

Last T-37 Received 

For 14 years, the r-37 played a major role in ATC's 
flying training program. The first of these aircraft had 
arrived at James Connally AFB in 1956. The last of 
1,137 arrived in ATC in January 1970. 



Project Fast Track 

C\iiiiinued budyel rediiclions caused ATC to test a 
imilti-track system of graduating na\ igatiir students 
on a proficiency basis to cut down on instructor 
workload, reduce pipeline time, and cut training 
costs. In early briefings this project was called "Fast 
Burner." but the command later changed it to "Fast 
Track." The first class (72-02) entered this test 
project on 26 October 1970. The fast track section of 
the class, selected after about 10 weeks of training, 
was accelerated to the point where it graduated with 
Class 72-01. Continuing shortage of navigators, 
coupled with budgetary constraints, made it 
necessary to increase production at the least possible 
cost. Therefore. ATC developed a 30-week 
(previously 38-week) training course for implementa- 
tion in 1971. which accelerated all students. 


Shown is a view of a computer operators console 
used for hoth the computer operators and 
maintenance courses. 

Computer Systems Training for Officers 

In .lanuary I^JfiX. the /\u force established a new 
officer career area. Computer .Systems, with two 
specialties-Computer Systems Analyst and 
Computer Systems Programming Officer. Training 
production in these specialties had just begun when 
the .Mr Force revised the career field on 31 August 
1970. calling it the Officer Computer Technology 
career area. The new career field included computer 
systems staff officers, design engineers, system 
analysts, programming officers, and operations 

Project Heavy Bare 

Ihe An force deinonstrated the bare base concept 
under the nickname Coronet Bare in October 1969. 
Training in the operation and maintenance of unique 
bare base equipment in preparation for Coronet Bare 
was conducted informally at contractor facilities. 
Following this demonstration, the Air Force estab- 
lished Project llea\y Bare, a program designed to 

t|ualify a fighter squadron to operate from airfields 
de\i)id of the structures and services normally tbund 
on USAF bases. The many services, shops, and 
buildings normally provided by base support units 
were planned to become portable and organic 
elements of the squadron. ,-\ir fraining Command 
accepted responsibility for training individuals in 
AFSC-oriented courses: preparing course outlines, 
materials, and training aids: and conducting most 
initial classes. 

A Seeurilv Police trainee (ahoxe) prepares to 
throw a hand ;;renade (lurin<^ a Held exercise at 
Camp Bullis, near Lackland .\FB, Texas. Below. 
Securilv Police trainees learn how to handle a 
\eliicle-inoun(ed M-()ll machine <:un. 




USAF Marksmanship School Inactivated 

On i Auj^List 1970. ATC inactnated the USAF 
Marksmanship School at Lackland, a victim of the 
budgetary helt-tightening and tirganizational 
contractions implemented throughout the Air Force. 
Air Training Command transferred the school's 
training and gunsmith capabilities to other units at 

Distinguished Graduate Criteria Changed 

The Air Force phased out the award of Regular Air 
Force commissions for distinguished graduates in 
Officer Training School beginning on 23 January 
1970. This occurred because the Air Force did not 
feel the criteria used for distinguished graduate was 
necessarily a valid predictor of subsequent 
performance as an officer. The distinguished graduate 
program was retained, made a matter of record, and 
continued to be an element of consideration by 
regular-status appointment boards. The phaseout 
began with Class 70-08. where no more than 15 
percent of the distinguished graduates were selected 
for regular appointment. This ratio was reduced by 
three percent in each succeeding class until Class 
70-13. whose one percent constituted the final 
awards. None were tendered the appointment in sub- 
sequent classes. 

Oftker trainees run as part of the physical fitness 
training at Officer Training School. Lackland 
AFB, Texas. 

A class at the Officer Training School, Lackland AFB, Texas, conducts a discu 

ssion on the military code of 



Change seemed to be the h\«ord throughout the command in lOVI. At the beginning of the \ear. ATC 
reorganized all the technical training centers to align such tunctions as cixil engineering, personnel, 
administration, comptroller, and band under the air base group commander, who also became the base 
commander. In March Air Training Command reassigned the 3630th I l>ing Training \Mng at Sheppard, 
«hich conducted a I PT program for the Cierman Air Force, from the technical training center lo HQ A K . 
The command then >\ent on to consolidate pilot instructor training (PI 1) at a single location. >\hen it moved 
the PIT squadrons at Perrin and T> ndall to Randolph. 




(as of 31 December 1971 ) 


Alabama—Craig: Ari/ona--Williams: California— Mather: Colorado— Lowrj'; 
Georgia— Moody: Illinois— Chaiuile: Mississippi— Cokmibus and Keesler: 
Oklahoma-Vance: Te\as-Lacklaiid. Laredo. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese. 
Sheppard. and Webb 

75.442 (9.669 olTicers; 46.2S.5 enlisted: 19.4SS civilians) 

2.2 1 (C-54. C- 131. T-28. T-29. T-37. T-38. T-39. T-4 1 . Ill- 1 ) 


6 numbered air force equivalent units: 

Lackland Mil Tmg Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng^Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowrv Tech Trng Ctr. Lovvrv AFB CO 
-Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

1 combat crew tranimg wing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB \VA 

2 flying training wings: 

351()th. Randolph AlBTX 
3630th. Sheppard AFB TX 

I navigator training wing: 

3535th. Mather AFB CA 

9 pilot training wings: 

350()th. Reese AFB TX 
3525th. Williams AFB AZ 
355()th. .Mo()d> AFB GA 
3560th. WebbAFB TX 
3575th. Vance AFB OK 

3615th.Ciaig AFB AL 
364()th. Laredo AFB TX 
3646th. Laughlin AFB TX 
3650th. Columbus AFB MS 

1 group equivalent unit: 

3545th USAI- Hospital. Goodfellow AFB TX 

2 independent squadrons: 

3253d Pilot Training. Peterson Field CO 
3301st School (L'SAF Skill Ctr). Forbes AFB KS 


Lieutenant General Simler continued as 
commander, and Major General Murphy remained 
the \ ice commander. 



A student navigator at Mather AFB, California, plots his course while seated at 
the T45 simulator. 


3301st School Squadron Established 

In connection v\ith the Vietnam diawdown and to 
fulfill one of ATC's special obligations- 
administering the vocational training program 
designed to prepare selected enlisted members for 
jobs in the civilian sector-ATC activated the 3301st 
School Squadron (USAF Skill Center), at Forbes 
AFB. Kansas, a TAC installation, on 1 December 
1971. The 3301 si reported directly to the Deputy 
Chief of Staff, Personnel at HQ ATC. 

3630th Flying Training Wing 

Effective 15 March 1971. ATC rea.ssigned the 3630th 
Flying Training Wing from the Sheppard Technical 
Training Center to HQ ATC. In the 19W)s. the wing 
had reported directly to HQ ATC. but concerns about 
duplication of effort between the wing and its host 
caused ATC to reassign the 3ft3()th to Sheppard. 
However, because of the importance of the wing's 
foreign training mission— it conducted a special UPT 
program for the German Air Force— ATC realigned 
the 3630th directly under the command hcadquaiters. 

Technical Training Center Reorganization 

In an effort to standardize organi/aiion and save 
manpower. Air Training Command implemented a 
reorganization of all technical traininc centers on 

4 January 1971. The command aligned comptroller, 
civil engineering, personnel, administrative, and hand 
functions under the air base group and designated the 
air base group commander as base commander. 
Additionally, the command did away with the 
commandant of troops position at each of the 
technical training wings. In place of the wing staff 
position, on I March 1971. Air Training Command 
activated numbered student groups at each of the 
centers to manage the troops. 

Survival Group Becomes Wing 

On 1 April 1971. ATC restructured the 3636th 
Combat Crew Training Group (Survival) as a wing 
for operational and administrative control of all 
survival training. 

DCSIMateriel Renamed 

In line with a change made earlier by HQ USAF. Air 
Training Command redesignated its DCS/Materiel as 
DCS/Logistics on 1 December 1971 and made 
compatible changes of other titles in the field units. 


Amarillo AFB Turned Over 

Si.\ years after the .Air Force fiisl announced its 
closure. Amarillo AFB finally reverted to civilian 
control on KiFehruarv 1971. 



Air Trainiii}; (o mm and assifiiud llu' 111 si V-M to he painted \>ith xxliite corrosion control 
paint to the 364()th Pilot Training \Mn« at Laredo AFB, Texas. 



Consolidation of PIT 

As a part ot its plan to consolidate pilot instructor 
training, on L^ May ATC reassigned its 32.'ilst 
Flying Training Squadron at Perrin AFB. Texas, to 
the ^.SlOth Flying Training Wing at Randolph. 
Short!) thereafter, the squadron moved to Randolph. 
On l.'S August ATC reassigned its 32.'>()lh Flying 
Training .Squadron at Tyndall to the .^.'SlOth Flying 
Training Wing and moved the squadron to Randolph. 
Then on 6 October. ATC inactivated the 3:.'^()th. 
Both of these squadrons had provided pilot instructor 

Helicopter Training 

Since the .Arms now pro\itled all LUidergraduale 
helicopter pilot tranung. the Air Force chose to 
consolidate all helicopter combat crew training at Hill 
AFB. Utah, under the control of ihe Military Airlift 
Command (MAC), the primary end-user of all USAF 
helicopter pilots. The transfer from ATC to MAC 
was completed on M) .lime ]'■)! \ . 

T-43 Contract Award 

In Ma\ 1*^71. llic Air 1-orce awar^lcd the Boeing 
Aircraft Company a contract tor nineteen 
T-43 aircraft-a military version of the 737-to 
replace the T-29 for navigator training at Mather. At 
the same time. Honeywell. Incorporated. recei\ed the 
contract to pioihice a 52-station naxigalor simulator 
sysiem. The .Air IcMce expected delivery of the fust 
production aircraft and simulalor at Mather in 
Septcmlx-r l')73. 


Project Peace Echo Concluded 

Beginning in 1968. A\X liiinished training for the 
Israeli .Air Force. A cadre of men were trained lo tly 
and maintain F-4E aircraft sold to Israel under a 
military assistance program known as Peace [£cho. 
By August 1971 when Peace Echo concluded. ATC 
had trained 1.297 Israeli personnel. 

Drug Abuse Education 

Beginning in December 1970. ATC developed an Air 
Force-wide ilrug abuse education program. Training 
officials believed two resident courses should be 
offered. Base level personnel designated to conduct 
local programs would attend one course. The other 



would be for commanders, staff officers, and 
supervisors. The Air Force approved this concept, 
and Lackliind's 3275th Technical School began 
training on 4 October 1971. 

Joint Service Nuclear Training 

On 2S December 1971. ATC became the Air Force's 
executive agent responsible for providing all the 
nuclear familiarization training required within the 
Department of Defense. This training consisted of six 
courses conducted at Kirtland AFB. New Mexico, by 
the Field Command Defense Nuclear Agency. 


Project Hasty Piper 

Recruiting otficials implemented Project Hasty Piper 
in July 1971. as a unique program to assist the 
recruiter in meeting enlistment goals. Personnel 
assigned hand-picked volunteers, newly-graduated 
Irom basic military training or technical training 
schools, to their hometown recruiting offices for a 
14-day .stint enroute to their first base of assignment. 
While there, they were given maximum exposure to 
the news media and. in company with a recruiter, 
contacted former schoolmates and friends and visited 
schools, churches, and social and fraternal 
organizations where their presence might have 
intluence. Although ATC considered this program 
highly successful, it was unfunded, so ATC had to 
suspend it in February 1972. 

Students attending the .\ir Force Survival 
School. Fairchild .\FB. Washington, practice the 
parachute landing fall. 

Newly-enlisted Air Force recruits rccei\e the 
traditional military haircut at Lackland 




The establishment of the Community Colle-^e of the Air Force (C( AT) in the sprin<; of i')72 was an 
inno\ati\e mo\e b\ the Air Force to cope with the advent of the all-\olunteer force. \ arious studies had 
confirmed what man> intuiti\el> knew— the opporlunit\ for education and trainin<; was the most powerful 
inducement thai attracted younj; men and women to niilitar\ service. One of the <;oals of the ( ( AF was to 
permit airmen to receive academic credit for t)o(h military and civilian education and Iraininj; and appiv the 
courses they took toward an associate's degree. To get to that point, ATC first had to get the technical 
schools accredited and establish a centralized transcript service. Toward that end. the command renamed 
the technical school at each training center the School ot Applied Aerospace Sciences. Ihrough Ihe C C AF 
program, an airman could earn a certificate which recognized the completion of 64 semester hours (»f college- 
level courses—the equivalent of an associate's degree. 

8 119 5 






The Northrop r-38 "Talon" was Ihe Air Force's first supersonic trainer. With ils l\\o high Ihrusl-lo- 
weight ratio (iF .IS5-5 turbojet engines, the " Faion" was a high performance aircraft with speed, 
endurance, and capabilities similar to supersonic comf)at aircraft. Air Fraining Command received ils 
first F-.^Son 17 March f96l. 


(asot 31 DccciiiIxT IM72) 




Alabama--Craig: Arizona-- Williams; Calit'ornia-Mather: 

Colorado- Lowry; Georgia-Moody: lilinois-Chanuic: 

Mississippi-Columbus and Kcesler; Oklahoma-Vance: 

Texas-I.ackJand. Laredo. Laughiin. Randolph. Reese, 
Sheppard. and Webb 

72.89.'i (9,8.^.^ olTiccrs: 44.599 enlisted: 18.463 civilians) 

2. 1 29 (C-.54. C- L^ I . T-28. T-29. T-37. T-.38. T-.V). T-4 1 . TH- 1 ) 




6 numbered air force equivalent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service, Randolph AFB TX 
Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr, Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr, Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr, Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr, Sheppard AFB TX 

1 wing equisalent unit: 

School of Military Sciences. Officer, Lackland 

1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

y tlying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFBTX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
29th, Craig AFB AL 
38th, Laredo AFB TX 
47th, Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
7 1 st, Vance AFB OK 
78th, Webb AFB TX 
3630th. Sheppard AFB TX 

1 navigator training w ing: 

3535th, Mather AFB CA 

2 pilot training wings: 

3.S2.^th. Williams AFB AZ 
355()th. Moody AFB GA 

1 group equi\'alent unit: 

Community College of the Air Force. Randolph 

4 independent squadrons: 

3253d Pilot Training, Peterson Field CO 
3301st School (USAF Skill Center). Forbes AFB 

3302d Computer Services, Randolph AFB TX 
3303d Procurement. Randolph AFB TX 


William V. McBride 

Lieutenant General William V. McBride. former 
USAFE vice commander, succeeded Lt Gen 
George B. Simler on 9 September 1972 as ATC com- 
mander. On the same day. General Simler and his 
aide, Maj Gil L. Gillespie, died when their T-38 
crashed on takeoff from Randolph AFB. General 
Simler was on his way to Scott AFB. Illinois, where 
he was to become Commander. Military Airlift 
Command. He received his fourth star posthumously. 
On 4 November Maj Gen Felix M. Rogers. 
DCS/Technical Training, replaced Maj Gen John R. 
Murphy as the vice commander. General Murphy 
went on to an assignment in Japan. 


Wing Activations 

To preser\e the illustrious lineage and histories of 
combat units, the Air Force directed ATC to replace 
its four-digit tlying and pilot training wings with 
two-digit designations. The command inactivated the 
four-digit units and activated two-digit wings. Eight 
wings changed numerical designation during the 

Old No./Station 

New No. 


35 IOFTW( Randolph) 


1 May 

36.'^0PTW (Columbus) 


1 Jun 

3615 PTW (Craig) 

29 FTW 

1 Jul 

3640 PTW (Laredo) 

38 FTW 

1 Aug 

3646 PTW (Laughlin) 

47 FTW 

1 Sep 

3500 PTW (Reese) 

64 FTW 

1 Oct 

3575 PTW (Vance) 

71 FTW 

1 Nov 

3560 PTW (Webb) 

78 FTW 

I Dec 

OTS Reassigned to HQ ATC 

In Jul\ 1^71. OTS had been elevated from 
group-level to wing-level. To emphasize that this 
source of new officers was important and \ ital to the 
Air Force. ATC reassigned the Officer Training 
School, on 1 Jiuie 1972, from the jurisdiction of 
Lackland Militarv Traininc Center to the command 




Because of the cimtroversy surrounding American 
involvement in Vietnam, the Defense Department 
examined the possibility of establishing an all- 
volunteer force. The 1970 Gates Commission noted 
that while the offer of sufficient money would induce 
people to join the services, the quality of personnel 
drawn to the military life remained problematic. Air 
Force planners, especially, recognized that education 
related-incentives might attract better quality recruits. 
From this realization, the Air Force established the 
Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) in 1972 
as part of ATC. 

The idea behind the community college was to 
provide the means to blend on-duty technical training 
and education experiences with courses from civilian 
colleges and universities into coherent, job-related 
education programs. Under the CCAF prograin. an 
airmen could earn a Career Education Certificate. 
uhich recognized the completion of a minimum of 64 
semester hours of college-level work. The Air Force 
considered the certificate equivalent to an associate's 
degree offered by a college or university. 

The Communit) College of the Air Force was first 
accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools in December 1973. This was the highest 
accreditation available and gave CCAF academic 
credibility. In a further step. Public Law 94-361. 
signed in July 1976. authorized the Commander. Air 
Training Command to award the Associate in Ap- 

headquarters. On 1 August 1972. ATC redesignated 
OTS as the School of Military Sciences. Officer. 

Computer Services Squadron Activated 

.An- Training Command activated the 3302d 
Computer Services Squadron at Randolph on 
1 January 1972 to provide data automation services 
to the headquarters and base functional managers. 
The Deputy Chief of Staff Comptroller exercised 
operational control o\er the 33()2d. 

USAF Recruiting Service 

On 1 March 1^.172. ihc I'SAl Recruiting Service 
commander gained a second title, that ot ATC 
Deputy Chief of Staff Recruiting Service. As a 
deputy chid of staff Recruiting Service no longer 
needed separate comptroller, materiel, or personnel 
functions. This rcsulietl m a savings of several 
personnel authorizations. 

plied Science degree to those who had completed a 
CCAF study program. On 2.5 April 1977, CCAF 
awarded its first college degrees to 275 airmen 
stationed around the world. This marked the first 
time enlisted personnel had received college degrees 
from a military organization. 

Air Training Command originally established the 
community college at Randolph AFB. In 1975 Lt 
Gen John W. Roberts. ATC commander, expressed 
concern about the grow ing number of missions being 
located at Randolph and Lackland AFBs. while the 
Lackland Training Annex at nearby Medina had 
facilities to absorb additional activities. Therefore, the 
USAF Occupational Measurement Center moved to 
Medina in 1976 and. the following year, CCAF 
relocated to the training annex. Only two years later. 
as part of the realignment brought about by the 
consolidation of Air University and Air Training 
Command. ATC moved the cominunity college to 
Maxwell AFB at Montgomer\. .Alabama. Organ- 
izationally, the Community College of the AW Force 
remained part of ATC. 

The Commiuiity College of the Air Force 
graduated its lOO.OOOth student in the spring of 1992. 
when it offered approximately 70 academic degree 
programs through more than 80 affiliated schimls. 
When Air Education and Training Command stood up 
on I July 1993, the command realigned CCAF under 
,Mr Universitv. 

Community College of the Air Force 

At the direction of Headquarters USAF, Air Training 
Command activated the Community College of the 
Air Force (CCAF) at Randolph AFB, Texas, on 
1 April 1972 and assigned the group-le\el unit to 
command headquarters. 

Additional Student Squadrons 

follow mg racial mcuicnis ai Shcppaicl, AI'C ilccided 
its student squadrons were too large to manage 
effectively. Therefore, on 1 January 1972, the com- 
mand activated 24 additional student squadrons: five 
each at Chanute and Sheppard, eight at Keesler. and 
three each at Lackland and Lowry. 

3303d Procurement Sq Activated 

.All Iraiiiiilg Coiniuaiid acli\.ilcd the 3303d 
Procurement Squadron at Randolph AFB, Texas, on 
I November. The squadron was unilcr the operational 
conu-ol of DCS/Logistics. 





courses or designing new ones. Resulting courses 
would be conducted by the service with the major 


Flying training officials conducted a pilot instructor 
training (PIT) course for Vietnamese Air Force 
(VNAF) instructors at Webb AFB. Texas. The course 
began in August 1972 and used the same syllabus as 
the regular ATC T-37 PIT course. 

Flight Screening Program Revised 

During the latter pari of 1972. Air Training 
Command revised the flight screening portion of its 
undergraduate pilot training program. Graduates of 
the Air Force Academy pilot indoctrination program 
and Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps flight 
instruction program were no longer required to go 
through (light screening. Instead they entered directly 
into undergraduate pilot training. 


ITRO Launched 

In September 1972 the Interservice Training Review 
Organization (ITRO) launched a continuing 
all-services exaluation of technical training courses 
aimed at eliminating duplicate training by combining 


Last T-38 Received 

Air Training Command accepted its last T-38 (tail 
number 70-1956) at Palmdale. California, on 
31 January 1972. The aircraft was assigned to the 
3510th Flying Training Wing at Randolph. Eleven 
years earlier, on 17 March 1961. the command had 
received its first T-38 (tail number 195). During that 
1 1-year period. ATC took delivery of 1,1 14 T-38s. 

Air Installation Compatible Use Zone 

Starting in May 1972, the Air Force implemented a 
DOD program aimed at solving the long-standing and 
ever-increasing problems of encroachment of civilian 
communities around flying bases. Officials were to 
look at each base, considering such factors as 
accident potential, noise hazard, and danger to 
aircraft operation. Using this information, flying 
bases could then work with their civilian counterparts 
to improve land development management. 

\ technical training instructor at Lowry .\FB, Colorado, explains to students how to load 
Gi'Vl-69A short range attack missiles on a B-52 aircraft. 



After months of negotiation, on 27 January 1973. the \ ietnam peaee agreement was fmall> signed in Paris. 
At the same time. President Uiehard M.Nixim announeed to the nation that the draft >xas at an end: the 

mil it'll >•«' «mmilfl Kit<</\iiiii *\w\ oil likllitltoiki- f'iki*/*0 T'i'k A'l'^' 'itlrl iti: liW W* \i t\t*r\t\t\r\ti Wii*-«w*i> tllii i\i»<li'i> •kilt'oinilont 




(as of 3 1 December 1473| 


Alabama--Craig: Arizotia--Williains; Calitornia--Mathcr; CoIulkId-- 
Lowry: Georgia— Moody: Illinois-Chanute: Mississippi--C(>lun)hus 
and Keesler; Oklahoma- Vance: Texas-Lackland. LaiiL^hlm, 
Randolph. Reese. Sheppard. and Webb 

68.3()S (y.l6S onicers: 41.167 enlisled: 17.97.^ civilians) 

1.965 (C-llSA. C-131D/E. T-2y. T-37B. T-38A. T-41A/C. T-43A. 


6 numbered air force equivalenl units: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randi)lph AFB T.\ 
Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Clr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

1 wing equi\alenl lmuI: 

School ol Militars Sciences. Officer, Lackland 

I cnmbat crevs training wing: 

3636lh (Survivalj, lauchild AFB WA 

I I flying training wings; 

I2ih. Randolph AFB TX 
14th, Columbus AFB MS 
29th. Craig AFB AL 
38th. Moody AFB (iA 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
78th. Webb AFB TX 

SOih. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

I group equi\ alent unit: 

ComiiuinilN College of the Air l-oice. R:indolph 

6 iiidcpeiulent squatlrons: 

3253d Pilot Training. Peterson Field CO 

3.300ih Support. Randolph AFB TX 

330 1st School (I'SAl- Skill Center). Kirtland AFB 

3.^()2d Computer Services. Randolph Al B TX 

33()3d Procurement. Randolph Al B I'X 

33()4th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 

3314th Management Etigineering. Randolph AFB 


Lieutenant General McBride continued as 
commander. However. Maj (ien Frank M. Madsen. 
Jr.. replaced Maj Gen Felix M. Rogers as Air 



Three North American T-28 "Trojan" trainers fly over Keesler AFB, Mississippi. 
Under the Military Assistance Program (MAP) at Keesler, the propeller-driven T-28 
was used to train pilots from countries without jet aircraft. The program began during 
the winter of 1966-1967 and continued until 8 May 1973. 

Training Command's vice commander on 23 October 
1973. Rogers received his third star and became 
Commander. Air University. Madsen had been 
Deputy Chief of Staff. Technical Training, and he 
continued serving in that position and as vice 
commander until his retirement in 1974. 

combat lineage. (The command had activated the 
38th Flying Training Wing at Laredo on 1 August 

1972 and then inactivated the unit on 30 September 

1973 in preparation for the closure of Laredo. Two 
months later, on 1 December, ATC activated the 38th 
at Moody.) 


Military Training Center Redesignated 

Since training officials felt the former designation of 
Lackland Military Training Center gave an 
impression that there might be other Air Force 
centers providing basic training. Headquarters USAF 
directed Air Training Command to redesignate the 
unit as the Air Force Military Training Center. 
effecti\c I Jaiuiarx 1973. 

Management Engineering Squadron 

On 1 October 1973. ATC activated the 3314th 
Management Engineering Squadron at Randolph 
AFB. Texas. The 14 management engineering 
detachments belonging to the 33()()lh Support 
Squadron transferred to the new squadron. 

New Flying Training Wings Established 

iii 1973 .ATC inactivated the remainder of its four 
digit flying wings and replaced them with two-digit 
wings. All of the newly-activated units then had 

Old No./Station 

New No. 


3525 PTW (Williams) 

82 FTW 

1 Feb 

3535 NTW (Mather) 

323 FTW 

1 Apr 

3550 PTW (Moody) 

38 FTW 

1 Dec 


80 FTW 

1 Jan 

ATC NCO Academy Activated 

Air Training Command activated the 33U4th School 
Squadron (ATC NCO Academy) at Lackland on 
5 January 1973. With the establishment of the 
academy, more ATC personnel had the opportunity 
to receive professional military education training. 
The ATC Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel main- 
tained operational control of the unit. 

New DCS Created 

On 1 Ma\ 1973. .ATC created a new headquarters 
position. Deputy Chief of Staff. Community College 
Affairs. The CCAF commander filled the post. 



The T-43A. a militan \ersion of the Bot'in<i 737, 
replaced the T-29 as a navigator trainer. The T-43 
had 19 na\igator stations in the fuselage— 12 for 
students. 4 fur advanced students, and 3 for 


Laredo AFB Closed 

In conjunctiiiii with the cutback in pilut production, 
the Secretars ot Detcnse annoiuiced in early 1973 
that ATC no longer needed Laredo. .Mr Training 
Command inactivated the base on 30 September and 
placed it in caretaker status. 



Centralized Flight Screening Program 

Air Training Command centraii/ed light plane 
screening at Hondo Municipal .Airport. Hondo. 
Te.xas. on 17 May 1973. Training olTicials ct)ntracted 
with the Del Rio Flying Service to provide this 
training using ATC T-41A aircraft. The centralized 
flight screening program fell under the jurisdiction of 
ATC's School of Military Sciences. Officer. 

Proficiency Advancement Testing 

(Jn 2.1 NoNcnibcr I97.v .\1C began testing the feasi- 
bilitN of individual proficiency advancement in 
undergraduate pilot training at Columbus. In the test, 
students advanced through the s\ llabus based on their 
performance. Fewer missions would be flown pro- 
vided the student demonstrated the required skills. 
Conversely, more time per phase of training could be 
provided those students who needed it. Overall, the 
concept still retained the average class flying time of 
210 hours per student. 

POW Requalification Training 

111 .April 1973 ,A I C published a Pilot Requalification 
Training Guide for use in training prisoners of war 
who returnetl during Project Homecoming. Training 
began in May. At Randolph .ATC conducted pilot 
requalification training in the T-37. T-38. and T-39. 
Mather provided navigator requalification training in 
the T-29. The program concluded in late 1976. 

New Navigator Training Aircraft 

The rolloLii ol the lust T-4.i test aircraft occurred on 
2 March 1973 at Boeing's Renton. Washington, plant. 
A Boeing test crew made the first flight on 10 .April. 
On 28 July Boeing delivered the test aircraft to 
Mather. The first production model arrived at Mather 
on 28 October. 

Helicopter UPT 

The closing ol Fort W'oliers. Texas, b) the .Armv 
resulted in a consolidation of all Air Force under- 
graduate pilot training-helicopter at Fort Rucker. 
.Alabama. Fort Wolters graduated its last class on 
I November 1973. 


First Sergeant Course 

On I Mav ATC assumed responsibililv for creating a 
first sergeant course. Directed by the Air Force. ATC 
established a four-week course at Keesler comprised 
of three separate blocks of instruction: 
administration, human relations, and management. 
The first class began on 17 October 1973. 

Missile Training 

111 Scplembci 1970. ATC transferred Chanute's 
Minuteman missile launch officer course to 
Vandenberg AFB. California. Since that time. S.AC 
and ATC instructors had jointly conducted this 
training: ATC had responsibility for teaching the 
basic Minuteman course, while S.AC taught 
operational procedures. On 1 .lulv 1974. SAC 
assumed responsibility for the entire course. 


All-Volunteer Force 

With the signing of the peace agreement in Paris, 
President Nixon called for the end i>f the draft, 
indicating that the United States would depend 
exclusively on a volunteer military establishment. No 
conscription took place after 27 January 1973: 
although, the draft didn't officially end until 
congressional authorization expired on 30 June 1973. 



Well wishers crowd 

Keesler's Base Operations 
awaiting arrival of military 
personnel recently released 
from prison camps in North 
and South N'ietnam 


Project Homecoming 

TIk' All loicc impk'mcnled Project Homecoming— 
the repatriation of Americans freed from the prison 
camps of North and South Vietnam— on 1 2 February 
1973. Air Force officials (.icsignated 10 bases in the 
continental United States as welcoming points. Of 
these ATC owned three: Lackland. Sheppard. and 

Energy Crisis 

On 20 October the Arab-Israeli conflict erupted, and 
the Arab nations declared an oil embargo. The 
embargo had a severe impact on flying training, 
causing the cancellation of one UPT class (75-05) 
and shifts and slips in other classes. 

Project Homecoming returnee. Col George R. Hall, waves to well wishers at 



Perhaps the most dominant feature on the ATC landseape in 1974 »as the serious fuel shortage the 
command had to contend \^ith for much of the year. The shortage arose when the Organization of Petroleum 
Exporting Countries sent oil prices skyrocketing by cutting back on production. Almost o\ernighl. the price 
of aviation fuel tripled. To conserve fuel. ATC made numerous adjustments to the I PI syllabus, including a 
reduction in the number of sorties and flying hours and an increased reliance on the use of s\nthetic trainers. 
In other efforts to cope «ith the crisis, OTS did not accept an\ pilot applicants for F\ 75. and the Air force 
cut overall pilot production goals by 18 percent. By the end of the year, the situation had improved 
sufficiently that ATC rescinded many of the temporary measures and returned to the use of the regular 


(as of 31 December 1974) 



6 numbered air (orce-equi\ aleiU unitM 

Alabama— Craiii: Arizona— Williams: California-Mather; Colorado— 
Lowry: Georgia--Moody: lllinois-Chaniite: Mississippi— Columbus and 
Keesler: Oklahoma— Vance: Texas— Lackland. i.aui;hlin. K.indolph. Keese. 
Sheppard. and Webb 

52J\9 (8.25.^ otficers; 26.135 enlisied: 17.929 civilians) 

1.72.5 (C-IIS.A. C-131D/E. T-37B. T-38A. T-39A. T-41A/C. T-43A. 


1 wing eL|Ln\ alenl unit: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFR TX 
Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB T.X 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB M.S 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard Al B IX 

I combat crew training uing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AlB V\ A 

I I flying training vvings: 

1 2th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
29th. Craig AFB AL 
38th. ,Mood> AFB GA 
47th. Laugh'lin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st, Vance AFB OK 
78th. Webb AFB.TX 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

Officer Training Schiu.l. Lackland AFB TX 

I group equivalent miit; 

Communitv College of the Air Force. Randolph 

6 independent squadrons: 

557th Flying Training. USAF Academy, Colorado 

Springs CO 

3.3()()th Support. Randolph AFB TX 

3.3()2d Computer Services. Randolph AlB TX 

3303d Procurement. Randolph AFB TX 

3.304th .School (NCO Academy). Lackland AFB 


3314th Mgmt Engrg. Randolph Al B 1 \ 




George H. McKee 

Lieutenant General George H. McKee assumed 
command of ATC on 1 September. He replaced Lt 
Gen William V. McBride who received his fourth 
star and became the Commander. Air Force Logistics 
Command. Major General Alton D. Slay succeeded 
Maj Gen Frank M. Madsen. Jr.. as vice commander 
on 1 February. Subsequently. General Slay 
transfened to HQ USAF; he was replaced by Maj 
Gen Robert W. Maloy on 16 August. 


Academy Pilot Indoctrination 

The ATC unit that conducted the pilot indoctrination 
program for Air Force Academy cadets underwent 
several changes in 1974. Effective 1 January. ATC 
redesignated the 323.^d Pilot Training Squadron as 
the 3253d Flying Training Squadron. Two months 
later, on 21 March, the 3253d shifted its operations 
from Peterson Field in Colorado Springs to the US 
Air Force Academy. Then on 31 July ATC 
inactivated the 3253d Flying Training Squadron and 
activated the 557th Flying Training Squadron at the 
US.^F Academy and assigned it to HQ ATC. 

Special Treatment Center 

After iinl\ ihrcc \ears. .\TC inactivated the Special 
Treatment Center at Lackland AFB on 15 May. The 
Air Force had originally established the center in 
1971 to provide psychiatric evaluation and behavioral 
reorientation for airmen with drug pniblems. 
However, as the war in Southeast Asia wound down 
and individual bases became more proficient in their 
rehabilitation efforts, the center's workload declined. 
Therefore. ATC suggested and the Air Staff approved 
the transfer of those services to the 3415th Special 
Training Group at Lowry AFB. 

USAF Skill Center 

The command inactivated another unique 
organization, the 3301st School Squadron (USAF 
Skill Center) on 31 May 1974. The skill center had 
been at Forbes AFB, Kansas, since 1971 as part of a 
nationwide effort to help service members, especially 
veterans of the war in Southeast Asia, make the 
transition back to civilian life. The transition program 
was targeted at enlisted ranks up to technical sergeant 
and consisted of job counseling and vocational 
training. No sooner had the skill center relocated to 
Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, in 1973, when Congress 
decided the transition program had outlived its 
usefulness and cut off its funding as of May 1974. 

NCO Leadership Schools 

To provide better professional military education 
opportunities for its noncommissioned officers. ATC 
developed a two-phased plan to establish NCO 
leadership schools at most of the command's bases. 
Under Phase L the command set up schools at eight 
bases in 1974: Keesler, Williams, and Chanute on 
15 July; Sheppard on 4 September: Laughlin on 
30 September; and Craig. Lowry, and Mather on 25 
November. Schools opened at Lackland. Moody. 
Columbus, Randolph, and Reese in 1975. Only 
Vance, where mission support services were provided 
by contractors, did not have its own leadership 
school; instead, NCOs at Vance attended the school 
at Sheppard. 

USAF Occupational Measurement Center 

Headquarters ATC inactivated the 37()()th 
Occupational Measurement Squadron at Lackland 
AFB on 1 July and, in its place, activated the USAF 
Occupational Measurement Center. The new 
designation acknowledged the Air Force-wide 
application of the unit's work-preparing job-skills 
testing materials. 

ATC Schools Redesignated 

From its founding in 1959 until 1972, the Air Force 
commissioning program at Lackland Training Annex 
(Medina) was known as the Officer Training School 
(OTS). On 1 August 1972. ATC changed the name to 
the School of Military Sciences, Officer. This 
coincided with a similar name change for the Basic 
Military Training School at Lackland ti) the School of 
Military Sciences, Airman and the renaming of the 
schools at the technical training centers to School of 
Applied Aerospace Sciences. The idea behind these 
changes was to raise the prestige of the schools in the 
eyes of the civilian academic community. At that 
time, the Community College of the Air Force was 
seeking accreditation for a wide variety of courses. 
However, the name changes proved more confusing 
than helpful, and ATC reverted to the original 
designations on 8 .^pril 1974. 




A technical training student at Chanute AFB, Illinois, learns the hydraulic system of a T-38. 



Assignments for UPT Graduates 

The mcihcidoUigy for detcniimini; uhich UPT 
graduates received which aircraft assignments 
changed dramatically in 1974. Prior to 1974. ATC 
had the responsibility for matching pilots and aircraft. 
The command met that responsibility through a merit 
assignment system that allowed the studenis to select 
their assignments based on their performance in UPT, 
i.e.. their rank order in their class. Responding to 
SAC comphunts thai it was receiving the less capable 
graduates, ATC hail moilificd the assignment system 
slightly in 1972, but the results were still not 
satisfactory. .So. on 14.lanuary 1974. the Air Force 
Military Personnel Center (AFMPC) look over the 
assignment process and modified it further. The new 
system allowed only the top 10 percent of each class 
to choose their assignments. After that. AFMPC 
filled ATC instructor pilot openings and then made 
assignments based on student preferences and Ihe 
needs of the Air Force (matching demonstrated talent 
with Air Force requiremenlsj. 

T-37S Approved for UNT 

In March 1974 Cicneral McBride approved a proposal 
to include a limited number of T-.^7 flights in the 
undergraduate navigator training (I'NTi cuniculum. 
The idea sprang from a visit that ATC's 
DCS/Opcralions. Maj Gen James M. Breedlove, 
made to the Royal ,\n- Force's (RAF) navigator 
training facilities in the United Kingdom in I97.'<. 
There General Breedlo\c was mipressed with an 
RAF program that used small jet aircraft to introduce 
na\igator stuilents lo the en\ irorniienl of fighter-type 
aircratl. U|ion his return he directed his staff to 
in\esligate the possibility of incorporating similar 
training in UNT. With an increasing number of 
navigators assigned as weapon system officers in 
aircraft such as the F-4 and Fill, the idea had 
considerable appeal. A brief icsi ul ihc concept at 
Williams in ihe summer and fall of 197.^ indicated 
thai such training would be worlhw hile. Air Training 
Command, therefore, made plans lo introduce live 
T-37 tactical orientation sorties in UNT lo provide 
instruction in such areas as map reading; 
communications and intlighi procedures: dead 
reckoning; and deparlurcs. approaches. and 
insirumcnt Hying procedines. Included in ihe 
proposed package were six hours of instruction in the 
T4() insirumeni tlighl simulator. Headquarters USAF 
appro\ed ATC's proposal, and ihe command began 
T-.^7 training on 2 January 197.^. 



T-43 Aircraft Acquired for UNT 

In 1973 ATC began replacing its aging T-29s. for 
years the backbone of UNT. with T-43As. The T-43s 
were Boeing 737s that had been specially modified 
for the navigator training mission. By July 1974 the 
command had on hand its full complement of 
nineteen T-43s and had phased out most of the T-29 
fleet. The last T-29 UNT class graduated in March 

Contract Awarded for Simulators 

As earl> as 1964. the Air Force had begun examining 
its undergraduate pilot training to determine what 
changes would be needed to take the program 
through the next two decades. Over the next several 
years, both USAF organizations and contractors 
conducted a series of studies concerning; the future of 

UPT. From those reviews came the recommendation 
to control pilot training costs by using simulators. 
The Air Force awarded contracts on 5 September 
1974 for the construction of four instrument flight 
simulator (IFS) complexes at Reese AFB. Two 
complexes, each housing four cockpits, were for the 
T-37 IFS and the other two. also housing four 
cockpits each, were for the T-38 IFS. All told. Air 
Training Command intended to construct similar 
complexes at each of its other six UPT bases and two 
complexes at Randolph AFB for pilot instructor 
training. Eventually, the command planned to 
substitute simulator time for all instrument flying 
time except instrument validation flights at an 
anticipated annual savings of $23 million. 


In an effort lo itiipr(»\c undergraduate pilot training and reduce costs, .ATC began using 
instrument flight simulators in 1977 to train pilots in instrument flying. Shown here is a simulator 
equipped \>ith a T-.^7 cockpit at rest on its six-degree-of-freedom motion s>stem. 



Two changes in «i(lcl> disparate fields marked the end of the old way of d<iin}; things and ushered in the 
new. In the first instance. ATC eliminated all \\ Al s(|uadron sections uithin the command on }\ Deceinher, 
when it inacti\ated the \\ AF squadron section at Mather, the last one. I his action assigned enlisted women 
to their dut> organization and created a single management structure for both men and «omen. a milestone. 
In the second case, the command retired the last of its I-Z^s. an aircraft it had used for 25 \ears in 
undergraduate na>igator training: ATC replaced the 1-29 >\ith a new twin-engine jet trainer, the Boeing 
T-43. Meanwhile, the command continued its post-\ ietnam dra«-do»n when it transferred Mood> AI B to 



6 numbered air force equiMilent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tecii Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

I wing cquixalcnt imil: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
I combat crew training wing: 

.^636th (Sur\i\al). Fairchiki AFB WA 

10 Hying training wings: 

i:th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
29th. Craig AFB AL 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th, Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
78th. Webb AFB TX 
80th. Sheppard AF-B TX 
82d. Wniiams AFB AZ 


(as ol }\ December 1975) 


Alabama-Craig; Arizona--\\illiams; Calirornia--Malher: Colorado-- 
Lowry; Illinois— Chanute; Mississippi--Columbus and Keesler; 
Oklahoma--Vance; Texas— Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph. Rccsc. 
Sheppard. and Webb 

57.986 (7.50S olTiccrs; .v\562 enlisted; 16.916 ei\ilians) 

1.694 fT-.'^7B. T 38A. T-39A. T-41 A/C. T-43A. TH-IF) 


32.^^d. Mather AFB CA 

1 independent group eL|ui\alenl unit: 

Communitv College of the Air Force. Randolph 

7 independent st|uadrons: 

557th Flying Training. USAF Academy. Colorado 
Springs CO 

\ 1-11 III I ill ^^"ili I l\ in^ I raining Sijiiadt (III. 



3300th Support, Randolph AFB TX 
33()2d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 
3303d Procurement. Randolph AFB TX 
3305th School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 



John W. Roberts 

Lieutenant General (later Gen) John W. Roberts. 
HO USAF DCS/Personnel. replaced Lt Gen William 
V. McBride as ATC commander on 29 August 1975. 
Then on 1 September. Maj Gen Larry M. Killpack, 
the Twell'th Air Force vice commander, succeeded 
the retiring Maj Gen Robert W. Maloy as vice 


Tri-Deputy Wing Organization implemented 

To increase emphasis on weapons systems 
maintenance, to place tighter control over 
management resources, and to increase emphasis on 
people programs, the Air Force directed service-wide 
implementation of a Iri -deputy organization at 
operational wings on I July 1975. including Air 
Training Command's flying training wings. The new 
organization called for deputy commanders for 
operations, maintenance, and resource management. 
However, this organizational structure did not apply 
to the technical training wings or the 7 1 si and SOth 
Flying Training Wings at Vance and Shcppard. 
Contractors provided all support functions for the 
71st. while the 80lh and each of the technical training 
wings received support from the technical training 
centers assigned to those installations. 

Rp ~d Activation of Squadrons 

An ^ ^.^iiimand relocated the 3304th School 

SLjuadron (NCO Academy) from Lackland AFB to 

the Lackland Training Annex and reassigned it from 
Headquarters ATC to the Officer Training School 
effective 28 September 1975. On 1 July 1975. Air 
Training Command realigned the 3305th School 
Squadron (ISD) from the 12th Flying Training Wing. 
Randolph AFB. Texas, to Headquarters ATC. with 
DCS/Operalions designated as the office of primary 
responsibility. This action relieved the 12th Flying 
Training Wing commander of a unit which received 
direction and guidance from a headquarters staff 
function. Additionally, on 15 May 1975. ATC 
established the 3306th Test and Evaluation Squadron 
at Edwards AFB. California. 

ATC Staff Organization Changes 

On 1 March 1975. the Deputy Chief of Staff. Civil 
Engineering became the DCS/Engineering and 
Services, reflecting the designation for the 
engineering function on the Air Staff. Additionally. 
Air Training Conmiand moved the Security Police 
directorate from the office of the Inspector General to 
a separate special staff activity on 15 March 1975. 

Air Force Consolidates Airlift Support 

Two major developments in 1975 affected the 
command's aircraft fleet--the Air Force phased out all 
reciprocating engine administrative support aircraft 
and consolidated all T-39 Jet aircraft based in the 
United States under one command. Military Airlift 
Command. On 10 June 1975. Air Training Command 
transfen-ed its T-39 administrative support aircraft to 
Military Airlift Command. Air Training Command 
had two additional T-39A aircraft that were not 
involved in this action, since they were carried as 
research and development aircraft. The Directorate of 
Transportation in DCS/Logistics assumed respons- 
ibility for HQ ATC staff travel and for processing 
airlift requests from subordinate units, previously 
satisfied by possessed mission support aircraft. 


Transfer of Moody AFB to TAC 

On 30 June 1975. the Secretary of the Air Force 
announced that Moody AFB. Georgia, would transfer 
from ATC to Tactical Air Command on 1 December 
1975. The announcement indicated that ATC would 
inactivate its 38th Flying Training Wing, which 
conducted undergraduate pilot training at Moody, and 
the base would become host to a wing of F-4E 
tactical fighter aircraft. This change in Moody's 
mission would mark the first time in almost 25 years 
that this Georgia base was not engaged in pilot or 
aircrew training. Training officials conducted the last 
UPT student flight at Moody on 4 November 1975. 
and the last undergraduate pilot training class (76-04) 
graduated on 21 No\ ember 1975. The transfer was 
completed as scheduled on 1 December, and at the 



An undergraduate navigator student at Mather AFB, California, sits in front of a position hoard in the 
T-43 fixing training classroom. 

same time. Air Training CoiiinianLJ inactivated llie 
38th Flying Training Wing. 



T-29 Training Ends at Mather 

Students Hew the last T-2y navigator training sortie 
at Mather .AFB on 5 March 1975. ending 25 years 
service as a trainer aircraft. Just over a week later, 
ATC sent the last T-29 at Mather to the Military 
Aircraft Storage and Disposal Center at 
Davis-Moiithan AIM. Arizona. Navigator training at 
Mather received its last of nineteen T-43 trainers on 
24 July, these to replace the T-2ys. .Additionally, on 
2 January 1975. a T-37 navigator training program 
began with Class 76-03. 

Consolidated Navigator Training 

On 23 Ma> 1975. tlic An ioicc C liiel ol Staff and the 
Chief of Naval Operations jointly approved 
consolidated navigator training following an 
interser\ice training re\iew of undergrailuate llight 
training. The Air Force formally approved the 
program at Mather on 2S November 1975. which 

included the tour nasigation training programs then 
conducted by the Navy-Naval Flight Officers, Navy 
Pilots. Coast Ciuartl Pilots, and Marine Corps Fnlisted 
Navigators. Ihe first Na\N graduates completed this 
training; on Id December 1976. 

( onlrol Operator I Sgl I rnrsl Uiigniaiin and 
Inslruclor Navigator Maj Kohirt Woodrow. lell 
to right, operate the controls of I 45 navigator 
simulators during training. 



Project Constant Growth 

Because o\' recent budget and fuel considerations, the 
Air Force reduced its flying hour program which, in 
turn, brought about a significant lowering of the 
average level of pilot flight experience. To offset this 
trend, the Air Force began a test program on 
1 October 1975 to use ATC T-37 and T-38 aircraft. 
instructor pilots, and maintenance support to augment 
the flying time of pilots in certain units equipped with 
aircraft having high operating and support costs. 
Called Constant Growth. 192 pilots from MAC, 
SAC, and TAC participated in the test. On 1 July 
1976, HQ USAF replaced the Constant Growth title 
with a new term-Accelerated Copilot Enrichment 
(ACE) Program. Under ACE, ATC established 
detachments at 16 SAC units to provide T-37 and 
T-38 flying time to copilots. 

Project Peace Hawk 

On 2 October 197,^;. 100 Royal Saudi Air Force 
enlisted men. possessing no more than a ninth grade 
education and no formal English language 
instruction, airived at Lackland to begin basic 
military training. This marked the first time that ATC 
had provided basic military training for other than 
USAF personnel and began one of the more unique 
foreign military training programs undertaken in the 

command. Known as the Royal Saudi Air Force 
maintenance training assistance program, or Project 
Peace Hawk (later Peace Start), it provided English 
language, basic mathematics and science, basic 
military training, and technical training to 1,200 
enlisted students in support of the Saudi purchase of 
F-5 aircraft. The duration of the planned training at 
Lackland was 1 16 weeks, since the first three phases 
of the training— basic— English language, and 
mathematics and science would be conducted there. 
The first 100 students entered training in Octiiber 
1975. By the time the Saudis ended the program in 
1978, a total of 1,063 students had entered training. 
The last ones graduated in 1980. In the mid-1970s, 
the Royal Saudi Air Force bought sixty F-5 aircraft 
and requested training for 120 pilots and 1,200 
technical students. Air Training Command provided 
flying and technical training, and also agreed to 
provide basic military training. 

Red Flag Exercises 

In mid- 1975 Tactical Air Command developed a 
concept for simulated combat exercises nicknamed 
Red Flag that provided realistic combat training for 
its tactical forces. Scenarios for the exercises 
included the full spectrum of tactical air warfare, 
using strike force, air escort, wild weasel, and 

I I 

In the mid-19 
and 1,200 tcchnu 
time, the comman 

^>val Saudi Air Force bought si\t\ 1-5 aircraft and re(|uested training for 120 pilots 
' . .\ir Training C omniand pro\ided flying and technical training, and for the first 
eci (0 provide basic military training to foreign personnel. 



reconnaissance elements: also TAC proposed ha\ ing 
helicopter support for search and rescue of "downed" 
crewmen w ith realistic escape and evasion situations. 
Tactical Air Command asked ATC for assistance in 
preparing search and rescue and escape and evasion 

exercises. Sur\i\al traiinng officials de\ eloped si\ 
such scenarios, and from 29 November to 
20 Deccmher 1975. survival instructors from the 
3636th Combat Crew Training Wing participated in 
F.xercise Red Flas: I. 


For many years foreign students sent to the L'niled 
States for pilot training went through the standard Air 
Force undergraduate pilot training course. When the 
Air Force introduced the T-33 jet as its basic single- 
engine trainer, it created a curious anomalv— jet- 
qualified pilots from countries that had no jet aircraft. 
To rectify that situation, ATC developed a course that 
centered around the propeller-driven T-28 aircraft and 
offered it to other countries under the military 
assistance program (MAP). Vietnam was one country 
that opted for the new MAP program. 

In 1959. the first year in which new MAP T-28 
graduates were produced, only 7 of 49 pilots were 
Vietnamese. The proportion of Vietnamese Air Force 
(VNAF) students soon increased dramatically, 
however, and froin 1962 to 1964. some of the MAP 
T-28 classes consisted solely of Vietnamese students. 
From 1958 to 1973. VNAF students made up a 
majority of the graduates— approximately 900 out of 
1.450. The remaining graduates came from 22 other 
countries. One measure of the predominant position 
of the Vietnamese in the program was the fact that all 
the other countries, together, averaged less than two 
graduates annuallv. while VNAF graduates 
occasionally amounted to more than a hundred in a 
single year. 

Before US involvement in Victiiani officially 
ended in 1973. training the Vietnamese had been one 
of ATC's top priorities, and. in fact, continued until 
April 1975, when South Vietnam surrendered to the 
communists. By that time, however, ATC had shut 
off the Vietnamese training pipeline. After Congress 
severely cut funding for Vietnam. HQ USAF directed 
ATC on 30 August 1974 to send Vietnamese students 
home as they finished a phase of training. 

In addition to instruclmg VNAF students in the 
conventional T-28 program, Keesler also provided T- 
28 transition, T-28 pilot instructor training, C-47 
transition, and C-47 instrument courses. Furthermore, 
ni July 1971. ATC established a special T-37 UPT 
course at Shepparil for foreign students. Instead of 
the normal 90 hours ni the T-37 followed by 120 
hours in the T-38, as laid out in the standard UPT course. 

Sheppard students received 170 hours in the T-37. 
The special T-37 course was especialh useful for 
pilots who were preparing to fiy the A-37. an attack 
version of the T-37. dcv eloped in response to counter- 
insurgency requirements in Vietnam. 

The T-37 course became so popular that ATC had 
to find another base to relieve overcrowding at 
Sheppard. The command chose Webb .AFB. Texas, 
and began the T-37 course there in August 1973. The 
last Vietnamese students graduated from this course 
in April 1975. Other Vietnamese students attended a 
special graduate pilot 'r-38 course that ATC ottered at 
Webb and Laughhn. Identical to the T-38 phase of 
UPT. this course was particularly appropriate for 
countries that had the F-5, a single-seal conihai 
version of the T-38. The last six Vietnamese students 
graduated from this course at Webb in March 1975. 

Besides the training it conducted in the I'lnied 
States, ATC also deployed several field training 
detachments (FTD) to Vietnam. One of these, FTD 
9I7I-I, trained helicopter pilots and mechanics at Tan 
Son Nhut Aw Base in Saigon during 1963 and 1964. 
Another. FTD 92 IR, trained Cessna L-I7.'\ pilots and 
maintenance personnel at Nha Trang Air Base from 
September 1963 until August 1964. when it turned 
over its mission and equipment to the Vietnamese, 
who had become self-sufficient in the U-17A. Early 
in 1968. FTD 6I5S deployed to Tan Son Nhut for 6 
months of temporary duty to assist the maintenance 
personnel of the VNAF 33d Wing make ihc transition 
from the C-47 to the C- 119. 

In addition to such "in-country" training programs, 
ATC also provided Hying and technical training to 
Vietnam under the VNAF improvement and 
moderni/aiion program. The goal of the program, 
popularlv known as "Vietnami/alion," was to make 
the VNAF self-sufficient. In a sense, this was the 
ultimate goal of all Air Force foreign training 
programs, but in the case of South Vietnam, the need 
for self-sufficiency was made more evident b\ its 
absence, particularly in the face of the hostile forces 
that eventually overran the entire country. 



Red Flag e\|)anded from its beginning in 1975 to become the most realistic simulated air- 
warfare training exercise held anywhere in the world. Shown is an F-16 from the 414th Red 
Flag Training Squadron in 1996, above the ranges north of Nellis after flying in a training 
mission with other U.S. and foreign forces. 


Closure of Survival Schools 

Tlic reduction in ict|iiiicJ pniduclion Iroiii bulh the 
Jungle Survival School at Clark Air Base in the 
Philippines, and the Tropical Survival School at 
Albrook Air Force Base. Canal Zone, combined with 
the fact that portions of that training were included in 
other survival courses, led ATC to recommend 
closing both schools. On 7 February 1975. HQ USAF 
approved this request. Jungle survival training ended 
at Clark on 27 March 1475. and Air training 
Command inactivated the 3614th Combat Crew 
Training Squadron on 14 April. Tropic survival 
training ended on 25 April, and ATC closed 
Detachment 2. 3636th Combat Crew Training Wing 
on 9 May. 

Students at the Air Force Survival School at 
Fairchild AFB, Washington, complete tAvo desert 



One of the major issues facing the ATC commander and his staff during 1976 was the prospect of closing 
t«o I PT bases. F'ilot production had been on a steady decline since y\ 72. and during thai lime, the 
command had ended undergraduate pilot training at three bases— Randolph. Laredo, and Mctodv. Only seven 
UPT bases remained--Columbus. Craig, \ ancc. Williams, Laughlin, Reese, and Webb. Rather than reduce 
training production at all se\en locations, ATC officials beliocd it to be more economical to close t«o bases. 
So it was on II March 1976 that the Secretary of the Air Force proposed closing se\eral military installations, 
including Craig and Webb. However, Congress had made no firm decision on the propctsed closures by the 
end of the year. 


(as ol 31 December 197(1) 




Alabama— Craig: Ari/ona-Williams: Calit'oniia-Malher: Colorado- 
Lovvry: illitmis-Chanute: Mississippi-Columhus and Keesler; 
Oklahoma-Vance: Texas-Lackland, Laughlin, Randolph, Reese, 
Sheppard. and Webb 

53,800 (6.975 iilTiceis: 31.698 enlisted: 15.127 cixilians) 

1.638 (T-37B. T-38A. To^A. T-41 A/C. T-43A. TH-IF) 


6 numbered air force and equi\ alent units 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

1 wing equivalent unit: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AlB TX 
1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Sui-\nall. Fairchild AFB WA 

10 flying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AlH rX 
14th. Columbus AlB MS 
29th.Craig AFB AL 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
78th. Webb AFB TX 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d, Williams AFB AZ 

323d. Mather AFB C A 
2 independent group and equivalent units: 

Community College of the Air Force. Randolph 

Foreign Military Training Affairs Croup. 
Randolph AFB TX 

9 independent squadrons: 

557th Flying Training. USAF Academy. Colorado 

Springs CO 

3.^00lh Support. Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Procuiement. Randolph AFB TX 

3.'<{)4th School (N'CO Academy). Lackland Al B 


3305th .School dSIJi. Randolph AFB TX 
3306lh Test and Evaluation. lidwards AFB CA 
33()7th School (ATC Technology Applications 

Center). Lackland AFB IX 

33l4lh Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 





General Roberts eontinued as the ATC 
commander, with Major General Killpack as vice 

3307th School Squadron 

At Lackland, ATC activated the 3307th School 
Squadron (ATC Technology Applications Center) on 
15 August 1976. 


DCSITechnical Training Reorganized 

Air Training Command reorganized DCS/Technical 
Training on 1 February 1976. dividing the function 
into two new positions: Assistant Chief of Staff for 
Technical Training Operations and Assistant Chief of 
Staff for Technical Training Support. Shortly after 
this realignment, the focal point for the Interservice 
Training Review Organization (ITRO) moved from 
the command section to technical training support. 

Foreign Military Affairs Training Group 

On I June .ATC actuated the Foreign Military 
Training Affairs Group and assigned it to the 
headquarters. This new group was to manage all 
foreign training affairs. 

3304th School Squadron 

On i.-S .March 1476. A PC reassigned the 33()4th 
School Squadron (ATC NCO Academy! from OTS to 
HQ ATC control. 


Language Training 

In 1976. e\ecuti\c cimtrol of the Defense Language 
Institute. English Language Center (DLIELC) at 
Lackland passed from the Army to the Air Force. On 
1 October ATC assumed responsibility for DLIELC 
and further delegated that duty to the Air Force 
Military Training Center at Lackland. 


T45 Simulator 

On 16 March ATC acquired the T45 navigation 
training simulator at Mather. This simulator was used 
in conjunction with T-43 training. It replaced the 
T-29 simulator. The first UNT class to receive 
improved training using the T45 simulator was 
76-1.5. which graduated on 1 July 1976. 

In November 1975 the Air Force chief of staff announced that the service would besin a 

test program for trainin<; female pilots. Ihe llrst of t«(» groups of 1(1 «omen pilot 

ididates began llight screening al Hondo Municipal Airport on 26 August, prior to 

ing LiPT al Williams on 29 September. Ihe first class, shown here, received its 

)n 2 Seotember 1977. 





Hasty Chief and Hasty Spark 

The first class of Hasty Chief (later called Able 
Chief) aircraft maintenance specialists began training 
at Sheppard on 3 Ma\ . The idea was to reduce the 
amount of time students spent in resident training and 
pro\ide the remaining training at the gaining site 
through the use of field training detachments. The 
command implemented a similar program in 
communications and electronics courses during 
September at Keesler. It was called Hasty Spark 
(later renamed Bright Spark). 

Community College of ttie Air Force 

President Gerald R. Ford approved legislation on 
14 July authorizing the Community College of the 
Air Force \o grant associate degrees for college-le\el 
academic study. Effective 1 2 January 1^77. the US 
Commissioner of Education authorized the ATC 
commander to grant the Associate of Applied Science 
Degree to graduates of the Community College of the 
.Air Force. This was the first time that a military 
agency had been gi\en the authority to grant degrees 
to members of the enlisted force. 


The Women Airforce Service Pikits of World War II were pioneers, the first licensed women pilots in the United 
States to fly military aircraft for a military service. The WASP was formed in August 1943 from twd earlier, 
relatively independent programs for women pilots: Women's .Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS) and Women's 
Flying Training Detachment (WFTD). 

Before the United Slates entered World War II, two women 
had championed the use ot women pilots by the military. Nancy 
Harkness Love, a well-known a\iator o^ the 193()s, ad\()cated a 
policy of using e.xceptionalls well-qualified professional female 
pilots for ferrying aircraft, while Jackie Cochran, a world- 
renowned a\iator, had a more ambitious project in mind- 
procuring and training a relatively large corps of women pilots 
for a variel) of jobs besides t'errying. 

Love proposed thai 2 1 - to 35-year-old w omen possessing a 
high school diploma, US citizenship, a commercial pilot's 
license, fiOi) hours of Hying time, and a 2()()-horsepower rating 
be hired as military ferry pilots. They would ferry primary 
trainers ami liaison aircraft for a $250 monthly salary plus a S6 
per diem for any time spent away from their assigned base. 

Major General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Chief of the Air 
Corps, initially rejected Love's proposal but. in September 1942, 
facing a growing need for male combat pilots, approved 
formation of the WAFS. The squadron was organized at New 
Castle Army Air Base, Wilmington, Delaware, as a separate organization under Love. It consisted of 25 pilots, 
known as the "Originals." who averaged 1.100 hours and were among the most experienced young pilots, male or 
female, in the country. 

Meanwhile, as early as 1939. Jackie Cochran had suggested recruiting and training women to lly military 
aircraft. On 7 October 1942. shortly after the WAFS was formed. General Arnold maugurated a llight training 
proeram to produce 500 women ferry pilots. He appointed Cochran as the director of flying training, and by 
October 1942. 40 women had been accepted and sent for training at Howard Hughes Airport in Houston. Texas. 
The unit was called the WFTD. or among the women it was know n as the "Woofteddies." 

When facilities at Houston proved too Imiited. a new sclu.ol was opened in February 1943 at Avenger Field. 
Sweetwater. Texas, and tranmiii at Houston soon phased out. On 5 August 1943. the WAFS and the women of 
Cochran's WFTD school were united as the WASP. Cochran was named Director ol Women Pilots, and Love 
continued in the WASP as executive of the Ferrying Division of the Air Transport Command 

These WASPs ferried planes and flew 
navigation training missions from Ellington 
Held, Texas. 



Classes entered the WASP program at monthly intervals. A total of 18 classes completed training: 8 in 1943 and 
10 in 1944. Of the 25.000 women who applied for flight training. 1.830 were accepted, and of those. 1.074 received 
their wings. Entrance requirements remained essentially the same as those for the WAFS. except the age 
requirement was dropped from 21 to 18. and the flight experience was set at only 200 hours. That requirement was 
later dropped to 35 hours, and the 200-horsepower rating requirement was eventually eliminated. 

Training for women pilots paralleled but did not duplicate that given the men. Because the women were 
expected to go into fen-ying. emphasis was placed on cross-country flying. Gunnery and formation flight training 
were omitted. The flrst course was four-months long. Although the hours were flexible and varied according to 
previous training, 115 flying hours were generally called for in addition to 180 hours of ground instruction. As the 
experience level of the trainees declined, the course was expanded and revised. By the close of 1943. the length had 
been extended to 27 weeks and the flying hours to 210. Few curricular changes were made in 1944; the main one 
increased training from 27 to 30 weeks. 

During the early stages of the program, an 80 percent graduation rate had been anticipated for the women 
trainees. The actual rate a\'eraged out at 74 percent for the 1943 graduates and 53 percent for the 1944 classes, the 
latter considerably better than the attrition rate for male trainees in the Central Flying Training Command in 1944. 
The increase in washout rates probably reflected the lower flight experience among the later classes. 

The WASPs flew all types of military aircraft, including AT-6. AT- 10. AT- 1 1. and BT-13 trainers: C-47. C-54. 
and C-60 transports: A-25 and A-26 attack aircraft; B-24, B-25, TB-26, and B-29 bombers; P-38. P-40. P-47. and P- 
51 fighters. In addition to ferrying, the WASPs performed many other tasks such as glider and target towing, radar 
calibralit)n flights, aircraft testing, and other noncombat duties to release male pilots for overseas action. The 
WASPs flew approximately 60 million miles and suffered 38 fatalities, or 1 to about 16,000 hours of flying. 

The WASPs were employed under the Civil Service program. It was always assumed they would become part of 
the .-Xrmy when a proper place uithin the military organization could be found for them. In fact, bills were 
introduced in Congress to give them military rank, but even with General Arnold's suppoil, all efforts failed to 
absorb the WASPs into the military. On 20 December 1944, the Army Air Forces, citing the changing combat 
situation, disbanded the WASP program. The WASPs returned to civilian life with no veterans' benefits. In 1977 
Congress finally granted benefits to the 850 remaining WASPs. 

Eight W.\SPs gather on the 
ramp at Waco Field, Texas, 
for a final group picture 
before the V\.4SP was 
disbanded on 20 December 



In February 1976 Gen David C. ,loncs, the Air Force Chief of Staff, insisted on reducing training costs, 
stating. "We need to establish a goal on reduction of people tied up in (raining— instructors, students, and 
support." Since more than half the >isible costs of technical training «as generated b\ basic resident training 
courses. General Jones' directi>e encouraged ATC to examine the training philosoph> behind these courses. 
In the search for ne», inno>ative. less costl> approaches to training. ATC along with the Air Staff, explored 
>va>s to reduce the training in\estment in first termers. The command made major cutbacks in cre\> chief 
and electronic principles training and rexiewed all courses looking for more effectixe «a>s to align training 
more closely with specific requirements of using commands. In a further effort to reduce training costs, the 
command placed increased reliance on its newly acquired instrument tlight simulators and dropped I'PT 
flying hours from 210 to 170 and ATC closed two more of its IPT bases— Craig and Webb. 


(as of 31 Deccmher 1477) 



6 numbered air force equivalent units: 


Ari/ona-Willianis; Calilornia-Malher; Coloradii-Lowr) ; lllnu)is--('hanutc; 
Mississippi-CiiluinbuN and Keesler: Oklahoma-Vance; Texas-l-aekland. 
Laughlin. Rantlolph. Reese, and Sheppaiti 

5(),7?7 (6.500 olTicers; 30.4.57 enlisled; 13.S00 ci\ilians) 

1 ..5 .S3 (T-37B. T-38A. T-3yA. T-41 A/C. T-43A. TH-I1-) 


4 independent yroup and et|ui\'alent units: 

USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Air Force Mil Trng Cir. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanule AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Teeh Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

1 v\ing equivalent unit: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival), lairchild AFB WA 

S Hying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB IX 
ft4th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB A/. 
323d, Mather AFB CA 

Communit) College of the Air Force. Lackland 

Foreign Military Training Attairs Croup. 
Randolph Al-B TX 

San Antonio Procurement Cenler. Kellv Al B IX 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
San Antomo AIS T\ 

') independent squadron and equi\alent units: 

557lh Flying Training. USAF .Acadeni). Colorado 

Springs CO 

330()ih Support. Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Procurement. Randolph AIB TX 

3.304th School (NCO Academy). Lackland AIB 


330.5th School (LSD). Randolph AIB TX 
3306lh Test and Evaluation, lidwards ALB CA 
3307th School (ATC Technology Application 

Center). Lackland AFB TX 

3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AIB 




In 1972 all of the technical training schools became Schools of Applied 
Aerospace Science. Five years later ATC replaced the schools with 
numerically-designated wings. 


On 30 March President Jimmy Carter elevated the 
position ot'Coiniiiander. ATC to the grade of general. 
Lieutenant General John W. Roberts received his 
fourth star and became Air Training Command's first 
four-star commander. The reason for this change 
stemmed from the e\er-increasing importance of the 
command's multiple mission responsibilities. In mid- 
August Major General Killpack was reassigned to 
Headquarters USAF as Assistant DCS/Personnel. and 
on 1 5 August Maj Gen Evan W. Rosencrans assumed 
the duties of ATC vice commander. 


Technical Training Wings Activated 

Air Trainuig Connnand mactivated the USAF School 

of Applied Aerospace Sciences at each of its 

technical training centers and activated numbered 

technical training wings in their place on I April 

1977. These included the 3250th Technical Training 

Wing at Lackland, the 330()th at Keesler, the 3330th 

at Chanute. the 34()()th at Lowry. and the 370()th at 

■^ird. Several months later Air Training 

.^ I -iblished a second order that inactivated 

=ctive 1 January 1978. based on 

1 'IS proposed by the Cadou study. 

(Thi again activated in November 



In June leneral R. 

of a siiKiv gi n to review 

Jted the formation 
entire technical 

training system. The group 
found considerable organ- 
izational variance between 
centers. The one constant 
was that support functions 
were broken up among 
several staff agencies at both 
group and wing level. The 
study was completed in July 
1 977. and from those results. 
General Roberts announced 
that all the centers would 
adopt the same standard 
organization. However, the 
new realignment did not 
become effective until 
1 January 1978. Under the 
new organization. Air 
Training Command reduced 
overhead at the technical 
training centers by 375 
authorizations. Also, as a 
result of the Cadou study. ATC combined its two 
technical training assistant chief positions into a 
single Deputy Chief of Staff. Technical Training. 

San Antonio Procurement Center 

Effectise I January. ATC acti\ated the San Antonio 
Procurement Center at Kelly AFB. The center was 
responsible for all base procurement functions at 
Kelly. Brooks. Lackland, and Randolph. It was to be 
a group-level organization under the operational 
control of the ATC Deputy Chief of Staff. Logistics. 

Real Property Maintenance Agency Formed 

On 15 February, at the direction of HQ USAF. the 
San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency 
(SARPMA) was activated as a group-level named 
unit and assigned to Air Training Command. It was a 
consolidation of real properly maintenance activities 
at Randolph. Lackland. Brooks, and Kelly AFBs and 
the Army's Fort Sam Houston. The new agency was 
located at San Antonio Air Force Station, adjacent to 
Fort Sam Houston. However, it did not become 
operational until I October 1978. 

Assistant for Readiness 

As another sign of the mcreased emphasis given to 
readiness throughout the Air Force, the ATC 
commander announced, on 31 May. establishment of 
an assistant for readiness as a special office reporting 
directly to him. 


Craig and Webb Closed 

Craig .AFB. .Alabama. graduated its final 
undergraduate pilot training class (77-08) on 


12 August. At Webb AFB in Texas, the last two pilot 
training classes completed course work on 
.^0 August, and fixed wing qualification training 
ended on I September. Air Training Command 
inacli\ated bt)th the 29th Flying Training Wing at 
Craig and the 78th Flying Training Wing at Webb on 
30 September, and the tv\o installations were placed 
in caretaker status the following day. 

Fixed-Wing Qualification Training 

\\ uh the announcement b\ the Department of 
Delense that Webb .XFB would close in September, 
Air Training Command moved its fixed-wing 
qualification training program to Sheppard. where the 
first class began on M) June. 



First Female Navigator Candidates 

The na\igator school at Mather .AFB in California, 
began receiving its first female navigator candidates 
on 10 March. These women trained as a part of UNT 
Class 78-01. The five female students received their 
wings on 12 October. 

Recruiter Assistance Program 

In 1977 the tune-honored methods of canvassing high 
schools, advertising for recruits, and talking to groups 
of young people were insufficient to meet production 
needs of the Aw Force. One answer to the problem 
was a program initialed by General Roberts in late 
1976-the Air Force Recruiter .Assistance Program. It 
encouraged active duty Air Force personnel to refer 
shaip prospects to recruiters. The program proved to 
be highly successful in Fiscal year 1977. providing 
recruiters with approximately 34.000 leads. 

The first female graduates from undtruraduali- navigator training stand Inside 
a T-43 na\i<iat(tr trainer at Mather .MB. t alifoinia. I he «omen rteiiMcl 
their «in<'s on 12 Oelolur 1977. 




Conversion to Contract 

As ain)ther means i)f reducing costs in the late 1970s. 
ATC looked at contracting various support functions. 
By July 1977. nine ATC bases had implemented 
contracts for audiovisual services, and five others 
converted vehicle operations, vehicle maintenance, 
and transportation reports and analysis to contract 

Over the -ears, flights in flying training units have devehtped their own distinctive patches. Pictured above are 
soni Itches worn by T-33 and l-.^S lliohls al \\ illianis Al B. Arizona. bel\>een l«)6l and 199.V 



In Ma> ATC assumed responsibility for the Air rnixt-rsity ( \l ). lu-adcinartered at Maxwell AFB, 
Alabama. Not only did this put eontinuin<; and ad\anced education under ATC control, but it also 
consolidated responsibility for most Air Force recruiting, education, and training programs under a single 
major command. As a part of this reorganization. ATC gained two installations: (;unter Air Force Station 
and Maxwell AFB. Less than two months later. AlC acquired another base when the I SAI Security Service 
released Goodfellow AFB. At the same time, the command assumed responsibility for all of the Air liirce's 
crxptologic training. Late in the year. ATC tailored na\igator training to meet operating command needs by 
proxiding additional instruction in advanced and tactical navigation. 


(as (il 31 Dl'cciiiIxt 1'-J7,S) 



7 numbered air force eqiiiv aleni units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Air University. Maxwell AFB AL 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lovers Tech Trng Ctr. Lovvry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

1 wing equi\alent unit: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
1 combat crew trairnng wing: 

3636th Wing (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 tlying training wings: 

1 2th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st, Vance AFB OK 
KOth. Sheppard AIB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 


Alabama-Ciunter and Maxvsell: Arizona-Williams; 

California -Mather: Colorado--Lov\ry: lllinois-Chanute: 

Mississippi-Columbus ami Keesler: Oklahoma-Vance: 
Texas— Goodfellow. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 

55.624 (,S.I()7 officers; 32.060 enlisted; 15.457 civilians) 

1.521 (T-37B. T-3SA. T-41 A/C. T-4.3A. TH-IF) 


323d. Mather AFB CA 

1 technical trainin'j wing: 

348()th (USAF Cryptological Training Center). 
Goodfellow AFB TX 

4 independent group and ecjiu\alent units; 

Community College of the Air Force. Lackland 

Foreign Militar\ Training Affairs Group, 
Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center, Kelly AFB TX 

San Antonio Real Propert> Maintenance Agency, 
San Antonio AFS TX 

10 independent squadron and equi\alenl units: 

USAF Occupational Measuremeni Center, 

Randolph AFB TX 

557th Flying Training. USAF Academy, Colorado 

Springs CO 

3.^0()lh Support. Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

33()3d Contracting. Randolph AIB TX 



33()4th School (ATC NCO Academy), Lackland 


)M)5lh SchooKLSD). Randolph AFB TX 
33()6lh Test and E\ alualion. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (ATC Technology 

Applications Center). Lackland AFB TX 

3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 


Air University would transfer to ATC on 11 April: 
however, because of "political sensitivities" the 
transfer did not take place until 15 May. 
Organizationally, Air University became another 
ATC center, but one with a decidedly different 
mission, given its singular professional military 
education orientation and its close relationship with 
the ci\ ilian academic community. 



General Roberts remained the ATC commander, 
and Major General Rosencrans continued to serve as 
the \ice commander. 

Air University Assigned to ATC 

B> the mid-197Us, more than 20 studies had looked 
at various realignments of education, training, and 
personnel management functions. Though \'irtually 
all the studies concluded that some type of merger or 
consolidation was feasible, the Air Force took no 
action along these lines until 1978. On 20 March 
1978. the Secretary of the Air Force announced that 

Relocation of Instructor Training School 

Air Training Command transferred its Instructor 
Training School from Randolph to Maxwell on 
1 October 1978, merging it with Air University's 
Academic Instructor School. 

DCSIEducation Created 

As part of the Air University transfer. General 
Roberts established a DCS/Education as part of his 

Students in the weapons mechanic course at Lowry AFB, Colorado, load a 750-pound bomb on an 
F-in.-V simulator. 




In tlic l')50s and early 1960s, as computer- 
technology rapidly ad\anced. the Air Force began to 
look at ways to use this state-of-the-art equipment to 
enhance its training programs. Air Training 
Command started using coinputer-drixen simulators 
to pro\ ide realistic practice for technical training 
students in air traffic control and some other 
operations specialties. By the late 197()s. Air Training 
Command had acquired computer-driven maintenance 
training simulators for electronic systems on new 
aircraft. However, a lot of skepticism still existed 
concerning the effectiveness of using computer- 
driven simulators instead of actual equipment. 

Even more controversial was the idea of using 
computer-assisted instruction. Through out its historv . 
Air Training Command had problems acquiring and 
retaining skilled instructors. By implementing 
computer-assisted instruction, the command believed 
it could reduce the number of instructors needed, as 
well as allow for self paced instruction, meaning 
resident training time could be reduced for some 
students. That, in turn, would mean a cost-savings for 
the Air Force as well as the command. 

During the 197()s. Air Training Command 
experimented with three major computer-based 
instructional systems: the Computer Directed Train- 
ing System, which taught personnel how to use and 
program computers; the Programmed Logic for 
Automated Teaching Operations iPL.ATO) system at 
Chanute and .Sheppard Technical Training Centers; 
and the Advanced Instructional .System (AIS) at 
Lowry Technical Training Center. However, because 
of a lack of computer terminals and because of 
internal limitations of the programs, neither 
instructors, students, nor gaining commands were 
satisfied with training provided through these 
systems, particularly AIS. According to one stucK, 

"Instructors are not properly prepared, either from a 
training or psychological standpoint, to teach the 
computer managed, self paced method. They consider 
themselves 'babysitters' and the computer the 

Up to this point, only about one percent of ATC's 
technical training in\ol\ed computer-based 
instruction. One reason Air Training Command had 
failed to make greater use of computers to facilitate 
technical training was the absence of any unified 
position on how to take advantage of such 
technology. However, in the 198()s. as the command 
faced increased student loads, shortages of instructors, 
a longer training day. and increasing training 
requirements to support new weapon systems, it 
looked to computerized training as a means of 
balancing the workload, while at tlie same time 
responding to greater student instructional needs. 

Two new systems under development included the 
Branch Level Training Management System 
(BLTMS) and Advanced Instructional Delivery and 
Evaluation System (AIDES), which later became 
known as the Advanced Training System (ATS). The 
command planned to use BLTMS to manage training 
at the centers and later to expand it to include student 
instruction, while AIDES was more a training 
delivery system. Even in the de\elopmenl stage, these 
two systems causeil contrinersv. Planners felt that a 
single system could include both training deli\er\ and 
training management, while the technical training side 
of the house leaned more toward a training delivery 
system only. The command settled on two programs: 
the BLTMS would administer the training 
management system, while the .Advanced Training 
System would standardize all computer-assisted 
training offered in the command. 

Instrument Flight Center Closed 

Because the .\u force no longer had a requirement 
for a dedicated instrument school, the Instrument 
Flight Center (IPC) began phasing down operations 
at Randolph in 1977. and ATC inactivated the unit on 
,^() June I97S. Thus, the IFC concluded over 30 years 
of instrument nying-relaied activities, including the 
Instrument Pilot Instructor School. 

Occupational Measurement Center Moved 

The L'S.AF Occupational Measurement Center 
(OMCi developed the Air Force's promotion tests and 
validated that the tests remained job-related through 

periodic occupational surveys oi all specialties. The 
OMC had moved to the Medina Annex from 
Lackland's main base in 1976. but during late 1977, 
General Roberts decided to move it again, this lime 
lo Randolph AFB. This move freed 354 billeting 
spaces at Lackland to accominodate programmed 
increases in Officer Training School proiluction. On 
I May 1978, ATC reassigned OMC from the Air 
Force Military Training Center lo HQ ATC. The 
center's new home was the former location of ihe 
USAF Instrument Flight Center. This move placed 
the OMC in close proximity to DCS/Technical 
Training, the staff agency lo which it reported. 



Relocation of Procurement Center 

In January 1978, ATC noted that the San Antonio 
Procurement Center had encountered major problems 
due to its location at Kelly AFB. an Air Force 
Logistics Command installation. Since the San 
Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency was its 
major customer, ATC decided to collocate both 
organizations at the San Antonio Air Force Station. 
The mo\c began at the end of 1978 and ended in May 
1979. Also on 1 October 1978, Air Training 
Command redesignated the procurement center as the 
San Antonio Contracting Center, and at the same 
time, the command redesignated its 3303d 
Procurement Squadron as the 3303d Contracting 


Goodfellow AFB, Texas, Reassigned to ATC 

Goodlellovv had served as an ATC pilot training base 
during World War II and in the post-war era before it 
was turned over to USAF Security Service in 1958 
for cryptologic training. In April 1978 the Secretary 
of the Air Force directed that responsibility for all 
cryptologic training, along with the base, be trans- 
ferred to Air Training Command. The transfer agree- 
ment was negotiated between the two commands in 
May, and ATC gained jurisdiction of the base on 
1 July. In conjunction with the transfer, ATC 
activated the 3480th Technical Training Wing 
(USAF Cryptological Training Center) at 



IFS Operational 

On 17 1cbruar\ 197S. ihe 64th Flying Training 
Wing. Reese AFB, Texas, became the first ATC pilot 
training base with a fully operational instrument 
flight simulator (IFS) program, which allowed 
training in both Ihe T-37 and T-3S simulator 


On 17 May 1978, ministers from the North .Atlantic 
Treaty Organization (NATO) accepted an oiler by 
the United States to host the Euro-NATO Joint Jet 
Pilot Training (ENJJPT) Program for a 10-year 
period beginning in 1981. Ultimately, the Air Force 
selected ATC's Sheppard AFB for the location of this 

Tailored Navigator Training 

For all navigator training classes beginning after 
2 October 1978, ATC provided specialized rather 
than generalized training. The new program taught 
basic navigator skills to all graduates. Two new 
courses-advanced navigation (AN) and tactical 
navigation (TN)-provided specialized training 
tailored to the needs of the major commands. Upon 
graduation from UNT, navigators with assignments 
to tankers, transports, and bombers, took the AN 
course and those going to Tactical Air Command, 
mainly as weapon systems officers, took the TN 
course. Others entered electronic warfare officer 
training at Mather. 


Eight-Hour Training Day 

Triggered by a congressional inquiry, the General 
Accounting Office (GAO) investigated all DOD 
technical training programs. It found that each of the 
services had different length training days. In its 
report the GAO proposed that all technical training 
students should spend eight hours a day in class, five 
days a week. According to the GAO estimate. ATC 
could save $70 million by converting from its 6-hour 
to an 8-hour day. By the end of the year, ATC had 
converted most of its courses but found that its 
savings were actually only $17 million. 


CCAF Accreditation 

To ensure acceptance of its credits and degrees by 
civilian educational institutions, the Community 
College of the Air Force (CCAF) applied for 
accreditation with the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools' Commission on Colleges. The 
association accepted the CCAF as a candidate for 
accreditation in June 1978. 


Overseas Exercise Support 

For the first time in the history of the command. ATC 
tested its wartime/contingency mission readiness by 
deploying 2.50 of its personnel into the Pacific Air 
Forces (PACAF) region. This 8-22 February 1978 
deployment was in support of Exercise Commando 
Rock. Again in April. Air Training Command 
deployed 291 personnel to Hahn Air Base. Germany, 
to support USAFE's Exercise Salty Rooster. 



For the sccoiul time in two years. Air Training Command reorganized its leehnieal training 
establishment in the field. On I \o\emher 1979. A l( ac(i>aled numhered technical training \>ings at each 
of the command's fl\e training cenlers-the 325(lth at Lackland. 3300lh at Keesler. 3.^.^(llh at C hanutc. 
34()0th at l.o\>r\. and the 370()lh at Sheppard. These were the same numerical designations the training 
schools had had prior to 1 Janiiarv 1978. when A K replaced them with l)eput\ C ommanders for Training. 
That reorganization resulted in significant manpower savings, but it had its drawbacks. Ihe appellation 
Deputy Commander for Training was peculiar to ATC, not well known throughout the Air Force, and the 
source of some cimfusion. General Davis, the ATC c(mimander. therefore, opted to return to Ihe numbered 
wings. Meanwhile Recruiting Service for the first time in its history failed to meet its nonprior ser>ice 
enlistment goals. 

Crvptologic \oice-processing students practice their skill during a laboratory session at 
CJoodfellow AFB, Texas. 


(as of 3 1 December 1^79) 




AlabimKi-Cuiiiicr aiid Maxwell: Ariz()na--Willianis: 
California--Mather. Colorado-Lowry: Illinois-Chanute: 
Mississippi--Columbus and Keesler: Oklah(>nia--Vance: 
Tcxas-Cioddrellow. Lackland. Laujihiin. Kaiidnipli. Reese, 
and Sheppard 

.55.512 (8.259 otricers: 32.155 enlisted: 15.098 civilians) 

l,5i6(T-37. T-38.T-41.T-43.TH-I.UV-I8) 




7 luimbered air force equi\'alent units: 

Air University. Maxwell AFB AL 
Air Force Mil Trng Ctr, Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr, Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

I wing equivalcnl luiit: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
I combat crew training v\ ing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 flying training wings: 

1 2th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th, Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
7 1 St. Vance AFB OK 
8()th, Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

I technical training wing; 

3480th (USAF Cryptological Training Center), 
Goodfellow AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 


Bennie L. Davis 

General Bennie L. Davis, the Headquarters USAF 
DCS/Personnel, replaced Gen John W. Roberts on 
1 April 1979 as Commander. Air Training Command. 
Roberts retired. On 12 March Maj Gen Chades G. 
Cleveland became vice commander, replacing Maj 
Gen Evan W. Rosencrans. Clexeland came from HQ 
USAF where he had served as Director of Personnel 
Programs. Rosencrans went to Korea. 

4 independent group and equi\ alent units: 

Communit) College of the Air Force, Maxwell 

Foreign Mil Trng Affairs Gp, Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. San Antonio 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency. 
San Antonio AFS TX 

9 squadron and equn alent units: 

I'SAF Occupational Measurement Center. 
Randolph AFB TX 

557th Flying Training, USAF Academy, Colorado 
Springs CO 

33()2d Computer Services, Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting, Randolph AFB TX 


Relocation of CCAF 

When fust activated in 1972, ATC located the 
Community College of the Air Force at Randolph. 
Then in 1977, due to crov\ding on Randolph, the 
college moved to the Lackland Training Annex. That 
was a short tenancy, because as a part of the 1978 
assignment of Air University to ATC. the command 
decided to move the Community College of the Air 
Force to Maxwell AFB, Alabama. That transfer took 
place on I .lune 1979. 

3300th Support Squadron 

Headquarters .ATC maclnated the 3300th Support 
Squadron at Randolph AFB on 1 January 1979. and 
its functions tiansfcrred to the Headquarters 
Squadron Section. 




For much of its history. Air Training Q)niniand's 
ability to identify promising talent for Air Force 
positions of all types had not been seriously 
challenged. Recruiting efforts nearly always met 
projected needs. In the mid-197()s. however, 
continuing this le\el o\' achievement became more 
challenging. A reorganization of the U.SAF 
Recruiting Service, mandated reductions in recruiting 
resources, and an improving job market for 17- to 21- 
year-olds coiTibined with more stringent enlistment 
criteria and screening procedures to cause concern. 
Quotas for new personnel were becoming 
increasingly inore difficult to fill. A nearly 50 
percent reduction in the recruiting budget in fiscal 
years 1974 through 1977 exacerbated the problem. 

By late 1977, the time-honored methods of 
can\assing high schools. ad\ertising, and talking to 
interested groups in public forums were not filling 
the need for new airmen. The first response to this 
more difficult recruiting environment, the Air Force 
Recruiter Assistance Program, offered active 
personnel, beginning in the fall of 1976, the chance 
to help recruiters identify potential airmen in their 
home towns. Although the program produced many 
leads, meeting recruitment quotas in the long term 
still seemed problematical. In addition, a low 
nonprior service enlistment rate in December 1978 
suggested a rough road ahead. 

Accordingly, the Recruiting Service established 
several initiatives. The guaranteed training 

enlistment program, operational in 1977, allowed 
applicants to select specific jobs at the outset of their 
careers from 140 Air Force specialties. 

Other initiatives in 1978 and in 1979 allowed new 
airmen to select their preferred base of assignment 
and to be proinoted to airman second class upon 
completing basic training. Those signing up for a 
six-year tour could benefit from an accelerated 
promotion schedule to senior airman. A delayed 
enlistment program permitted polenlial recruits to 
enlist early for jobs that would be liekl for them up to 
one year. Even with these incentive programs, for 
the first time in its history. Recruiting Service failed 
to meet its recruiting goal for fiscal year 1979. 

In 1980 USAF Recruiting Service increased the 
use of incentives and added two more programs- 
Stripes for Education, which offered the rank of 
airman second class to those who had completed at 
least two semesters of college, and a cash bonus for 

enlisting in select career fields. \i\ I9S1 these 
incentives combined with two significant military pay 
raises to produce some notable recruiting successes. 
Howe\er, the problems of attracting new people into 
certain Air Force technical careers persisted. 

The acquisition of officers into some career fields, 
such as engineering and the health professions, had 
represented a particularly difficult hurdle to cross. 
Here again, the use of specialized incentive programs 
brought results. The College Senior Engineer 
Program and the Undergraduate Engineer Conversion 
Program were the most successful. The former 
allowed senior engineering students to enlist with lull 
pay and allowances, while the latter paid engineering 
graduates to return to school for a second engineering 
degree. In approximately four years, from 1979 
through the end of 198.^. Recruiting Service had 
turned a shortage of 1,200 engineers into a surplus. 
An all-out effort to induce physicians, dentists and 
nurses to join the Air Force had also paid dividends. 
The use of enlistment bonuses to attract those w ishing 
to enter certain technical fields also achieved success. 

Beginning in the mid-1970s the .Air Force had 
faced a series of threats to its acquisition of quality 
personnel. The presence of a much more competitive 
marketplace for young people had prompted Air 
Training Command to adopt new initiatives and 
programs to attract new perst)nnel. Many o\' these 
novel programs and initiatives became an integral part 
of the approach taken by recmiters to till futiue .\ir 
Force needs for promising and talented airmen. 

^oun^ people joined the Mr lorce lor iiianv 
reasons. Tradilionallv ilie chances lo iraNcI and lo 
continue their education «ere al tlu lop of ilic list. 



3307th School Squadron 

Eftective 2 January 1979, ATC inactivated its 3307th 
Sciiool Squadron (also known as the ATC 
Technology Applications Center) at Lackland AFB, 
Texas. Some squadron personnel transferred to HQ 
ATC DCS/Plans and Programs to form an 
Applications Division under the Training Systems 
Development Directorate. 

3507th Airman Classification Squadron 

EffectJN'e i March 1979. ATC reassigned the 3507th 
Airman Classification Squadron from Recruiting 
Service to HQ ATC. 



Iranian Revolution 

Because of a revolulion and subsequent change ot 
national policy, Iran canceled all future entries into 
flying and technical training courses. Students 
already in training were to complete school. (While 
the new 20\'ernmenl did not intend it. this included 

the Crown Prince of Iran, who finished 
undergraduate pilot training at Reese AFB on 
9 March 1979.) As a result of the Iranian seizure of 
the US Embassy in Teheran and the holding of 
American hostages. ATC grounded all Iranian flying 
training students. 

Coast Guard Navigator Training Ended 

Giving no reason, the US Coast Guard notified ATC 
on 26 July that it would stop sending students to 
Mather AFB's Interservice Undergraduate Navigator 
Training and instead train its own navigators. 

Rotary Wing Qualification Course 

On 31 January 1979. ATC assumed responsibility for 
the Rotary Wing Qualification Course at Fort Rucker. 
Alabama. The course, formerly under MAC, trained 
fixed-wing pilots to fly helicopters. 

Security Assistance Program Training 

Since the early 1940s. ATC had provided special 
pilot training courses for foreign students under a 
variety of program titles, such as the Mutual Defense 
Assistance Program, the Military Assistance 
Program, and the Security Assistance Program. On 
1 1 September, ATC ended the special courses. 
Students already in training were allowed to complete 
their courses, but all luture pilot trainees would take 
the standard USAF undergraduate pilot training 


Computer Training Consolidated 

Since Keesler Technical Training Center already 
performed most Air Force computer maintenance 
training. General Davis directed the consolidation of 
computer programmer and operator training there 
also. He made this decision on .'i June 1979. and 
actual consolidation occuiTcd between the fall ol 
1979 and fall of 19S(). 

Female recruits from llie 37(IMth Basic Military 
Training Squadron clinih up a lower during 
■>■ . !■< irainins; at Lackland .MB, lexas. 

The CCAK relocated to this building at 
Lackland in l')77. >>hcre it remained for 
two vears before moving to .Maxwell. 



Air Training Command continued its efforts to institute specialized undergraduate pilot training and 
acquire a next generation trainer. Defense ministers of tiie N A fO alliance agreed to begin I uro-\A l() Joint 
Jet Pilot fraining at Sheppard. for the first time since 1-^ 71, pilot production showed an increase o\er the 
pre\ious year's production. Air Training Command ele\ated the helicopter training detachment at Fort 
Rucker to squadron status, a reflection of expanded Air Force requirements. In technical training, A K saw 
a substantial expansion in its student load. 

Air Training Command used the 1\-I8 aircraft for 
administrative airlift. 


(asot 31 December I^.S!)) 


Alabaina-dLuiler and Maxwell; Aii/ona-- 
Williams; Calit'ornia-Mathcr: Coloiado-- 
Lovviy. illin(>is--Chaniite: Mississippi-- 

Columbus and Keeslei: Oklahoma— Vance; 
Toxas-CxHHUellow. I.aekland. Laughlin, 
Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard 


55.488 (8..V)6 otfieers: }2JM-> enlisted: 14.716 

AIRCRAFT ASSIGNED: 1.482 (T 37. T-38. T-41. T-43, UV-18) 

7 numbered air luree equivalent units: 

USAF Reeruiimg Service. Randolph AFB TX 
Air University. Maxwell AFB AL 
Lackland Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanutc Al'B IL 
KeeslerTech Trng" Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
l.ovvry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppartl Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 

1 wing equi\alent unit: 

Oflicer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
1 combat crew training vs ing: 

3636th (Survival). Faiichdd AFB WA 

8 living training wings: 

1 2th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 

71st. Vance AFB OK 
8()ih. Sheppard AFB TX 
S2d. Williams AFB .\Z 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

I technical training wing: 

348()th (USAF Ciyptological Iraming Center), 
Goodlellow AFB TX 

4 indcpendenl grou|i ami equivalent units: 

Communily College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Mil Trng Affairs Gp. Ranilolph .AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Cenler. San Antonio 

San .'\ntonio Real Properly Maintenance Agency. 
San Antonio AFS TX 

10 independent squadron and equivalent units: 

USAF Occupational Measurement Cenler. 
Randolph Al B TX 



Recruits are fitted for initial clothing issue at Lackland AFB, Texas. 

557th Flying Ti;iining. USAF Academy, Colorado 

Springs CO 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (NCO Academy). Lackland AFB 


3305th School (LSD), Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
33 14th Mgmt Engrg. Randcilph AFB TX 
3.507th Airman Classilication. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Trng (Heli). Fort Ruckcr AL 

Wing at Columbus. Since that time, the detachment's 
mission had expanded to include more than 350 
hours per month for flying and academic training 
with 17 permanent party personnel assigned. Then on 
31 January 1980. Air Training Command replaced 
the detachment with the activation of the 3588th 
Flying Training Squadron (Helicopter). The 
squadfon reported directly to the HQ ATC Deputy 
Chief of Staff. Operations. 




General Bennic L. Davis continued to serve as the 
ATC commander, and Maj Gen Charles G. Cleveland 
remained the \ice commander. 


First Female Enters UPT-H 

Although the Army had been training female 
helicopter pilots for some time, the Air Force had not, 
that was until 2d Lt Mary L. Wittick entered under- 
graduate pilot training helicopter (Class 81-05) in 
May 1980. 

3588th Flying Training Squadron 

In 1971. when llic .\rm_\ began training Air Force 
undergraduate helicopter pilots. Air Training 
Command established small detachments of Air 
Force personnel at Army training sites to monitor 
training, provide interservice liaison, and give 
administrative support to Air Force students. When 
this training went to a single location--F-ort Ruckcr. 
Alabama— ATC transferred student accountability 
and processing from Randolph to Craig AFB in 
Mabama. Craig closed in 1977. and the responsibility 
' tu a detachment of the 14th Flying Training 

Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training 

F^)r some \ears. member nations ol the NATO 
alliance had attempted to develop a common pilot 
training program. By combining pilot training 
prt)grams. the allies could reduce costs and increase 
NATO operational standardization. In 1978 NATO 
officials accepted a US offer to host ENJJPT at an 
American base. On II June 1980. the Secretary of 
Defense announced that ATC would conduct the 
ENJJPT course at Sheppard AFB. Texas. 
Participating nations were to contribute to the 



ENJJPT program pro|nirlii)natel\ to their use of it. 
Contributions of capital assets such as aircraft and of 
personnel priniaril\ instructor pilots (IP) would count 
as credits. Student training costs, and Hying hour 
costs for IP training and continuation tlying uoukl 
count as debits. Nations with an overall debit 
balance would be required to pay increased financial 
charges to the program, while nations with a credit 
balance would be compensated by cash, credit to the 
country's foreign military sales account with the 
United States, or by credit to the F,NJ.IPT program 
trust fund. The first class of ENJJPT students entered 
training on 1 October 1981. 


Interservice Training Review Organization 

To .ATC the most signiticanl problems of ]ieacetiine 
training were a shortage of resources of all types and 
a constant struggle to produce cost effective training. 
In 1972 the General Accounting Office had issued a 
report criticizing the services for maintaining 
duplicate training courses and encouraging wholesale 
consolidation of these courses. Acting on this 
criticism, the Defense Department established the 
lnterser\ice Training Re\iew Organization (ITROl in 
.August 1972 as a cooperative effort among the 
services to review all training and education with a 
goal of eliminating duplication. From the beginning. 
ITRO was a \oluntarv organization, and the services 

I he first Kuro-N A K) .Joint Jet Pilot Training pilot 
to solo was 2d l.t l.arrv \\ eiseiiheiy. whose 
classmates perforined the traditional (lunkin<: on 
20 November I9S1. 

were not bound ti) follow its recommendations. In the 
first few years. ITRO was successful mainly in 
prt)moting small. noncontroversial training 
ct)nsolidations. Between 1976-1978. in fact, no 
technical training consolidations took place, although 
the .Air Force and Navy began interservice navigator 
training at Mather AFB in July 1976. Following an 
eight-month study in 1979. the ITRO Review Board 
approved the reorganization on 1 January 1980. 
Designed to make ITRO more responsive, it 
eliminated the excessive organizational layering and 
muuerous committees. 


M t hanute Al IJ. Illinois, a fuels training instructor a siudenl how to pcrlonn a reluelinu operation. 




Test ofBMTS Surge Capabilities 

In times of war. Air Force manpower requirements 
would drastically increase, with a coiTCsponding 
increase in the number of those entering basic 
training. A key factor in determining ATC's 
capability to meet the manpower increases rested on 
knowing the maximum training capability of the 
basic military training school. On 5 May 1980, 
training officials doubled the load for two flights- 
Flights 410 and 41 1-which entered training with 100 
members each rather than the normal load of 50. 
Graduating on 18 June 1980. the two tlights lost only 
four members due to training .setbacks, and none 
were eliminated. While training was not canceled or 
degraded, officials belie\ed that a sustained surge 
could impact the quality of training. Thus. Air 
Training Command modified its surge training plans 
to include the use of two or more installations for 
basic training. 


Community College Receives Accreditation 

On 12 December 1980. the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools voted unanimously to accredit 
the Community College of the Air Force as a degree 
granting institution, ending two and one half years of 
evaluation and consideration. 

A technician repaints a 1-38 wing at 
Williams AFB, Arizona. 


US Government Expels Iranian Students 

Although the Iranian government had stopped 
sending students into USAF training programs in 
January 1979. numerous Iranians were still in 
training at the beginning of 1980. Following the 
Iranian seizure of the American Embassy in Teheran 
in November 1979, all Iranians in flying training had 
been grounded, though they continued to receive 
academic instruction. On 7 April 1980, the 
Deparlniciu of Defense directed thai all Iranian 
militars trainees were lo leave the country by 
1 1 A|inl 1980. All Iranian students and their families 
undei- the jurisdiction of Air Training Command. 
e.\ccpi two students and ihcir wives who were in 
advanced stages of pregnancy, left on schedule. After 
the births, these students and their dcpeiidcius left for 
Iran on 24 April 1980. 

A tlrenian inspects the nose wheel of a 1-38 after a 
student pilot reported "hot brakes." 



The command had long tried to accommodate other nations with a variety of tlying training programs. At 
no time was that more evident than in 1981. Since 1966 ATC had condneted a special undergradnale |)ilo( 
training program geared mainl\ lor the Cerman Air I orce but also open to students Irom the (arman Na\> 
and the Royal Netherlands Air Force. That program, whose last class began in the summer ol I9«l. was 
succeeded by the Euro-NATO .Joint Jet Pilot Training program, whose first class entered in the fall. \s the 
name suggested, the new program was designed for a wider audience--the nations ol the Atlantic Alliance. 
Also in the tall. Air Training C ommand began a new program for German navigator students. 



7 nunihered air force equix aleiit units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Luck land AFB, TX 
Air University, Maxwell AFB AL 
Chanute Tech Trns: Clr. Channte AFB IL 
KeeslerTech Trng Ctr. Kcoslcr AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. .Shcppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

1 wing equivalent unit: 

Officer Training School. lackland AFB TX 
1 combat crcu training wing: 

3636lh (Survival). Fairchdd AIB VVA 

8 living training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64lh. Reese AIB TX 
71st. Vance AIB OK 
80th. Shcppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB TX 
323d. Mather AI-B CA 


(,as ol 31 December lysij 

Alabania--Ciuntcr and Ma\v\ell; Ari/ona--\\'illianis: California- 
Mather: Colorado--Lo\\ry: Illinois-Chanule: Mississippi--Coluinbus 
and Keesler: Oklahoma-- Vance: Texas-Goodlellow, Lackland, 
Laughlin. Rantlolph. Reese, and Sheppard 

57.712(8.191 officers: 33.420 enlisted; 16.101 ei\dians) 

1.462 (T-37B. T-38A. T-41A/C. T-43A. UV-18) 


1 independent techmcal training wing: 

3480th (USAF Cryptological 1 raming Center), 
(ioodfellow AFB I'X 

4 independent group and equivalent units: 

Comniunit) College of the Air Fnirce. Maxwell 

Foreign Mil ling Affairs Gp. Rantlolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center, San Antonio 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
San .Antonio AFS TX 

10 indepcnilent squadron and equix aleiit iniits: 

USAF' Occupational Measurement Center, 

Randolph AFB IX 

557th Flying Training. USAF Academy. Colorado 

Springs CO 

3.3()2d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304lh School (ATC NCO Acailemy). Lackland 


3305ih School (LSD). Randolph AFB TX 
3.306lh Test and Evaluation. FIdw arils AFB CA 
3314th Management Fngincering. Randolph AFB 




35()7th Airman Classification, Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 




Thomas M. Ryan, 


Gen Thomas M. Ryan. Jr.. assumed command of 
Air Training Command on 29 July 1981. replacing 
Gen Bennie L. Davis, who became Commander in 
Chief. Strategic Air Command. Air Training 
Command also gained a new vice commander when 
Maj Gen William P. Acker took over from Maj Gen 
Charles G. Cleveland on 24 July 1981. General 
Cleveland was promoted to lieutenant general and 
became the Commander of Air University. 

.\n insiiticlor n:)\i<ialiir shows a student how to 
use the radar in the 145 simulator at Mather 
AFB. California. 


Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training Program 

On I October 1981, the Eua. NATO Joml Jel Pilot 
Training (ENJJPT) program began when Class 83-01 
entered training at Sheppard AFB. Texas, graduating 
a year laiei. Tb'^ 12 participating nations-Belgium. 
1 1. Denmark, Germany, Greece. Italy, the 

Netherlands. Norway, Portugal. Turkey, the United 
Kingdom, and the United .States-saw ENJJPT as a 
way to increase standardization and cut costs by 
reducing duplicate training. The establishment of 
ENJJPT was several years in the making and was 
modeled after the undergraduate pilot training 
program that the command had conducted for the 
German Air Force since 1966. 

German Navigator Training 

At the same time it was making plans to phase out the 
UPT program for German pilot candidates. ATC was 
also planning to introduce a special navigator training 
program for the German Air Force and Navy. Both 
those services were about to reequip many of their 
squadrons with the Tornado fighter-bomber, a two- 
seat, swing-wing aircraft similar to the F-l I 1. The 
Germans wanted to put a weapon systems officer 
(WSO) in the second seat and asked the Air Force to 
set up a program to help them do that. On 28 August 
1981. HQ USAF formalized an agreement with the 
German Air Force that established a German 
squadron at Mather to train up to 80 WSOs a year. 
The new program began on 1 October 1981. and at 
year's end there were 20 students in training. 

Time-Related Instruction Management 

For seseral years Air Training Command had sought 
a way to capitalize on computer technology and use it 
to improve the administrative and student 
management side of UPT. The base management 
system provided what computer support there was, 
and it processed information in overnight batches. 
Consequently, the information was not always 
timely. An ATC initiative, the time-related 
instruction management (TRIM) system, would put 
computer terminals in the squadrons and operations 
areas to replace the printouts and provide more 
current information; TRIM also had a computer- 
assisted instruction (CAI) feature that allowed 
student pilots to work on their own. On 16 September 
1981. the Air Force issued a contract to Hazeltinc 
Corporation to develop the system. Each UPT base 
and Randolph would receive the TRIM system. 
which included four computers: one to handle 
scheduling and administration, two to pro\ide CAI 
for the students, and one to link the system together. 
Terminals in flight rooms, squadron and wing 
operations areas, and classrooms wi>uld provide 
access to the system. Initial training was underway at 
year's end. 

Next Generation Trainer 

Air Training Command moved a step closer to 
obtaining a successor to the aging T-37 primary 
trainer in 1981. In October the Aeronautical Systems 
Division at Wright-Patterson AFB. Ohio, the agency 
responsible for such matters, issued a request for 



Undergraduate na\igators at Mather AFB, California, make e\tensi\e use of simulators 

.hart their 

propiisal to aiivralt ct)nipanics intcrcsled in 
manufacturing the next generation trainer for the Air 
Force. On 7 I3eceniber. five companies responded to 
the solicitation with their proposals. Sliortly 
thereafter, the source selection process began. 

Busy Plotter 

In l')79 Air Training Command established a 
program called Busy Plotter that provided 
proficiency Hying for navigators in .Strategic Air 
Command. With the scarcity of Hying hours brought 
on by the high cost of fuel. ATC's T-43 navigator 
training aircraft were much less expensive to fly than 
SAC's large, heavy B-52s. Busy Plotter, therefore, 
served essentially the same purjiosc lor .SAC 
navigators as the Accelerated Copilot luinchnicnl 
program did for SAC copilots. By September 19X1. 
CINCSAC. Cien Bennie L. Davis, decided that the 
program lual servetl its purpose, and .ATC 
discontinued Hiisv Plotter on I Oclobei 19SI. 

Airmen run the conlldenee eourse al lackland 
.MB. lexas, which >\as Air I raiiiin<i C ommands 
only basic military trainiu); school durinj; the 




Air Traffic Controller Strike 

A strike on 3 Auuusl 19S1 by unionized air traffic 
controllers employed by the Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) disrupted training activities 
within the command. First of all. even though FAA 
supervisory personnel and those controllers who did 
not go out on strike tried to handle the workload, it 
was too much lor them. From ATC's perspective that 
translated into reduced flying training activities in 
conditions that necessitated instrument flight rules 
(IFR). Williams AFB was hit the worst. It lost all 
FAA support for IFR flights, until the installation of a 
military radar approach control, which helped some. 
Elsewhere within the command, the problem was not 
quite so serious. To make up for the shortage of 
qualified air traffic controllers, the Department of 
Defense made I.OOO military controllers available to 
the FAA. 64 of them from Air Training Command. 
Anv further deployment of controllers, the flying 
training wings contended, would greatly reduce their 
capabilities-causing delays in graduations, loss of 
production capacity, and a reduction in the quality of 
instruction. However, no other deployments 
occurred, and the disruptions in training proved 
minor at most ATC bases. 

During the nationwide strike by civilian air 
traffic controllers, the Keesler AFB, Mississippi, 
controller course saw only a minor increase in its 
student load. 

A suident with simulated injuries is hauled into a 2(»-man life raft during the final exercise of the water 
survival (non-parachuting) course at Fairchild AFB. Washington. 



The second of July 1982 was a red letter da> IVtr Air Iraininji Command. On that date. Secretary of the 
Air Force \ erne Orr announced that Fairchild Uepuhlic and the darret lurbine Kn<;ine C ompanv had heen 
awarded the contract for the production of the I -46A. Ihe 1-46. also referred to as the Ne\t Generation 
Trainer, was going to replace the r-37 in the primary phase of undergraduate pilot training. Air Force 
contract options presided for a fleet of 650 l-46As. Air Training C ommand anticipated it would receive the 
first aircraft in April 1986. 


(as ot 31 DcccmlxT 1982) 




Alabania--Guntcr and Maxwell; Aii/ona-W illiaiiiM Calitornia-- 
Mather; Colorado—Low r\ : lllinois--Chaiuiic; Mississippi--Coli.imbus 
and Kecsler; Oklahonia--Vance; Te\as--Goodrello\\. Lackland. 
Laugh 1 ill. Randolph. Reese, and .Sheppard 

57.06.'^ (8..^24 otTicers: }}.()()> enlisted; l.^.T.Vi civilians) 

1.406 (T-37B. T-38A. T-41 A. T-43A) 

§J, ■s^^^s^^' 




".\im High" became the \ir Force slogan in Ocloher 
1982. replacing Ihe earlier catch phrase. " \ir Force— 
A (ireat \\a\ of I ife." In tests. Ihe \ir Force had 
found that young people associated the phrase. "Aim 
High." with Ihe Aii I (tree— its (|ualit\ of life, people, 
and high-leeh e(|iiipment. One phrase that kept 
being repeated was "Aim High-Air Fence." ^ oung 
men and women, ages 17 and 18. said it told them 
thai lhe> could achieve their fullest potential in the 
Air Force. 






7 numbered air force equivalent units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. LacJKland AFB TX 
Air University, Maxwell AFB AL 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

I w ing equi\alent unit: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
1 combat crew training wing: 

363Ath (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 Hying training wings: 

12lh. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th, Laughlin AFB TX 
64th, Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
SOth. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d, Williams AFB AZ 
323d, Mather AFB CA 

I independent technical training wing: 

3480th (USAF Cryptological Training Center), 
Goodlcllow AFB TX 

4 iniiependenl group and cqin\ alent units: 

ComniunUN College ol the Air Force, Maxwell 

Foreign Mil Trng Affairs Gp, Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. San Antonio 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency. 
San Antonio AFS TX 

10 independent squadron and cqui\alent units: 

USAF Occupational MeasuremenI Center. 

Randolph AFB "IX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academv). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management), Randolph AFB TX 

3314th Mgmt Engrg, Randolph AFB TX 
3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Trng (Heli), Fort Rucker AL 


General Thomas M. Ryan. Jr.. continued to serve 
as the ATC commander, while Maj Gen William P. 
Acker remained vice commander. 


Technical Training Centers Reorganized 

The command reorganized its technical training 
centers to reduce the administrative burden borne by 
the technical training group commanders, provide 
additional assistance for the wing commanders, and 
streamline the technical training process. On 1 April 
ATC implemented a number of measures that 
included changing the name of the Plans and 
Requirements Division to the Operations Division 
and making its chief a colonel who would also serve 
as the deputy wing commander. Other changes worth 
noting were the placement of the Registrar Branch 
under the Operations Division and the transfer of the 
measurement function from Faculty Development to 
the Training Evaluation Division. However, the 
centerpiece of the reorganization was the 
establishment of a student group at each center on 1 
October 19S2. 

557th Flying Training Squadron Transferred 

Since 1968. ATC's 557th Flying Training Squadron 
had run the Air Force Academy's pilot indoctrination 
program designed for those cadets slated to attend 
undergraduate pilot training after graduation. 
Following a 1981 study of the program, the Air Force 
Academy indicated its interest in taking oxer the pilot 
indoctrination program in order to centralize 
command and control, consolidate airfield 
management, and emphasize the motivational aspects 
of the program. Finally, both ATC and HQ USAF 
agreed to transfer the unit to the Air Force Academy, 
and the academy assumed control of the 557th on 1 
October 1982. The squadron had a fleet of fifty T- 
41Cs for flight screening, plus two UV-18Bs to 
support the Air Force Academy's parachute training 
program. In addition ATC also transferred the 
squadron's manpower authorizations: 54 officer, 7 
enlisted, and 4 ci\ ilian spaces. 

3307th Test and Evaluation Squadron 

Air Training Command activated the 3307th Training 
and Evaluation Squadron (Acquisition Management) 
on 15 No\ ember 1982. The command established the 
squadioM to look after ATC's interest in the 



acquisition i)t the T-46A. The squadiDii tell under 
the administrati\ e and operational control of the 
Acquisition Directorate in DCS/Plans. with tlic 
director dual-hatled as the squadron eoinniander. To 
carr\ out its uniciue mission, (he 33()7th hati a 
detachment at Wright-Patterson AFB. Ohio, to 
interface w ith the Air Force S\stems Command T-46 
Systems Program Office and an operating location at 
the prime contractor's (Fairchild Republic) facilit\ in 
Farminodale. New \'ork. 



Contract Award for Next Generation Trainer 

On 2 July 1982. Secretary of the An 1-orcc Verne Orr 
announced that Fairchild Republic and the Garrett 
Turbine Engine Company had been awarded the 
contract for the production of an aircraft knov\n as 
the Next Generation Trainer. This aircraft, formally 

designated the T-46A, was going to be the 
replacement loi the T-37 and. as such, was destined 
for use in the primary phase of undergraiiuate pilot 
training. The new trainer had two jet engines and 
side-by-side seating. Air Force contract options 
provided for a Heet of b5(.) T-46As. Air Training 
Command anticipated it would receive the first 
aircral'i in April 19X6. 

German Air Force Training Ends 

After id years at .Sheppard. the German Air Force 
undergraduate pilot training program came to an end 
on 7 August I9S2. when the last class graduated. 
Although designed primarily for German Air Force 
students, the course had also been available to pilot 
candidates troni the German Na\y and the Royal 
Netherlands Air Force. In all. the course produced 
l.2?2 German and 49 Dutch pilots. Additionally, 
from |9fiS to I97.S. .S44 L'SAI- pilots graduated from 
the course. 


An instructor monitors sludenl progress in aiiicimniiM irainiiical Chanule Al It. Illitidis. 




Enlisted Commandant for SNCOA 

General Ryan converted the commandant's position 
at the Senior Noncommissioned Officer Academy 
(SNCOA). Gunter AFS. Alabama, from colonel to 
chief master sergeant. In December 1982 he .selected 
CMSgt Bobby G. Renfroe to serve as the academy's 
first enlisted commandant. 

Establishment of CADRE 

On 10 December 19S2. HQ USAF constituted the Air 
University Center for Aerospace Doctrine. Research, 
and Education (CADRE) and tasked the new 
organization to research, formulate, analyze, test, and 
publish doctrinal and concept studies. The new 
organization would also embrace the Aerospace 
Studies Institute, the Air University Press, and the 
projected Command Readiness Exercise System. Air 
University provided 70 manpower authorizations 
from its existing resources to get CADRE off the 
ground and anticipated adding 24 more slots in FY 85 
with the establishment of the Command Readiness 
Exercise System. 

Students get hands-on training in the 
short-range attack missile lab at Chanute 
AFB, Illinois. 

Recruits assigned to the 3743d Basic Military Training Squadron at Lackland AFB. Texas, practice 
•i^arksnianship >\ith \1-16 rifles. 



On 1 July 1983. scarcely five years after HQ USAF had aliened Air I niversity under ATC, it reversed the 
process and conferred major air command status on Air I niversily once more. With the realiynmenl. Air 
Training; Command lost two installations— Maxwell Air Force Base and (iunter Air Force Station. I he 
command also did away with the Deputy C hief of Staff, Education post on the headquarters staff and, in i(s 
place, established a new position-the Assistant Chief of Staff, Commissionin^ Programs. 


(as of 3 1 December 1983) 



Arizona--Williams; Calit'ornia--lVIathei" Colorad(i--Lo\vry. Illinois-- 
Chanute; Mississippi--ColumbLis and Kccslcr: ()klali()iiui--Vance: 
Texas— GoodFellow. Lackland, Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 

Basic trainees make their wav across a water hazard on the confidence course at Lackland AfU, le\as. 


53.772 (7.1)16 oriicers: 3I.64.S enlisted; 14.21 I civilians) 
1,401 (T-37B, T-38A. T-39A. T-41 A. T-43A) 




6 numbered air force equivalent units: 

Air Force Mil Tmg Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service, Randolph AFB TX 

1 air division equivalent unit: 

Air Force Reserve Officers' Trng Corps, Maxwell 

2 wing equivalent units: 

Officer Training School, Lackland AFB TX 
USAF Instrument Flight Ctr. Randolph AFB TX 

1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 flying training wings: 

i2th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
8Uth. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

1 technical training wing: 

348()th (USAF Cryptological Training Center), 
Goodfcllow AFB TX 

4 independent group and cquisalcnt units: 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Mil Trng Affairs Gp. Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. San Antonio 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
San Antonio AFS TX 

10 independent squadron and equi\aleiit units: 

USAF Occupational Measurement Center, 
Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 
3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD), Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management). Randolph AFB TX 

3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification, Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter), Fort Rucker 



Andrew P. losue 

Gen Andrew P. losue assumed command of ATC 
on 23 June. He replaced Gen Thomas M. Ryan. Jr.. 
who went on to become Commander. Military Airlift 
Command. Air Training Command also gained a new 
vice commander in Maj Gen James P. Smothermon, 
who replaced Maj Gen William P. Acker on 14 June. 
Maj Gen Smothermon previously commanded the 
United States Logistics Group in Turkey. 


Air University Regains MAJCOM Status 

On 1 July 1983, scarcely fi\c years after HQ LISAF 
had aligned Air University under Air Training 
Command, it reversed the process and confened 
major air command status on Air University iince 
more. At the time of the merger on 15 May 1978 the 
Air Force sought to consolidate most of its education 
and training programs and provide a focal point tor 
personnel procurement programs. The move brought 
professional military education (PME) under the 
same roof as flying, technical, and basic military 
training. Moreover, it provided common direction tor 
two of the Air Force's major commissionmg 
programs ROTC and OTS. Over time, HQ USAF had 
become concerncil that this arrangement lowered the 
visibility and diminished the importance of the Air 
War College, the Air Command and Staff College, 
and other PME schools. In elevating Air University 



Instructors cIoscIn monitor students installing an electronics pod on 
Sheppard AFB, Texas. 

an 1-41) aircraft durinu classes at 

to MAJCOM stains oikc again, HQ USAF hoped to 
erase that perception. However, the Air Force 
continued to heiie\e there was merit in having a 
single MAJCOM administer the two commissioning 
programs and decided to keep ROTC under ATC 
control. Effective 30 June 1983. ATC reassigned the 
.•\ir Force Reserve Officers' Training Corps at 
Ma.xwell from Air University to HQ ATC. 

Instrument Flight Center Reestablished 

ReversMig anolhcr sicp il had taken live veais earlier. 
HQ USAF. on 1 October 1983. reestablished the 
Instrument Flight Center (IFC) at Randolph AFB. 
This confirmed the Air Force's need for a central 
facility to determine and validate new flight concepts 
and instrument tlight systems. When il was initially 
established in 1972. the IFC standardized the use of 
instrument procedures and training methods lor 
pilots, participated with other government and 
civilian organizations in tleveloping instrument 
systems, and trained pilots to become instrument 
pilot instructors through the Instrument Pilot 
Instructor School (IPIS). Colonel E.J. Baker assumed 
command of the rev iiali/ed IFC on I October. The 
organi/alion was assigned to Air Training Command 

as a wing-level direct reporting unit under the 
operational control of the ATC vice commander, with 
the Director of Operations at HQ USAF providing 
policy and functional guidance. At first the 
Instnunent Flight Center had 24 manpower slots and 
was tasked onlv with developing instrinneiit tlight 
standards, but planning had alreadv begun to 
reestablish ll'IS as part of the command's Instrument 
lliiihl Center. 



,\l(' conducted undergraduate helicopter training at 
the U.S. Army Aviation Center. Fort Rucker. 
Alabama. The 3.'S88th Flying Training Squadron 
provided administrative support for the Air Force 
students in the program (82 Air l-orce students 
completed the course in 1983) and carried out 
specialized instruction applicable to Air Force 
students. In I9S3. the .Armv added two weeks to their 




When Air Educiilion and Training Command 
(AETC) stood up on 1 July 1993. Air University (AU) 
became part of the new command. This was not the 
first time the Air Force's education and training 
missions had been linked so closely. After countless 
studies that recommended the consolidation of the 
two missions. Gen David C. Jones, Air Force Chief of 
Staff, had directed the merger of Air University and 
Air Training Command on 15 May 1978. At that 
time, AU lost its status as a major command and 
became, in effect, another ATC center. To formulate 
policy and provide guidance for Air University. ATC 
established a new staff agency, the Deputy Chief of 
Staff. Education. This organizational relationship 
remained in effect until July 1983. 

Air University traced its roots baclv to the Air 
Corps Tactical School, established at Langley Field, 
Virginia, in the 192()s. In 1931 the Air Corps Tactical 
School moved to Maxwell, and it was there that many 
of the ideas, tactics, and doctrine that the Army Air 
Forces adopted in World War II were first hammered 
out. After a brief stay in Orlando. Florida, during the 
war. the school moved back to Maxwell in late 1945 
and was redesignated as Air University on 1 2 March 

From its inception. Air University's mission was to 
provide advanced military education for senior 
officers at the Air War College and for mid-level 
officers at the Air Command and Staff School. Junior 
officers began their professional military education 
(PME) at Tyndall Field. Florida, at the Air Tactical 
School. In 1950, when the tactics school closed. Air 
University opened the Squadron Officer Course at Max- 

well as an arm of the Air Command and Staff School. 
Though some name changes occurred over time, these 
three schools formed the core of Air Force PME until 
1972. when the Air Force established the USAF 
Senior NCO Academy across town from Maxwell at 
Gunter Air Force Station. 

With professional military education as the 
centeipiece. Air University broadened its base 
considerably over the years. As its mission expanded. 
Air University became the home for such organiza- 
tions as the Air Force Institute of Technology; the 
Extension Course Institute: the Ira C. Eaker Center 
for Professional Development; and the Air University 
Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 

On 1 July 1983. almost as suddenly as the merger 
of Air Training Command and Air University had 
been carried out five years earlier, it was dissolved, 
and Air University regained its status as a major 
command. Although the Air Force did not consider 
the merger a failure, it was concerned that the 
visibility of PME had been reduced and felt that 
reestablishing Air University as a MAJCOM would 
serve to elevate professional military education to its 
appropriate level. Headquarters USAF also indicated 
to Lt Gen Charles G. Cleveland, the AU commander 
at the time, that Air University's capability and 
involvement in the doctrinal development process (the 
AU Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Education was established in 1982) was a primary 
reason for the reestablishment of Air University as a 
major command. 

syllabus to prepare their students to manage Aviation 
Branch activities. The commander of the 3588th 
proposed adding two weeks to the Air Force portion 
of the course, to provide additional instruction and to 
keep its students on the same schedule as their Army 
partners. ATC and the Air Force approved the request 
in November. 


Project V 
Over the 

personnel i 
specialties i 



technical training managers 

'Me fluctuations in trained 

'!\i in numerous Air Force 

not of the problem was 

Air Force Ihmm^iiv^ 

■ nsiing each AFSC up to 

100 percent manning by the end of the next fiscal 
year. The net result of this approach was a series of 
peaks and valleys, e.g.. when large numbers of 
airmen entered a particular specialty in a given year 
and left the Air Force coping with large numbers four 
years later. This single year orientation impacted 
student flow and disrupted faculty stability. It 
dramaticalh affected the number of 3-le\el airmen 
ted into certain career fields from year to year and, 
since instructor authorizations were tied directly to 
production le\els. the average instructor experience 
level varied considerably over time. To avoid this 
unwelcome set of circumstances. ATC initiated 
Project Smooth Mow earl\ in 1983. Smooth Flow 
was designed lo stabilize entries into a specialty by 
incorporating long-range planning into the TPR 



An aerial \k'\\ of ttu' academic circle 
at Maxwell AFB. Alabama, the home 
of Air l'ni>ersit\. 

Following the collapse of communism and the end 
of the Cold War. the US Air Force, under the 
leadership of General Merrill A. McPeak. Chief of 
Staff, prepared itself to face a new world order. In 
line with several other initiatives to streamline the Air 
Force. General McPeak proclaimed 1992 as the "Year 
of Training." To examine how the Air Force could 
better train its people. General McPeak established 
three task groups, one to look at the process, one to 
look at the structure, and one to focus exclusively on 
Hying training, .■\mong other things, the Training 
Structure Task Group, chaired by Lt Gen Joseph W. 
Ashy. ATC commander, looked once more at the 
option of consolidating the education and training 
missions under a single command and concluded it 
was desirable. 

In redesignating ATC as the Air Education and 
Training Command and realigning Air University 
under the new command. Headquarters USAF also ap- 

proved several other actions. This time around, the 
Air University commander retained policy develop- 
ment responsibilities as the Director of Education on 
the AETC staff-a move that addressed a sore point 
that festered throughout the earlier consolidation of 
education and training missions. For the most part. 
Air University retained its unique identity: it was not 
considered as just another training center (which 
became training w ings under AETC), nor was it on a 
par with the two numbered air forces activated as part 
of AETC. It stood by itself, an organization unlike 
any other in the .Air Force with its singularly 
important educational mission. Finally. Air 
University also assumed management responsibiliiv 
for the Community College of the Air horce and the 
.Air Force ROTC program, and it prepared to assume 
control of the Officer Training School, which was 
slated to complete its move from lackland to 
Maxwell by I October 199.^. 

development process. Instead of Irving to achieve 
100 percent manning each year. ATC intended to 
attain that level over a period of two to four years. 
Basically. Smooth Flow allowed ATC to negotiate 
the TPR with other conunancK at training 
management conferences. Based on an analysis ot 
eight vears of TPR data for a specialty. ATC could 
recommend an adjusted TPR that was two percent 
higher or lower than the number required to man the 
career field at 100 percent. An Iraining Command 
used the Smooth Flow approach tor the first time at 
the training flow management connnitlee meeting 
held from 7- 1 1 March 198.^. 

Training Technology Applications Program 

The Training Technology Applications Program 
(TTAP) was established on 2.^ December 1982. but it 
did not get on its feet until 198.^. Air Training 
Command created TT.AP to coordinate programs to 
transfer research and technology into training and to 
field test training innovations in an operational 
setting. The objectives of the program were to 
identify new iraining technology, develop priorities 
for applying the technology, purchase test equipment, 
evaluate the tests, and upgrade the successful 
technology to operational status. In the course of the 
year, TTAP made some real progress, approv ing and 
funding 16 projects originated by HQ ATC and the 
technical training wings. Among them vsas a project 
involving a programmable arc welding trainer for 



In a laboratory setting at Goodlcllon AFB, lexas, a student examines photo imagery. 

Sheppard that would provide low cost initial 
instruction in a ha/ard free en\ ironment and a test at 
Lackland designed to identity reading problems of 
recruits in basic military training. While TTAP was 
not a panacea for technical training problems, it did 
offer a means of identifying, testing, and funding 
training inno\ations in a controlled setting. 

Sentinel Aspen 

As part of a major effort to upgrade intelligence 
training, ATC issued a statement of need for Sentinel 
Aspen in January 1983. Under the Sentinel Aspen 
umbrella, the command intended to address four 
areas of general intelligence training that required 
modernization: target selection and weaponeering 
calculations; the collection, processing, exploitation, 
and dissemination of information obtained through 
imagery: interface with operational indications and 
warning systems; and fusion or interface concepts in 
use in the intelligence community. Planners expected 
the modernization program to cost on the order of 
$56 million. To cairy out the upgrade. ATC 
concentrated on the development of five things: a 
General Imagery Intelligence Training System 
(GUTS). Intelligence Data Handling Systems, an 
Intelligence Applications Training Module, an 
Indications and Warning Training Module, and an 
Intelligence Fusion Training Module. In 1983 the 

command decided to focus mainly on the 
de\elopment of GUTS, and the Air Force av\arded 
contracts to Ford Aerospace Coiporation and 
Goodyear Aerospace Corporation to come up with a 
system that incoiporated the traditional photo 
analyst's light table and optics with a computerized 
analysis system that featured imagery displayed in 
digital form and manipulated on video terminals. 


Engineer Recruitment 

Procurement efforts lo alle\iate a critical shortage of 
military engineers that existed since the I97()s finally 
began paying off for the Air Force in 1983. From a 
shortfall of appriiximately 1.200 engineers in 1979. 
the projected overall engineer strength for FYS4 was 
more than 100 percent. This turnaround was a 
significant achievement for Recruiting Service. New- 
incentive programs allowed the Air Force to compete 
with the higher salaries civilian employers offered. 
The most successful programs were the College 
Senior Engineer Program, which allowed engineering 
students to enlist and recei\e pay and benefits as E-3s 
during their senior year; they attended OTS after 
graduation. The Undergraduate Engineer Conversion 
Program sent college graduates back to school to earn 
a .second degree (in engineering) after attending OTS. 



Trainin<; philosophy was about to change. Ihc ATC commander announced that Air Training Command 
was mo\in<; a\Na\ from its evisting polic\ of training to minimum sivill le\els and, instead, moving tovvard a 
program of training airmen to the fullest extent that resources allowed. I he command's goal »as to provide 
using agencies with individuals immediately able to perform all assigned tasks. While it was more expensive 
to extend training, such a program did lessen the hea\> on-the-job training load carried b> Ihc operatiimal 
commands. Also by 1984, ATC was spending over SI million on the Installation Kestoration Program— a 
DOD effort to clean up toxic and hazardous waste sites. 


(as lit 31 Dcccinhci I'-IX-i) 




6 numbered air Ibrce eqiiix alent units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lovvry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Ser\ ice. Randolph AFB TX 

1 air division equivalent unit: 

Air Force Reserve Otlieers' Trng Corps. Maxwel 

2 wing equivalent units: 

Officer Trainuig School. Lackland AIB. TX 
USAF insiruniJnt Llight Ctr. Randolph AFB TX 

1 combat crew iraming wing: 

363ftth (Survival!, i-airchild AFB \VA 

8 flying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AIB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 


Arizona-Williams: California-Mather: Colorado-Lovvry: Illinois-- 
Chanute: Mississippi-Columbus and Keesler: Oklahoma-Vance: 
Texas-Goodfellow. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 

53.966 (7..56S officers: 32.1.^3 enlisted: 14.245 civilians) 

1.393 (T-37B. T-38A. T-39. T-41 A. T-43AJ 

1 ~ 

I 1 







Airman H.isic \ irginia Queen, above, was Ihc 
first female to go through ihc sccurilv 
specialist course at lackland MB. I cvas. 



71st, Vance AFB OK 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d, Mather AFB CA 

I technical training wing: 

3480th (USAF Cryptologicai Tiainnig Center), 
Goodfellow AFB TX 

4 independent group and equi\'alent units: 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Military Training Affairs Group. 
Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. San Antonio 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
San Antonio AFS TX 

12 independent squadron and equivalent units: 

USAF Occupational Measurement Center. 

Randolph AFB TX 

33()2d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3303lh School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management), Randolph AFB TX 

3308th Technical Training (Advisory), Randolph 


3309th Training Readiness, Randolph AFB TX 
3314th Mgmt Engrg, Randolph AFB TX 
3.'i()7th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



Cieneral losue remaincti commander and Maj Gen 
Smothermon. vice commander. 


Headqiiarters Reduction 

In the UOD Authorization Act of 1984, Congress 
directed the Secretary of Defense to reduce by 5 
percent (later 7.45 percent) the number of military 
and civilian authorizations in manas:cmcnt 

headquarters in the Office of the Secretary of 
Defense, DOD agencies, and military departments. 
To ATC that meant its ceiling dropped from 1,301 to 
1.204 positions. Air Training Command managed the 
reduction by realignment. Later in the year 
authorizations were transferred from the headquarters 
to two newly activated units: the 3308th Technical 
Training Squadron (Advisory) and the 3309th 
Training Readiness Squadron. 

DCSIInformation Systems 

A new Deputy Chief of Staff, Information Systems 
formed at HQ ATC on 1 October. It was a 
combination of the Office of Computer Resources 
and the Directorate of Communications-Electronics. 

3308th Technical Training Squadron 

On 1 April ATC activated the 33()Sth Technical 
Training Squadron (Advisory) at Randolph and 
assigned it to the headquarters. With the organization 
of this unit. ATC combined all of its training 
technology and technical training advisory services 
under a single organization. 

3309th Training Readiness Squadron 

Air Training Command activated the 3309th Training 
Readiness Squadron at Randolph and assigned it to 
the headquarters on 1 July. The 3309th managed the 
command's readiness program and served as ATC's 
intelligence function. The last time HQ ATC had an 
office dedicated to intelligence functions was in 
1975. but a headquarters reduction had caused its 

3785th Field Training Wing 

Beginning m late I9S3. HQ ATC conducted a study 
of the field training program, looking at organization 
and mission performance. The study group found that 
the training detachments did an excellent job in the 
field. It was organization that caused problems. From 
its establishment on I April 1976. the 3785th Field 
Training Group had operated a worldwide teaching 
program with the aid of a single squadron-the 
3751st. Through the years, the lines of authority and 
responsibility had become indistinct. To define these 
elements more clearly, the stud>' group reconmiended 
ele\ ating the 37S5th to wing level and assigning tour 
squadrons to the wing. With Air Staff approval, on 
I .luly 1984. ATC redesignated the 3785th Field 
Training Group as the 3785th Field Training Wing, 
assigned the 3751st Field Training Squadron to the 
wing, and activated three additional field training 
squadrons: the 3752d, 3753d, and 3754th. Like the 
group, the 37S5th Field Training Wing, remained 
assigned to the Sheppard Technical Training Center. 



An instriicKtr from ATC's survival school at I aiiehild AFB. \\ ashin<iton. demonstrates animal 
skinnln<i techniques during sur\i\al. evasion, resistance, and escape training lor cadets at the Air Force 
Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

First Sergeant Academy 

Air Training Command established a First Seigeaiu 
Academy at Keesier (in 24 Januar\ and assigned it to 
the 330()th Technical Training Wing. 

Support Squadron 

In an cllorl to attract more qtiahtied olTicers to lili 
support roles. ATC reorganized some of its services, 
transportation, supply, and security police divisions 
as squadrons. On 1 April the command activated 
services squadrons at Chanute. Keesler. Lov\ry, and 
Sheppard. Randolph. Mather. Keesler. Lackland, and 
Lowry gained transportation squadrons on 1 July, and 
Goodfellow added a suppl\ sc|uadron. On the same 
day. ATC acti\atcd security police sc|uadrons at 
Columbus. Lau'jhlin, Vance, and Williams. 



TRIM Implemented 

On W) .laiiuaiA 1*)S4. ATC began using the Time- 
Related Instruction Management (TRIM) system, a 
computer s\stem to support Hying training activities. 

The first unit to use the ssstciu uas the 47lh Flying 
Training Wing at Laughlin AFB. Texas. 

Navigator-Bombardier Training Ends 

On 6 November 1984. ATC ended navigator- 
bombardier training at Mather AFB in California. For 
37 years. Mather had provideil this instruction. 
However, when SAC decided to phase in a new 
avionics system in the early 1980s, either ATC had to 
upgrade its training equipment at ci)nsiderable 
expense or transfer training lesponsihilitv to S.AC. 
Both commands agreed that the best soliuion was to 
transfer the training to SAC's combat crew training 
school at Castle AFB in California. 


Information Systems 

In 1984 the Air Force combined communications and 
data autoiTialion to form a new information systems 
career Field. Both the otficer training (49XX) and the 
enlisted program (49 1 XX) were to begin in 198.^. 
Keesler had conducted most of the old 
communications-electronics and data automation 
training and would continue with the new courses. 
However, a small part of the enlisted training 
program would operate at Sheppard. 



Intelligence Training 

On 1 February the Air Force announced that ATC 
would consoHdate all intelhgence trainuig at 
Goodfellow AFB in northwestern Texas. That meant 
that the cryptologic and intelhgence courses at the 
Kecsler and Lowry Technical Training Centers, as 
well as those at Offutt AFB in Nebraska, would all 
transfer to Goodfellow. where the 348()th Technical 
Training Wing (USAF Cryptological Training 
Center) operated. The consolidation was expected to 
be complete by 1988. 

Air Base Ground Defense Training 

In May 1984 the Arm\ and Air Force signed a 
memorandum of agreement governing joint force 
development. The agreement included 31 initiatives, 
two of which covered air base ground defense. The 
first made the Army responsible for defense of all Air 
Force installations outside the immediate perimeter 
of the base, while the second directed the Army to 
conduct air base ground defense training for Air 
Force personnel. Air Training Command had 
provided that training at Camp Bullis in Texas. 
However, beginning in October 1985. the Army 
wiHild offer this instruction at Fort Dix. New Jersey. 


Push-Pull Mobilization 

Air Training Command gained a new responsibility 
in December 1984-management of Push-Pull 
Mobilization. Headquarters USAF had developed the 
concept in October 1983 in an effort to improve 
response time in a contingency scenario. Basically, 
the Air Staff would identify skills needed and pre- 
trained individual manpower (PIM) to be recalled. 
These personnel would be "pushed" to in-processing 
sites at one of the technical training centers, based on 
career specialty. Then, based on requirements, the 
PIM would be "pulled" from the centers and assigned 
to using organizations. 

"Show the Way" Logo Developed 

In 1984 Recruiting Service developed a logo for Air 
Training Command. Included in the logo were the 
torch of knowledge, taken from the official ATC 
emblem, and the words. "Show the Way." 

.\ii aggr .liCC makes plans during an air base ground defense training exercise at Camp liuilis, near .San 




Budget reduction was a major eoneerii of the ATC leadership. Confronted by the Balanced Budfjet Act, 
better known as C;ranim-Rudnian-llollin<;s, \T( suffered neariv S<)()(l niillion in cuts in the \\ S7 bud<;et. 
\\ith the passa'ie of (iranini-Rudnian. the stead> <;ro\>th of defense l)ud<;ets under the kea<^an administration 
came to an end. Although the reductions came from across the training spectrum, the deepest cuts were in 
fixing training. These included reductions in undergraduate pilot training for the Air Reser\e I'orces. a cut in 
n>ing training hours, and a two-year delay in the tanker-transport-bomber training system. The most 
wrenching cut, however, was the Air Force's decision to cancel the T-46A, the replacement aircraft for the 



(as of 31 December 1^85) 

Arizona— Williams: Calif(>rnia--Mather: Colorado— Lou ry: Illinois— 
Chanuie: Mississippi--ColLimhLis and Keesler: ()kiahoma--VanL-e; 
Texas— Cioodlcllow. Lackianii. l.aiighlin. Kantloipii. Reese, and 


53.254 (7.708 otTicers; 31. 984 enlislcd: 13.562 ci\ilians) 
1.389 (T-37B. T-38A. T-39A. T-4 1 A. and T-43A ) 

The Fairchild T-46 was the next generation trainer the Air force had proposed lo replace (he I -37. However, 
a dwindling defense budget caused MQ I SAI to cancel accpiisilion of llie new s>slem. 


7 niunhereil air toree ccnii\alenl unils: 

Air iorcc .Mil 1 111- Cu. Lackland AlB IX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanutc AFB IL 
Coodfellovv Tech Trng Ctr. Cioodl'ellow AFB TX 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AlB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lovvry AlB CO 

.Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AI B TX 

I air division equivalent unit: 

Air Force Reserve OITiccr Trng Corps, Maxwell 



2 wing equivalent units: 

Officer Training School. Lackland AFB TX 
USAF Instrument Flight Ctr. Randolph AFB TX 

1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 flying training wings: 

12th, Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

4 independent group and equivalent units: 

Community Ci)llege of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Mil Trng Affairs Gp. Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. Fort Sam 
Houston TX 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
Fort Sam Houston TX 

12 independent squadron and equivalent units: 

USAF Occupational Measurement Center, 

Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Computer Services. Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (LSD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management). Randolph AFB TX 

3308th Technical Trainini; (Advisorv). Randolph 


3309th Training Readiness. Randolph AFB TX 
3314th Management Eniiineerine. Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flvin>j Trainiuiz (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



Gen Andu>' p. Josue remained the ATC 
commander. '■ -:. \ 7 July Maj Gen Charles R. Hamm 
repla<-ed Maj : ir.i Jarncs P. Smothcrmon as the ATC 
' ■ "niman. ("iciieral Smothcrmon became com- 

mander of the 314th Air Division and Korean Air 
Defense Sector. Osan Air Base. Korea. 


Organizational Changes 

Among the significant organizational changes taking 
place during 1985 were the reorganization of base 
supply at ATC bases; the transfer of base contracting 
functions for Kelly AFB from San Antonio 
Contracting Center to the San Antonio Air Logistics 
Center: the reorganization of the consolidated 
maintenance squadrons at Chanute. Lowry. and 
Sheppard Technical Training Centers: and the 
realignment of the Air Force Officer Orientation 
School from Air University to Air Training 
Command and its concomitant relocation from 
Maxwell AFB. Alabama, to Lackland's Medina 
Annex. Also, as a part of a HQ USAF test. Keesler 
and Reese had established mission support 
squadrons, which combined such functions as 
personnel, administration, professional military 
education, and social actions. If the test proved 
successful, the Air Force's standard wing 
organization would then include a mission support 

AFROTC Name Change 

Effective 1 August 1985. the Air Force Reserve 
Officers' Training Corps became the Air Force 
Reserve Officer Training Corps. 

AFROTC cadets practice marksmanship with the 
M-9 pistol durini; field training. 

Goodfellow Technical Training Center 

As pari of the plan to consolidate all Air Force 
intelligence training at Goodfellow AFB in Texas. 
ATC activated the Goodfellovs' Technical Training 
Center on 1 March, the sixth such training center in 
the command. .At the same time. ATC removed the 
parenthetical notation (USAF Cr>plological Training 
Center) from the 3480th Technical Training Wing at 



Goodtelk'w and assigned the \Mng to the technical 
training center. 


T-46 Cancellation 

Alter a nunihei ol iiiodilicatioii aiul production 
delays, the first llight of the T-4(i. the replacement for 
the T-37. occurred on 15 October at Edv\ards AFB. 
California. Howe\er. with the Air Force searching for 
ways to meet tighter congres.sional funding 
limitations. HQ US.AF decided to delete funding for 
the continued production of the T-46 from the FY 87 
budget, thereby effecti\'ely killing the acquisition 

Pacer Classic 

Begun m October 1985. Pacer Classic was a 
maintenance program to rebuild and modernize the 
T-38. The \enerable T-38. used in Hying training for 
nearly a quarter of a century, had begun to show 
signs of wear. Following two wing failiues in 1978, 
ATC had initiated a program to replace the T-38's 
wings. Then in 1982 several initiatives were 
undertaken to improve the T-38's J85 engine. These 
efforts eventually developed into Pacer Classic, an 
umbrella program under which the T-38 fleet would 
receive various airframe modifications and engine 
enhancements to prolong its service life and keep it 
flying into the twenty-first century. 

First Woman Enters ENJJPT 

The Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training program at 
.Sheppard entered its first female student. Ensign 
Petronella Speerstra from the Netherlands, in 
November 1985. This was a significant development, 
because the NATO course was designed to produce 
flghter pilots, and women had previously been barred 
from ser\ ing in that capacity. 

Fixed-Wing Qualification 

Air Training Command began a new fixed-wing 
qualification program on 1 October that provided for 
proficiency advancement and qualified helicopter 
pilots to fly fixed-wing aircraft. Training was 
removed from UPT. and flying was conducted in the 
upgrade sections of the T-37 and T-38 squadrons at 
the UPT bases. Randolph would gain all new fixed- 
wing qualification entries in January 198fi. 


Computer Technology 

The commands iecliiiical training philosophy 
continued to be that training should be provided to 

the fullest e\teni that resources allowed rather than 
just to the minimum skill levels required. However, 
ATC's resources had limits, and training in support of 
this philoso]ihy was expensive. So, ATC had to look 
for innovative ways of supplying the degree of 
training the major commands wanted. One of those 
ways was a heavy reliance on computer technology 

An armament student uses .i laser gun to align the 
.\CM-86B air-launched criiisi missile to its mount. 

Student analysts al the tr\ptolo<;> school at 
(;o()(IIVIIow AFB, levas, practice surveillance and 
warning lechniques duiing an exercise. 

for such uses as developing exportable courseware. 
To provide support for building exportable training, 
HQ USAF approved the establishment of a systems 
support activity at Kecsler. By the end of the year, 
Keesler's systems support activity was at work on its 
first task developing exportable courseware for two 
specialties, ailminisiration and personnel. 

B-1B and Peacekeeper Training 

During the vear. .A f C coiitiiuied to develop training 
programs for two new weapon systems-ihe B-IB 
anil the Peacekeeper missile. Field training began at 
the first BIB base-Dyess. Texas, in January 1985, 
several months before the first new bomber was 
delivered. The technical training wings al Chanute 
and Lowry would provide portions of the 
Peacekeeper missile training. 



ATC provided field training at Dycss AFB for personnel working on the new B-IB bomber (above) and 
offered portions of the MX Peacekeeper training at its technical training centers. 


AIDS Screening Becomes Mandatory 

During 1985 in the Department of Defense, there was 
growing concern over the spread of acquired immune 
deficiencN syndrome or AIDS. On 1 October the 
Department of Defense directed that all recruits and 
officer candidates would be tested for the disease. If 
two tests were positive, the individual would be given 
a more sophisticated and expensive test. If this were 
positive, the entrant would be medically disc|ualified 
from the service. 

Hurricane Elena 

On 2 September Hurricane Elena struck the 
Mississippi gulf coast, near Keesler AFB. causing 
extensive damage. While most of Keesler's technical 
training facilities escaped damage, officials halted 
training so that all personnel were available to assist 
v\ iih recovery efforts along the gulf coast. Command 
headquarters directed l.ackland to stop sending basic 
military training graduates to the school for several 
days. Training resumed at Keesler less than a week 

The M.\ Peacekeeper was the newest 
intercontinental ballistic missile in the .Air 
Force in\entor>. 



\> hen ATC changed commanders on 28 August, it was more than a ccremon\. It marked the re\ersion of 
the ATC commander position from a lour-star to a three-star position. llo>>e\er. the change had liltk'. if an\, 
effect on the operation of the command. During the >ear. A fC added a ne« training mission, that of 
providing undergraduate space training. The command leadership spent much of their time working anmnd 
budgetary restrictions caused b\ the Gramm-Rudman-Mollings legishilion. Problems directiv affecting 
personnel management included restrictions on permanent change of station mo\es. a congressionall> 
mandated reduction in officer end strength, and a statutor\ requirement to cut the size of the command 
headquarters b> 10 percent. One troubling personnel problem \>as pilot retention. In \'\ S6 the Air force 
noted pilot retention dropped to its lowest le\el since 1981. 


(as (il 31 Dccciiil-iLT i4,S(ii 



7 numbered air force equi\ aleiii units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanulc AFB IL 
Goodfeliow Tech Trng Ctr. Goodfellow AFB TX 
Keesier Tech Trng Ctr, Keesier AFB MS 
Lowr> Tech Trng Ctr, Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Shcppart! AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting .Service. Randolph .AFB TX 

I air di\ ision cqui\ aicnt unit: 

Air Force Reserve Otticer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

1 wing ei.|ui\alcnl units: 

USAF Instrument Flight Center. Randolph AFB 

1 comhat crew training wing: 

.^636th (Survival), l-anchild Af-B VVA 

8 flying training w ings: 

i:th. Randolph AIB TX 


Arizona- Williams; California-- Mather: Colorado-l.owrs ; Illinois— 
Chanute; Mississippi— Columbus and Keesier: Oklahoma— Vance; 
Texas--Goodfellow. Lacklantl. l.aughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 

54.053 (8.138 officers: 31.868 enlisted: 14.047 civilians) 

1 359 (T-37B. T-38A. T-39A. T-4 1 A. T-43AI 


Uth.Ci.hmihus AIB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
8()th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d, Mather AFB CA 

4 independent group and equi\aleiit units: 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 
AFB Al. 

Foreign Military Training Aflairs Group, 
Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Coiiliacting Center. I ml Sam 
Houston TX 

San Antonio Real Froperl) Maintenance Agency, 
Fort Sam Houston TX 

1 I independent squadron and equivalent units: 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph Al li I X 
LISAF Occupational Measurement Center, 

Randolph AFB TX 

330.\l Contracting. Randolph AIB IX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 




3305th School (ISD), Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management), Randolph AFB TX 

3308th Technical Training (Advisory). Randolph 


33 1 4ih Management Engineering, Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



John A. Shaud 

Lieutenant General 
command of ATC on 
Andrew P. losue. 

John A. Shaud assumed 

28 August 1986 from Gen 

who retired. This marked the 

reversion of the ATC commander position from four 
to three stars. General Shaud came to Randolph from 
the Pentagon where he served as Air Force Deputy 
Chief of Staff for Personnel. Major General 
Charles R. Hamm conlinuetl as vice commander. 

An instructor provides "hands-on" training to an 
electronic warfare officer trainee in Mather's 
AN/.\l.Q-r4 simulator. 


Air Training information Systems Division 

In 1984 HQ USAF published a plan to integrate 
management of information throughout the Air 
Force. According to the plan, management of 
information systems would be a "dual hat" 
arrangement in which host major commands would 
retain operational control. and Air Force 
Communications Command (AFCC) would exercise 
administrative management of personnel assigned to 
the information systems function. To accommodate 
the integration of communications and data 
automation functions in ATC, the Air Training 
Information Systems Division (ATISD) was activated 
on 1 January 1986 as a numbered air force-equivalent 
unit. It was formed through the consolidation of 
ATC's DCS/Information Systems, the 3302d 
Computer Services Squadron, Detachment 7 of HQ 
AFCC, and other AFCC resources. The ATISD 
designation was short lived, however, because AFCC 
redesignated it as the Air Training Communications 
Division on 1 November 1986. 

Officer Training School Realigned 

When ATC established OTS in 1959, it also assigned 
the school to the Lackland Military Training Center. 
On 1 June 1972. OTS was realigned under HQ ATC 
to put it more on a par with the Air Force Reserve 
Officer Training Coips (AFROTC), which was a 
numbered air force equivalent unit reporting to Air 
University, and with the Air Force Academy, which 
was a special operating agency reporting to HQ 
USAF. However, General Shaud's management 
philosophy was that senior field commanders, such as 
the AFMTC commander, should exercise control 
over related command missions, especially when 
located on the same base. Therefore, on 
14 November 1986, ATC reassigned OTS from the 
headquarters to AFMTC. 

ATC Operations Center Activated 

To gain some relief from a congressionally imposed 
manpower ceiling on management headquarters 
personnel, ATC had established the 3309th Training 
Readiness Squadron in 1984. Subsequently, a 
problem arose concerning the performance 
evaluations of officers assigned to the 3309th because 
their records did not indicate a major cimimand 
assignment, though they directly supported ATC. On 
I January 1986 the command established a named 
unit-the ATC Operations Center at Randolph-and 
inactivated the 3309lh. 



Nurses participate in a training session at \\ iitord Hall I'SAF Medical (enter. Lackland MB. lexas. 

3302d Computer Service Squadron 

On I January 1986. ATC inactivated its 33()2d 
Computer Service Squadron at Randolph as part of 
the acti\ation ot AFCC's Air Training Information 
Systems Division. 

Comptroller Squadrons 

On 1 Jui_\ ATC cstahHshed comptroller squadrons at 
se\en of its hascs--Chanutc. Keeslor. Lackland. 
Lowry. Sheppard. Mather, and Randolph. 

1 rainecs karn In fdllo" a Icchiiical order on jet enjjine 
inspection procedures as pari ot a jet en<iine class at 
( hanule ALIt. Illinois. 



Navigator Training 

On 1."^ .luly specialized undergraduate na\igator 
training (SUNT) replaced the standard navigator 
training program, when the first class began the core 
course at Mather Af-B in California. L'nder SUNT, 
all navigators would receive a 65 day common core 
training course. The students would then be 
selected for one of three training tracks: 
fighter. attack. reconnaissance; tanker, 
.--- transport, bomber: or electronic warfare 
training. Students received their wings upon 
completion of the specialized training. 


Proposed Consolidation of Survival 

Ever since the survival school nio\ cd from 
Stead AFB. Nevada, to lairchild AFB. 
Washington, in 1*^66 there had been periodic 
discussions about consolidating the combat 
survival course at Fairchild and the water 
sur\ ival course at Homestead .MB, F-'lorida. In 
iys.5 HQ USAF approved an ATC proposal to 
put the two courses at an ATC base in a more 
temperate climate, preferably Kcesler. 
HowcNcr. budget cuts brought on by the 
Gramm-Rudman bill and pressure from the 
Washington stale congressional delegation 
combined to kill the proposal in 1986, 



Astronaut Sally Ride about to be dragged through Biscayne Bay as part of her water survival training at 
Homestead AFB, Florida. 

Undergraduate Space Training 

By the I98()s. the role of space systems in 
intelligence, communications, and weather recon- 
naissance had become so pervasive that the Air Force 
decided to cstabHsh a military command structure 
devoted to space operations. Headquarters USAF 
activated the Air Force Space Command 
(AFSPACECOM) in 1982. .Since other services were 
also invoi\ed in space operations, in 1985 the 
Defense Department established the US Space 
Command. The Air Force also needed a space 
training program, and in 198.5 HQ USAF decided that 
AFSPACECOM would take over mission specific, 
upgrade, and on-the-job training, while ATC would 
conduct an undergraduate space training (UST) 
course and AFSC awarding technical courses. 
Undergraduate space training would parallel UPT 
and UNT as a general operational training course. 
Like the undergraduate Hying training courses. UST 
pro\ided a basic preparation for space operational 
assignments, while the using command provided 
further specific training. The first UST coiuse began 
at Low ry AFB on 9 October. 


Military Construction 

Durnig 1986 major construction projects worth over 
$50 million were completed at ATC bases. The 
largest share of the work took place at Goodfellow. 
primarily because the Air Force was consolidating 
intelligence training there and because construction 
had been put off at this base since 1978 because of 
two separate efforts to close Goodfellow. Also to 
provide housing for Goodfellow 's increasing 
population, ATC began its first build-lease housing 

Anti-Terrorism Planning 

After the United States bombing raid on Libya in 
1984. experts predicted an expansion of global 
terrorist activity. In response. ATC established an 
Antiterrorism Committee to stud\ enhanced security 
measures and awareness training. The command 
tested new entry control procedures at Williams and 
Clianutc and installed new barriers to protect aircraft. 



Air Training Command underwent significant mission and organizational changes in 19S7. 1 he command 
gained a new mission in Februar>. \>ith the activation of the San Antonio Joint Military Medical Command 
(SA-JM.MC). The biggest organizational change inxolved a major reorganization ol IIQ A K . (Iiiided l)\ his 
perception that there were four "action" l)( Ss in the headquarters-Operations, lechnical I raining. 
Recruiting Ser\ice. and Medical Services and Training--thc A IC commander realigned a number of 
functions on his staff. Also. HQ LSAF approved the disestablishment of the San Antonio keal Property 
Maintenance Agency and the San Antonio Contracting Center. Besides organizational changes, the 
command also found itself facing the possible loss of a base, \\hen lirsl l.o\>ry and then Mather, were 
considered for closure. Luckily, a combination of political pressure and U>cal interest succeeded in remo\ing 
either base from consideration for closure. 


(,a.sot 31 Ucceinbcr 1987j 




Arizon;i--\\ illiaiiis. Calitoriiia--Mather: Colorado--!. owiy; Illinois-- 
Chanute; Mississippi--Coluiiihus and Kecslcr; ()klahonia--\'ancc; 
Texas— Gt)odtellow, Lackland, Laughlin, Randolph, Reese, and 

52.379 (7.336 officers: 31.441 enlisted; I3.S()2 ci\ilians| 

1.357 (T-37B. T-3SA. T-39A. T-4IA. and T-43A) 


7 numbered air force equi\alent units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr, Chanute AFB IL 
Goodfellow Tech Trng Ctr. Goodfellow AFB TX 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

2 air division equi\ alcnt iniits: 

Air Force Reser\e OITicer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

San Antonio .IomU Mililar\ Medical Coniniaiid. 
Randolph AFB I \ 

1 wing equivalent units: 

USAF Instrument Flight Center. Randolph .AFB 

I combat creu training \\ ing: 

3A36th. Fairchild AFB \\A 

In Februar\ Ihc Aini\ and Air I ntn' nimbiiRd 
medical assets at San .\ntonio lo lurni tlu' Joint 
Militar\ Medical C Onnoand. I his cdnsiilidallon 
iiicluiled the Vir I one's lar'^esl nudiial iiiilir. 
\Mlford Mall (shown above) and the Army's 
second largest medical facililN. Brooke \rnn 
Medical ( enlei . 



8 flying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFBTX 
14th, Columbus AFB MS 
47ih. Laughlin AFB TX 
64lh. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
8()th, Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

4 independent group and equivalent units: 

Conuiiunity College ot the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Military Training Affairs Group. 
Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. Fort Sam 
Houston TX 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
Fort Sam Houston TX 

13 independent squadrtm and equi\alent units: 

3306th Test and Evaluation, Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management). Randolph AFB TX 

3308th Technical Training (Advisory). Randolph 


3313th Medical Service, Randolph AFB TX 
3314th Management Engineering, Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



Lieutenant General John A. Shaud continued to 
serve as the ATC commander. On 12 June 1987. Maj 
Gen Thomas A. Baker replaced Maj Gen Charles R. 
Hamm as the Vice Commander of Air Training 
Command. General Hamni became the 
Superintendent of the Air Force Academy at 
Colorado Springs. Colorado. 

ATC Civilian Automated Training Office. 

Lackland AFB TX 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph AFB TX 
USAF Occupational Measurement Center, 

Randolph AFB TX 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (.^TC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 


DCSIOperations and Readiness 

Effective 1 January, the ATC commander directed 
that the Readiness Division in DCS/Plans and 
Requirements move to DCS/Operations. Concur- 
rently. DCS/Operations became DCS/Operations and 

Students at Chanuto AFB, lllindis, learn about lncll<;htin<i b> haiullin<; real fires in a controlled settin<;. In a 
flaniin<> lahoralor>, they learn both lire super\ision and rescue techniques, .\d\anced training to prepare 
students to serve as fire chiefs included the use of a model depicting a typical base (next page). 



Headquarters Reorganization 

Looking at the way plans and requirenK-iils tiinctions 
were spread among most of the DCSs. General Shaud 
decided the headquarters needed a major reorgani- 
zation. In Shaud's opinion. ATC needed four action 
DCSs--Operations. Technical Training. Recruiting 
Service, and the .Surgeon. The other iXSs -Plans. 
Logistics. Comptroller. Civil Engineering, and 
Personnel-would be the support agencies. By 
organizing under those guidelines. Shaud believed 
there would be clearer lines of responsibility between 
staff agencies. As of 1 April, all planners went to 
work for DCS/Plans and Requirements (XP). and XP 
established a rct|uiremenls ilirectorate. The 
headquarters disestablished the office of the Assistant 
Chief of Staff (ACS), Commissioning Programs, and 
changed the DCS/Recruiling Service designation to 
IX'.S/Recruiling Service and Commissioning 
Programs. Recruiting not only gaineil responsibility 
for commissioning programs, but it also became 
manager of AIROTC and OTS. (Later in the year. 
Recruiting Service also assumed responsibility for 
recruiting scholarship and non-scholarship applicants 
for AFROTC.) In addition, the ACS/Commissioning 
Program's management responsibilities for CCAF 
passed to Technical Training, and the Foreign 
Military Training Affairs Group no longer reported 
tlirectly to the ATC commander but rather became a 
direct reporting unit of DC.S/Plans and Requirements. 
A few months later, on 26 June, XP gained 
management resiionsibiliis for two more programs: 

the Defense Language Institute. Lnglish Language 
Center and Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training. 

DCSIMedical Services and Training 

Air Training Command redesignated iis office of the 
comiiKuul surgeon as the DCS/Medical Ser\ices and 
Training. clfecti\e 1.^ October. The major reason for 
that change was to show the increased responsibility 
that this office had undertaken since the acti\ation of 
the San Antonio Joint Military Medical Commanti. 

Civilian Automated Training Office (CATO) 

The commarKl activated the Civilian Automated 
Training Office (CATO) at Lackland on I October 
1987. Its |iiirpose was to centralize all civilian 
training activities in ATC. thereby reducing the 
workloail in each of the Central Civilian Personnel 
Offices scattereil ihrougliinit the commanil. 

Joint Military Medical Command Formed 

In preparation Im the csl.iblishnicnt of the San 
Antonio Joint Military Medical Command (SA- 
JMMC) on \> January. Air Force Systems Command 
reassigned Wiltbrd Hall USAF Medical Center to 
ATC. Then on Iftl'ebruars the San Antonio Joint 
Military Medical Command was aclivaled al 
Randolph and assigned to ATC. By establishing this 
command, the Arm> and Navy were able to 
centralize control of all their medical facilities in the 
San Antonio area. Staffed by Army and Air Force 
personnel, the new command oversaw the operation 



of Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center, Brooke Army 
Medical Center, the US Army Dental Activity, and 
the clinics at Randolph. Kelly, and Brooks. To assist 
with the headquarters management, ATC activated 
the 33l.'^th Medical Services Squadron (JMMC) at 
Randolph on I March. 


SUPT Changes 

Late m the year the Air Force implemented a number 
of policv changes affecting the specialized 
undergraduate pilot training (SUPT) program. In 
particular, training tracks and basing strategy were 
changed. Where before there had been fighter-attack- 
reconnaissance and tanker-transport-bomber tracks, 
now there were bomber and fighter or tanker and 
transport tracks. In addition, all training would be 
pro\ided at a single base. Reese was the first base 
programmed to offer SUPT. beginning in mid- 1 991. 

New Approach to Navigator Training 

At ihc end of Februar\. Mather discontinued 
undergraduate navigator training. Air Training 
Command then shifted to specialized undergraduate 
navigator training or SUNT. Following a common 
core course, students then entered one of three tracks: 
fighter-attack-reconnaissance. tanker transport 
bomber, or electronic warfare. Students did not 
recei\e their navigator rating until the\ had 
completed track training. 

Aviation Leadership Program 

For many \cars. ATC had provided Hying training 
for Latin American students. However, enrollment 
numbers had fallen off during the mid-1960s, as US 
in\ohement in Vietnam increased. But by the early 
1980s. US interests in Latin America and the 
Caribbean had grown substantially, leading to the 
formation of the .-XNiation Leadership Program 
(.ALP), a Using training program that Air Training 
Command conducted. Through this program, the US 
government had the opportunity to bmid better 
relations with future military leaders in Latin 
America and the Caribbean. The first group of ALP 
students began English language training at Lackland 
in April. 

New Paint Scheme for T-37s 

On 2 Jul) the An' Stall approved the blue and white 
paint scheme designed for ATC's T-37 fleet by Keith 
Ferris. A rollout ceremony took place at Randolph on 
31 August 1987 for the first T-37 (tail #.S9-()3S2) 
painted in this design. 


Undergraduate Space Training 

Air Training Command graduated its first 
undergraduate space training (UST) class in February 
at Lowry. Then on 1 April HQ ATC moved 
management of the UST program from 
DCS/Technical Training to DCS/Operations. 

Rivet Workforce 

The Air Force miplemented Rivet Workforce on 30 
April, a service-wide initiative to create a more 
flexible, survivable. mobile workforce able to support 
USAF fighting needs across the spectrum of possible 
conflict. Rivet Workforce involved the restructuring 
of 21 career fields. By combining similar tasks, the 
Air Force combined the 21 AFSCs into 16 career 

4-Level Training 

Because of the growing complexity of weapons 
systems. ATC was unable at times to provide 
sufficient weapons-specific training. Operational 
commands assigned their own personnel to provide 
the necessary training. A year-long test of an 
ATC/TAC training initiative to provide more hands- 
on training at the technical training centers, known as 
"■4-le\el training." began when six students entered 
jet engine maintenance training at Chanute on 
20 October. 


Recruiting Goal 

The Air Force dropped Recruiting Service's nonprior 
service recruiting goal for FYSS to 40.000 positions- 
the lowest recruitment goal ever assigned-in 
response to declining defense spending. The 
Recruiting Service added AFROTC recruiting as a 
formal goal in FY88. Prior to the 1988-89 academic 
year. Recruiting Service had focused its efforts on 
recruiting for the Officer Training School and the 
Health Professions direct commissioning program 
and only indirectly supported AFROTC recruiting. 


Contract Maintenance 

In 1986 m an clforl to cut maintenance costs. ATC 
began looking at the possibility of converting aircraft 
maintenance at UPT bases, as well as training 
equipment maintenance at the centers, from military 
operation to civil service or contract, whichever was 
more cost-effective. By the end of 1987. the 
command had decided to convert maintenance at four 
bases-Columbus, Chanute, Lowry. and Sheppard-to 
contract maintenance beginning in .April 1988. 



In fiscal year 1988, ATC faced severe fundiii}; limitations, particularly in the areas of traini^^. ci\ilian pay, 
and medical programs. The command had to institute a ci\ilian hiring frce/e. Total hiid'^et lor technical 
training dropped by almost 15.7 percent from I \ 87 levels. In the words of (ieneral Oaks, the AlC 
commander, the impacts of these reductions "on our mission would have been catastrophic were it not for 
reduced accession lc\els and deferred training demands |that| enabled us t<i take short-term acti(ms to 
mana<;e this level." Looking forward, onl\ four items on AI'C's \'\ 90 budget proposal received funds: an 
extensive program to rebuild and renovate Lackland; construction of new facilities for the Defense Language 
Institute: the aviation leadership program, a pilot training program for Latin American students: and the 
primarv aircraft training system or PATS, an aircraft to replace the 1-37. 

An instructor at Sheppard AFB. Texas, guides students in learning to use test equipment and tools for 
installation of fiber optic cable. 


(as (il 31 IXvcmlici l')S,S) 




Ari/.ona-Williams: Calitbrnia--Mathcr. Ciilorado-I.ovvry: Illinois-- 
Chanute: Mississippi-Columbus and Kcesler; Oklahoma-Vance; 
Texas-Goodt'cllow. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 

50.755 (7.269 officers: 28.957 enlisted: 14.529 civilians) 

1,363 (T-37B. T-38A. T/CT-39A. T-41 A. T-43A) 




7 numbered air force equivalent units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Goodfellow Tech Trng Ctr, Goodfellow AFB TX 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr, Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

2 air division equivalent units: 

Air Force Reserve Officer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

San Antonio Joint Military Medical Command. 
Randolph AFB TX 

1 v\ ing equivalent unit: 

USAF Instrument Flight Center. Randolph AFB 

1 combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 flying training wings: 

12th, Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th, Reese AFB TX 
71st, Vance AFB OK 
SOth. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

4 independent group and equi\ alent units: 

ConinuuiitN College o\' the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Mi! Trng .M'fairs Gp. Randolph AFB TX 

San Antonio Contracting Center. Fort Sam 
Houston TX 

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency, 
Fort Sam Houston TX 

14 independent st|uadron and cquisalenl units: 

ATC Civilian .Automated Training Office, 

Lackland AFB TX 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph AFB TX 
USA Occupational Measurement Center, 

Randolph AFB TX 

y-'\2i.. ' hnicai Training, Keesler AFB MS 
Jj03d Contracting, Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD), Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Test and Evaluation. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management), Randolph AFB TX 

3308th Technical Training (Advisory), Randolph 


3313th Medical Service, Randolph AFB TX 
3314th Management Engineering. Randolph AFB 


3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



Robert C. Oaks 

Lieutenant General Robert C. Oaks replaced 
General Shaud as the ATC commander on 6 June. 
General Shaud became Chief of Staff, Supreme 
Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. General Oaks 
came to ATC from Naples, Italy, where he had 
served as Commander, Allied Air Forces Southern 
Europe and Deputy Commander in Chief, United 
States Air Forces in Europe ft)r the Southern Area. A 
few months later, on 24 October. ATC also changed 
vice commanders. Major General Thomas A. Baker 
received his third star and became the Commander. 
Seventh Air Force, at Osan Air Base in Korea. His 
successor was Maj Gen Robert S. Delligatti. the ATC 
Deputy Chief of Staff. Plans and Requirements. 


3302d Technical Training Squadron 

On I July ATC replaced the Systems Support 
Activity, in operation at Keesler since 1985. with the 
newly-activated 3302d Technical Training Squadron. 
The .squadron reported to the Keesler Technical 
Training Center initil 1 November 1988. when Air 
Traming Command reassigned it as a direct reporting 
unit of HQ ATC. Officials believed this change 
would make it easier for the 3302d to provide 



coniputer-based iii^liLiction assistance to all the 

Family Support Centers 

In I98U, as a part ot a conference on families, the Air 
Force identified a need for family support centers. By 
assisting families, the Air Force fell it would 
"improve retention and productivity." However, it 
wasn't until 1988 that ATC began establishing family 
support centers throughout the command. .As of 
31 December. .ATC had four lull service centers in 
operation at Chanute. Lowry. Mather, and .Sheppard, 
and si.x limited-ser\ice centers had opened at 
Cmodfellow. Lackland. Laughlin. Reese. Keesler. and 



Pilot Selection and Classification System 

L nder the t)ld classilication system, student pilots did 
not learn which category of aircraft they would fly 
operationally until about eight weeks before they 
completed pilot training. At that time, an advanced 
training recommendation board would meet, review 
the flying performance of the students, and determine 
follow-on assignments. As part of the switch from 
generalized to specialized training. ATC planned to 
implement a new selection and classiflcalion system 
to categori/e students before they entered flight 
training. The major reason for moving the 
classification decision to the beginning of training 
was a desire to eliminate the negative connotations 
associated with not making the flghter-attack- 
reconnaissance cut under the old system. By letting 
prospective pilots know at the start what category of 
aircraft they could e.xpect to fly upon graduation, the 
Air Force hoped to instill in them a greater sense of 
dedication to and identiflcation with their particular 
major weapon system. Au" Training Commaml 
planned to implement the new selection and 
classification system in 19^)1. 

Specialized UPT 

Air Training Command's leliuii to specialized 
undergraduate pilot training (.SUPT) began in late 
1964 when HQ U.SAI' asked Air University to 
forecast the Air Force's pilot training needs in the 
1970s. Nothing conclusive came of that study, but it 
raised the question ol whether generalized or 
specialized UPT was the best path to follow. .Several 
years and many studies later, the Air Force finally 
decided to unplement .SUPT. However, before the 
Air Force could begin. Congress wanted to see a 
master plan outlining how the Air Force intended to 
proceed. In Aprd ^988 ATC produced the USAF 

Pictured above is the portable basic attributes 
tcster-tlie Porla-BAT. With the basic allribules 
test, the .\ir Force hoped to gain information on 
pilot candidates' self contldence, risk tolerance, 
lenacitx, situational awareness, and reaction to 
task saturation, as well as on basic stick and 
rudder skills in order to select the best candidates 
for pilot trainin<^. 

Officers train in C hanule's full-scale Lo<;islics 
Keatiiness (enter as part of the Aircraft 
Maintenance-Munitions Officers course. 

Trainer Masterplan. It compared the relative merits 
and shortcomings ot lour variations of an improved 
UPT program, and it described in detail the course of 
action advocated by the Air Force. Those four 
variations included a modernized UPT that retained 
single-track generalized training, the all-through 
trainer system which also followed the single-track 
generalized concept, an alternate .SUP'I program, and 
SUPT. According to the trainer inasterplan. SUPT 
would provide the highest cjualily graduate at the 
lowest cost. However, kev to the success of any of 
these options were twd modification programs, the 


1988 ^ 

striiciural life extension program for the T-37 and the 
Pacer Classic program for the T-38. which would 
insure the planes remained airworthy. 


Computer-Based Intelligence Training 

By lySS, ATC had linished consolidating 
intelligence training at Goodfellow and integrating 
the training courses. Several computer-based 
instruction (CBI) programs comprised an important 
aspect of this integration. Sentinel Bright, designed to 

provide linguistic and cryptology training, broke new 
ground in CBI but was plagued by technical 
difficulties. The two phases of Sentinel Aspen, begun 
in 1983. integrated training in imagery intelligence 
and its application in targeting. 

Advanced Technical Fighter 

The Ad\anced Technical Fighter, which e\entually 
became the F/A-22. was announced publicly in 1988. 
ATC began planning to conduct all aspects of 
training at a single centralized site. 


The San Antonio Real Property Maintenance 
Agency (SARPMA) was founded on 1 October 1978 
following a series of studies by the General Accounting 
Office and the Department of Defense aimed at 
achieving cost savings through regional consolidation. 
San Antonio, home to the Army's Fort Sam Houston 
and four Air Force bases-Brooks. Kelly. Lackland, 
and Randolph— was a prime candidate for such action. 
Established at San Antonio Air Force Station, adjacent 
to Fort Sam Houston. SARPMA consolidated the 
existing civil engineering organizations at all five 
facilities into a single entity reporting to Air Training 
Conunand. The new construct wrested control of the 
civil engineering function from local commanders, who 
nevertheless retained ownership of all real property and 
were responsible for its maintenance, a factor that 
played a large part in S.ARPMA's undoing. In theory, 
the installation commanders prioritized the work to be 
done and SARPMA attempted to meet their deadlines. 
In practice. SARPMA did not live up to expectations. 
Initially, commanders had difficulty obtaining such 
basic information as the status of a work order or the 
cost of a project, and all were dissatisfied with the time 
it was taking to get work done. 

Over time, mainly as a result of extraordinary 
management actions, SARPMA's performance began 
to improve. As that happened, opposition to the 
concept softened, especially on the part of the Army at 
Fort Sam Houston, but it was too little, too late. 

In 1983. at the direction of the Vice Chief of Staff 
of the Air Force. ATC prepared an assessment of 
SARPMA's performance and of alternate ways to 
accomplish the real property maintenance mission. \ 
study group concluded that SARPMA provided 
services at about the same level that existed prior to its 
establishment, and that SARPMA's costs were about 
the same a.s a standard base civil engineering (BCE) or- 

ganization. While the study did not show conclusively 
that the performance of SARPMA was appreciably 
better than the standard BCE organization, it discerned 
the concern among commanders about their diminished 
ability to influence such a vital function. Accordingly, 
ATC recommended to the Air Staff the return to 
standard BCE organizations. 

Not much came of this first major challenge to the 
continuation of SARPMA. which bogged down in the 
coordination process when the Army suggested tabling 
the idea until ATC could de\ise a detailed 
disestablishment plan. A review committee, composed 
of representatives from five San Antonio military 
installations, determined that the costs involved were 
substantial-$27.6 million to dissolve SARPMA plus 
annual recuiTing costs of $24.6 million to resume 
standard BCE organizations. Nonetheless, the 
committee wrote the plan and called for the base-level 
engineering organizations to be in-place and 
operational on I October 1987. 

After some delay, and despite the high costs, senior 
Air Force officials decided in the fall of 1986 to 
disestablish SARPMA and return to standard base civil 
engineering organizations. At the same time. Gen 
Lany D. Welch, Air Force Chief of Staff, directed the 
dissolution of the San Antonio Contracting Center, a 
procurement agency set up in the late 1970s that 
handled contracting arrangements for SARPMA. 
These actions retlected the strong belief of Air Force 
leaders that installation commanders should ha\e the 
authority to decide how to accomplish the civil 
engineering mission, since they were held responsible 
for getting the job done. After redistributing its 
manpower authorizations and equipment to the 
participating installations (in roughl> the same 
proportion as the installations had initially contributed), 
SARPMA inactivated on 1 October 1989. 



A number of proposals be<ian uiil'()ldiii<i in 1989 that had Ihc net etTeel of rcducinj; the si/.e of the 
Department of Defense and. in turn, the Air Force and Air frainioii ( dinrnand. The impetus for these 
pro<irammatic ehan<jcs began >\ith a moxement to reform the acquisition ol DOD weapon svstems. This was 
soon amplified by the dramatic developments occurring in the Soviet Union and Eastern Kurope. In response 
to these developments. DOD and MQ L SAF initiated several programs to streamline and consolidate the 
military establishment. Also in 1989, the President and Congress approved the recommendations of the base 
closure commission to close 86 stateside bases, including two in ATC— C'hanute and Mather. Bv the end of the 
year. ATC had plans well underwav to transfer Chanute's technical training to other centers in le\as, 
Colorado, and Mississippi and to move Mather's navigator training to IJeale AFB in ( alifornia. Also in 
December. ATC participated in Operation Just Cause, the invasion of Panama, providing medical treatment 
at Willord Hall LSAF" Medical Center for casualties airlifted back to the L nited States. 


(as of 31 December 1989) 

In response to Hurricane Hugo. A l( peisonnel 
load electrical line vehicles at Sheppard AFB. 
Texas, to help restore power in the \ irgin 

2 air division ce|Lii\alcMl units: 

Air Force Reserve Officer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

San Antonio Joint Military Medical CoPHiiand. 
Randolph AFB TX 

1 wing equi\ alciit unit: 

USAF Insiruincni llmhi Clr. Randolph AFB TX 


Arizona-- Williaiiis; California--Malhcr; Colorado-- 
Lowry: lllinois-Chaiuitc; Mississippi-Columbus and 
Keesler; Oklahoma- Vance; Texas-Goodlellow. 

lackhuul. l.aughlm. Randolph, Reese, and Sheppard 


4S.2S7 (7.90(1 officers: 26.831 enlisted; 1 3. .'i.'SO civilians) 
1 .3S 1 (T-37B. T-38A. T/CT-39A. T-4IA. T-43A) 

7 luimberetl air force ei|iii\aleni units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Clr. Lackland AlB I'X 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB II, 
C.oodfellow Tech Trng Ctr. Goodfellow AFB I'X 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
l.owry Tech Trng Clr. l.owry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Clr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

1 combat crew training wing: 

3636ih f Survival). Fairchild Al B \VA 

8 Hying training wings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
(Uih. Reese AFB TX 
71sl. Vance AFB OK 



80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d, Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

2 independent group and equivalent units: 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Foreign Military Training Affairs Group. 
Randolph AFB TX 

14 independent squadron and equivalent units: 

ATC Civilian Automated Training Office. 
Lackland AFB TX 

3308th Technical Training (Advisory). Randolph 


3313th Medical Service (JMMC). Randolph AFB 


3314th Mgmt Engrg, Randolph AFB TX 
3507th Airman Classification. Lackland AFB TX 
3.588th Flying Training (Helicopter). Fort Rucker 



General Robert C. Oaks remained the ATC 
commander, and Maj Gen Robert S. Delligatti 
continued as vice commander. 

In the late 198fls, ATC began to offer more system-specific training at its technical training centers to relieve 
the hurden of on-the-job training at the using command. Sheppard .\FB. Texas, obtained two F-16Cs in the 
spring of 1987 for use in training crew chiefs. 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph AFB TX 
USAF Occupational Measurement Center. 

Randolph AFB TX 

3302d Technical Training. Keesler AFB M.S 

3303d Contracting. Randolph AFB TX 

3304th School (ATC NCO Academy). Lackland 


3305th School (ISD). Randolph AFB TX 
3306th Trng Dev and Eval. Edwards AFB CA 
3307th Test and Evaluation (Acquisition 

Management', '^r.ndoiph AFB TX 


Mission Support Squadrons 

Following a four-year test at numerous installations. 
HQ USAF approved the formation of a new 
squadron— the mission support squadron-that 
combined a number of support functions, including 
personnel, administration, education services, and 
social actions. However, in ATC activation of the 
new squadrons did not take place until 1989. 




SACC and SARPMA Disestablished 

Effective I April 1989. ATC inactivalcd 
its San Antonio Contracting Center 
(SACC). OriginalK estabiisiied on 
1 January 1977 as the San Antonio 
Procurement Center. SACC had prin ided 
centralized contracting support to niiliiai\ 
installations in the San Antonio area. Six 
months after the SACC shutdown, ATC 
inactivated the San Antonio Real Property 
Maintenance Agency (S.ARPM.A). another 
venture that had centrali/ei.1 ci\il 
engineering functions in the San AnlcMiio 
area. With Air Staff approval. ATC 
inacti\ ated both of these named acti\ ities. 
and returned direct control of ci\il 
engineering and contracting functions to 
base commanders— the people directly 
responsible for mission performance. 

Till' space shiillk' ((ilunihia touches ddwii at Shippard \f|{, 
Texas, an alternate landin<; site tor NASA's space proj;rani. 

3306th Renamed 

Air Training Command inactivated its 3306th Test 
and E\aluation Squadron at Edwards AFB, 
California, and then actisated the 3306th Training 
Development and Evaluation Squadron on 1 May. 
The new designation better described the mission of 
the 3306th. which was to evaluate weapon systems 
from a training perspective. 



Broad Area Review of Flying Training 

In November 1988 the ATC commander directed a 
broad area review of all undergraduate and graduate 
flying training programs in the command. .-Xccording 
to General Oaks, ihc puipose of ihe review was "to 

Students and instructors stack ":^ 
during armament trainin<4 al 
C olorado. 



improve the quality of tlying training through the 
next decade with special emphasis on those items 
required to support SUPT." Meetings began in 19<S9. 
Through the broad area review, representatives from 
throughout the tlying training community had the 
opportunity to examine a wide range of topics 
concerning flying training. From those discussions. 
ATC determined that its Hight screening program 
needed to be revised and confirmed thai facility 
improvements were needeil to support the transition 
to SLPT. In addition, the review provided .ATC with 
information on contracting ground-based instruction 
and solidified ATC's resolve to convert to contract 
simulator instruction. 


Advanced Training System 

Ihc idea ol .in Adv.inccii framing Svstem (.ATS) 
came about ni the carlv l9,S()s. when ATC was 
looking for a way to improve the technical training 
system through the increased use of computer 
technology. Keesler became the prime center for 
implementation of ATS. In May 1989 ATC awarded 
IBM the contract to build the Advanced Training 
System (ATS). Air Training Command expected the 
system to be fully operational at Keesler by FY 93. 

Broad Area Review of Technical Training 

Pleased Willi ilic inilial results ol ilic broad area 
review of Hying training, in August Air Training 
(^)mmanil announced that it would convene a second 
B.AK. this lime to discuss ways and means of 
improving technical training. 

Distance Learning 

In November ATC experimented with distance 
learning by conducting a TEMPEST fundamentals 
course for Army personnel al the Pentagon. 
Instructors iransmilled course work Irom ihc Video 



On 20 December US troops in\adecl Panama. l\\el\e hours after Operation Just Cause began, ATC's 
\MUord Hall USAF Medical Center and the Brooke Army Medical Center began receiving US casualties. 
Altogether, the two medical centers treated 258 casualties. In the picture above. President and Mrs George 
Bush \isit with casualties at \Mlt'ord Mall. 

Tclccdiiloivncing Center at Fort Sam Houston, 
Texas, to a classroom in the Pentagon. Under 
ortlinary circumstances, students would iia\e been 
sent to Lackland for in-house training. By using 
ilisiance learning, the course came to them. 


Delayed Enlistment Program Halted 

liir the first lime in the history of Air Force 
recruiting. Recruiting Service suspended its delayed 
enlistment program because it had more people in the 
delayed entry pool than the Air Force could absorb 
into the acli\e service within the next 12 months. The 
program remained suspended from 17 November 
1989 until 1 February 1990. 

New Entrant Drug and Alcohol Testing 

111 I'l <SS Congress mandaletl preacccssion drug and 
alcohol testing for all niililar\ applicants. The Army 
shifted the testing burden from the MEPS to its basic 
train! .g centers. The Air Force preferrcil testing as 
eai: .is possible, to save Lackland ihe burden of 
additii ' '' manning and the travel and housing costs 
'" I r(j:u..\ \> ho would fail the test upon arrival at 
i IT. In Decemier. Congress authorized the services 
' lest at a locatio;. of iheir choice. 


Push-Puli Mobilization Test 

Air Training Command had its first opportunity to 
test the concept of Push-PuU mobilization during 
exercise Crimson Hammer '89 in Juh . The command 
screened a total of .^.178 reservists at tliiee training 

Top-to-Bottom Review of DOD 

In .lanuary the Secrclarv oi Defense. Richard B. 
Cheney. ordered a top-to-bottom Defense 
Management Review (DMR). In response, the Air 
Force began a service-wide review, looking at ways 
to streamline operations, consolidate functions, and 
lower decision-making authority. Within the DMR 
framework. .Air Tiaining Command undcrloi)k tour 
initiatives: 1 ) converting base fuels operations at 
Columbus. Laughlin. Randolph, and Reese to 
contract; 2) converting base service stores at ATC 
bases (except Chanute. Mather. Sheppard. and 
Vance) to contract: ?i) changing the 18-month 
inspection cycle at the flying training wings to a 24- 
moiilh cycle: and 4) reducing the programmed 
attrition rate for pilot training through the 
implementation of specialized undergraduate pilot 



The command's primary mission remained essentially unaltered in 199((, except for one chanjie. Ihat was 
due to the Secretary of the Air Force's decision to decentrali/e operation of the Air force's coniniunications 
and computer systems. As a result, tnajor commands such as AlC were <;i\en functional responsihilitN for 
these systems. This was a minor de\elopment when compared to dramatic changes taking place in Eastern 
Europe—changes which were alreadx ha\ing a major effect on the IS militarx. The militar> was downsizing, 
and dramatic cuts in defense spending could be expected to be the norm for \ears to c(tme. As these 
reductions took hold, they would ha\e a ripple effect on ATC's mission, beginning with recruiting and then 
flowing out to basic militarx training, technical training, and fl> ing training. 


(asot 31 December 1990) 



7 numbered air ftirce equix aleni units: 


Arizona— Williams: California-Mather: Colorado-Lovvry: Illinois— 
Chanute: Mississippi-rolunihus and Keesler: Oklahoma--Vance: 
Texas— Goodlellow. Lackland. Laughlin. Ranilnlph. Reese, and 

50.356 (S.S95 officers: 2S.137 enlisted: 13.324 civilians) 

1.381 (T-37B. T-3SA. T-39A. T-4IA. T-43A) 


8 n\ ins: trainins: w inss: 

Air Force Mil Tmg Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanule Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Goodfelkm Tech Trng Ctr. Goodfellow .AFB TX 
Keesler Tech Tmg Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Tmg Ctr. Lowry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Tmg Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service. Randolph AFB TX 

3 air division et|Ln\alcnl units: 

Air Force Reserve OlTicer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

Air Training Coniinimications Division. Randolph 

San Antonio .loint Military Medical Command, 
Randolph AFB TX 

I wing equivalent iniit: 

USAF Instrument Flight Ctr. Randolph AFB TX 
1 combat crew training v\ ing: 

3636th (SurvivaH. Fail child AF'B WA 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14ih. Columbus AFB MS 
47th. Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
80th. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

3 independent group and cquiv alcnt units: 

Community College of the An Force. Maxwell 

Air Force Security .-Xssistance Training. Randolph 

3300ih Training Support, Randolph AFB TX 

2 independent squadron equivalent units: 

ATC Civilian Automated Training Office. 
Lackland AFB TX 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph Al H 1 \ 




Joseph W. Ashy 

Lieutenant General Joseph W. Ashy assumed 
command of ATC from Lt Gen Robert C. Oaks on 25 
June. Before coming to ATC, General Ashy had 
served as the TAG vice commander. General Oaks 
received his fourth star prior to leaving for his new 
assignment as Commander. Allied Air Forces Central 
Europe and Commander in Chief. United States Air 
Forces in Europe. Major General Delligatti continued 
as vice commander. 


Management Structure Reorganization 

hi May 1990 the Chief of Staff of the Air Force 
tlirected a reduction in the size of Air Force 
management structure, in other words, all organiza- 
tions that performed headquarters responsibilities. In 
ATC's case, this included the training operations 
center, the 3313th Medical Service Squadron, and 
portions of the 3303th School Squadron, the 3307th 
Test and Evaluation Squadron, and the 3308th 
Technical Training Squadron. In order to meet 
rctluction goals, some of the DCSs combined 
lunclions. Two special staff agencies, the Office of 
the Inspector General and the Security Police, 
reorganized, with the Security Police becoming a 
directorate under the IG. Many of the direct reporting 
units assigned to the headquarters were reassigned as 
a part of the newly-activated 3300th Training Support 
Group, and others like the 3313th Medical Service 
and the 3314th Management Engineering Squadrons 
were inactivated. The 12 management engineering 
teams scattered throughout ATC became subordinate 
to resource management organizations at the 
technical training centers and Hying training wings. 
The majority of these organizational changes took 
place on 1 October 1990, Overall. HQ ATC would 
cut 397 authorizations from its management structure 
over the next three years. 

Air Training Communications Division 

Effective 1 October Air Force Communications 
Command transfen-ed the Air Training Commun- 
ications Division at Randolph AFB. Texas, to ATC. 
This was part of an Air Force-directed reorganization 
of Air Force Communications Command. 

AF Security Assistance Training Group 

Air Training Command redesignated its Foreign 
Military Training Affairs Group at Randolph as the 
Air Force Security Assistance Training (AFSAT) 
Group on 1 October. Earlier in the year HQ USAF 
had directed that the Foreign Military Training 
Affairs Group be given broader authority to plan and 
operate military and civilian training for allied and 
friendly countries. In addition, the group also gained 
responsibility for writing contracts for training 
associated with foreign military sales. The name 
change was a means of recognizing that broader 
authority. Previously, AFSAT was under the control 
of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Plans and 
Requirements, but with the redesignation, it reported 
directly to the ATC vice commander. 

3300th Training Support Group 

The command activated the 3300th Training Support 
Group at Randolph AFB. Texas, on 1 October and 
assigned it to HQ ATC. At the same time. ATC 
reassigned nine of its direct reporting units to the 
3300th: the 3302d Technical Training Squadron, the 
3303d Contracting Squadron, the 3304th School 
Squadron (ATC NCO Academy), the 3305th School 
Squadron, the 35()7th Airman Classification 
Squadron, the 3306th Training Development and 

A staff member performs preliminarv testing at 
the Air Force's onl\ Genetics Laboratory located 
at the Keesler .VFB, Mississippi, medical center. 


Evaluation Squadron. iIk' USAF Occupational 
Measurement Squadron (formerly a center), the 
3307th Test and E\aluation Squadron i Act|uisition 
Management), and the 33()Sth Technical Irainmg 
Squadron (Advisory). 

3588th Flying Training Squadron 

Since January 1980. the 3588th Flying Training 
Squadron (Helicopter) had conducted helicopter pilot 
training tor the Air Force at Fort Rucker. Alabama. 
The squadron reported directly to ATC's Deputy 
Chief of Staff. Operations and Readiness. However, 
General Ashy decided to reassign the 3588th. 
effecti\e I October I9Q0. to the 14th Flying Training 
Wing at Columbus AFB, Mississippi. 



T-1A "Jayhawk" 

On 21 Februar\ Headquarters USAF announced the 
selection of a modified Beechjet 4()0A as the 
tanker-transport training system aircraft. The Air 
Force \ersion would be known as the T-IA 
"Jayhawk." The first production aircraft was to be 
delivered by October 1991 at Reese AFB. Texas, 
where SUPT wduld be initiated. 

Helicopter Pilot Training 

For several years. Military Airlift Command, the 
principal user of helicopter pilots, had maintained 
that student pilots needed more training than that 
provided at the Fort Rucker. .Alabama, course; MAC 
also wanted students to attend UPT. In April 1990 
HQ USAF agreed to the MAC request and informed 
ATC that it intended to change helicopter pilot 
training. Beginning in fiscal year 1992. all helicopter 


pilot candidates would go through standard UPT and 
then a rotary wing qualification course. 

Enhanced Flight Screening 

As ATC moved closer to making the transition to 
SUPT. the command determined it needed to shore 

.\t the DOD Military Workinj; Uog Ajicncv at 
Lackland .AFB, ATC trained both dogs and their 

up the flight screening program which provided 
prospective pilots with 14 hours of flying time in a 
T-41 A light aircraft. In order to make flight screening 
a better barometer of a student's potential and to give 
the student a broader flving experience. .ATC wanted 
to acquire a more capable aircraft and the 
flying time to 21.5 hours. The command wanted a 
plane that was capable of performing acrt)batics and 
flying overhead traffic patterns and would expose 
students to moderate G-loadings. To validate the 
concept, ATC conducted a test at Hondo. Texas, 
during the latter half of 1990. using contractor-leased 
aircraft. The test was successful, and the command 
moved ahead with plans to implement an enhanced 
flight screening program in 1992. Meanwhile, to 
atlmmisier the flight screening program, ATC 
established the 1st Flight Screening Squadron at 
Hondo on 4 June and assigned it to the Officer 
Training School. 


Military Working Dog Agency 

I 111 _\cais llic Dcpariinciu ol Detcnsc had had a 
problem acquiring enough trained military working 
dogs to meet requirements. Part of the problem was 
the number of different agencies involved in 
procurement and training. It appeared the best way to 
improve the situation was by centralizing control of 
procurement and training. preferabK under Air 
Training Command. The Air Staff approved the 
concept in June, and on 1 October Air Training 
Command established the DOD Military Working 
Dog Agency at Lackland. 

Avionics students at Shcppard AFB. Texas, 
perform an operations elietk of an F-15 a\ionics 
maintenance trainer. 



4-Level Technical Training Initiative 

After months ot trial and eiTor, ATC and its 
customers in October 1990 decided to cancel all 
4-ievel courses and, instead, broadened initial skills 

A nurse cares for a premature baby in the Neo- 
Natal Intensive Care Inlt at the Keesler AFB, 
Mississippi, medical center. This nco-natal unit 
was one of only four in the United States Air 


Operation Desert Shield 

Bclwccn 10 August 1990 and 4 January 1991, Air 
Training Command deployed 397 people to the 
Persian Gulf in support of Operation Desert Shield, 
as well as providing backfill to other commands in 
the United States. 

Construction Freeze Affects Base Closures 

On 24 January the Secretary of Defense imposed a 
freeze on military construction to avoid new 
construction on bases that might be shutdown in the 
next round of base closures. Unfortunately, the 
moratorium was extended into 1991, affecting new 
construction at those ATC bases that had gained 
training missions from closing installations. It also 
caused concent that new classroom and laboratory 
facilities would not be ready when courses began 
transferring from Chanute (for example, the weather 
training facility at Keesler). 


In 1988 in preparation for the implementation of 
SUPT, ATC decided to test what type of organ- 
ization best suited the dual-track training program. 
At that time, each UPT wing had two flying training 
squadrons one for T-37s and the other for T-38s. 
plus a student squadron. Air Training Command 
wanted to find out whether training could be 
conducted more effectively if student squadrons 
were eliminated. Instead, all training and admin- 
istrative duties would be placed in the wings" two 
T-37 and two T-38 flying training squadrons. 
Officials at ATC chose the 82d Flying Training 
Wing at Williams AFB, Arizona, as the test unit. 

Air Training Command activated two flying 
training squadrons at Willianis-the 98th and 99th 
on 1 June 1988. That gave the 82d a total of four 
flying training squadrons. However, by year's end, 
the test had shown that a fifth squadron was needed 
to provide operational support. The 82d became the 
first ATC wing to have five flying training 
squadrons when, on 1 September 1989. the com- 
mand activated the lOOth Flying Training Squadron. 
By mid- 1990. UPT wings at Vance. Reese. 
Laughlin. and Columbus had also converted to a 
five squadron organization. 

However, it didn't last long. In December 1990 
ATC implemented the objective wing. The 
command's UPT wings kept four tlying training 
stHiadrons each, two for T-37s and two for T-38s. 
The fifth squadron was redesignated as an 
operations support squadron, but fulfilled essentially 
ilic same functions as the old student squadron. 

US force 

(Mil a C-I4I to defend the 

Kingdom oi "^ -jdi Arabia as part of Operation 
nesert Shield. 



After the success of Operation Desert Storm, Clohal Reach-Cjiohal I'ouer hccame the hlucpi iiit lo (ir^aiii/c, 
train, and equip the Air Force to confront the challcnses of a fast-chan^in^ world. Orsani/alion was the First 
page of the blueprint, and the Chief of Staff of the \ir Force declared \^^\ the "Near of Organization." By 
the end of the \ear. the Air Force had implemented the ob)ecti\e \\in<;--a new winj; structure that included an 
operations group and a support group. Besides the extensive organizational changes, ATC also faced the 
daunting task of closing four of its training bases-C hanute and Mather chosen in round one and Fowr> and 
Williams selected in round two. In the second round, the base closure commission redirected the transfer of 
Mather's navigator training mission from Beale AFB, California, to Randolph AFB, lexas. 


(as of 31 December 1991) 



Arizona— Williams: California-Mather: Colorado— Lowry: lllinois— 
Chanute: Mississippi— Coluinbus and Keesler: Oklahoma— Vance: 
Texas— Goodlellow. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and 


45,642 (S,UcS4 olticers; 25.905 enlisted; 11,653 civihansj 
1.3 II (T-37B. T-38A. T-.39A. T-41 A, T-43AI 

7 numbered air force ec|ui\ak'ni units: 

Air Force Mil Trng Ctr. Lackland AFB TX 
Chanute Tech Trng Ctr. Chanute AFB IL 
Goodfellow Tech Trng Ctr. Goodfellow AFB TX 
Keesler Tech Trng Ctr. Keesler AFB MS 
Lowry Tech Trng Ctr. Lov\ry AFB CO 
Sheppard Tech Trng Ctr. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Scr\ ice. Randolph AFB TX 

1 air di\ision equivalent luiit: 

Air Force Reserve OITicer Trng Corps. Maxwell 

2 wing equi\ alciil luuts: 

USAF Instrument Might Center, Randolph AFB 

Wiltord Hall USAF Medical Center. Lackland 

1 combat crew training wing: 

.3636th (Survival). Fairchild AFB WA 

8 n\iiig traiiung uings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14lh. Columbus AFB MS 
47th, Laughlin AFB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
8()lh. Sheppard AFB TX 
82d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d. Mather AFB CA 

3 indepcntlenl group and equivaleni units: 

Air force Securils Assistance Training Group. 
Randolph AFB TX 

Commurnlv College ot the Air Force. Maxwell 

33(X)th Training Support Group. Randolph AFB 

2 independent squadron equivalent units: 

ATC Civilian Automated Training OfUce, 
Lackland AFB TX 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph AFB TX 




The Army Air Forces (AAF) initialed mobile 
training during World War II as a means of 
overcoming the inability of aircraft mechanics to stay 
abreast of the rapid technological advances in aircraft. 
Unable to return mechanics to the classroom because 
this would take them away from the flight line, AAF 
decided to take the classroom to the mechanics. As a 
result, mobile training units (MTU) followed 
operational units into the combat zones in Europe and 
the Pacific where they conducted conversion and 
familiarization training behind the frontlines. By the 
time .lapan surrendered, there were 163 MTUs that 
had instructed over 500.000 personnel. After the wai', 
most MTUs were disbanded, although some were 
retained to introduce new aircraft. 

Following the outbreak of the Korean War, the Air 
Force turned to mobile training once again. During 
the war, mobile training kept mechanics abreast of the 
latest maintenance techniques by sending detach- 
ments to Japan and Korea. As in World War II, 
mobile training required a haven behind the frontlines 
where training could be conducted without the 
immediate threat of enemy attacks. After the Korean 
War. the Air Force encountered a sharp decline in 
retentii)n rates. Because of the high turnover of 
experienced aircraft maintenance personnel. HQ 
USAF directed ATC to revise technical training. 
Rather than keep long and expensive maintenance 
courses that had been designed on the assumption 
that a person would stay in the Air Force 20 years. 
ATC shortened basic resident training to the 
essentials, and expanded on-the-job training (OJT) at 
the using commands. By taking these steps, the Air 
Force trimmed training costs, reduced training time, 
and increased productive time for tlrst term airmen. 

unit instructor turns a hombcd 
ised by the German .\ir Force 
"-47 aircraft mechanics. 

First job training, as it was called, did not meet the 
operational commands' needs. The cominands did not 
have the capability to furnish OJT because of the lack 
of experienced personnel who could be released for 
instructor duties. Still driven by the desire to furnish 
more training than first job training afforded, but 
confronted by the task of cutting training costs and 
yet raising productive time for first term enlistees. 
ATC kept the shortened resident courses but decided 
to transfer specialized equipment training to mobile 
training. Using mobile training detachments as a 
nucleus, ATC established field training detachments 
(FTD) and stationed them permanently at a site to 
improve training capabilities and induce instructors to 
remain in the Air Force. By the time the reforms had 
been completed, FTDs had responsibility for OJT 
advisory services, and 3-level, refresher, familiar- 
ization, conversion, and upgrade training. 

Ironically, field training's raison d'etre— (he 
reduction of training time-did not ineet expectations 
of ATC or HQ USAF. In the late 1950s, ATC 
reported that all FTDs devoted only about 10 percent 
of their time to specialized equipment training, while 
spending about 90 percent on conversion, upgrade, 
and familiarization training. Thus, field training spent 
most of its time training experienced maintenance 
personnel, rather than first tenners, as the Air Force 
and ATC had intended. When retention rates began 
climbing in the late 1950s and ATC continued to have 
problems sending students to specialized equipment 
training without long breaks in training, ATC cut 
back specialized equipment training at the FTDs, 
returning to its preference for longer resident courses 
at the training centers. 

The Vietnam War furnished Air Training 
Command with another opportunity to test field 
training under combat conditions. As the demands of 
the Vietnam War increased sharply, tactical aircraft 
maintenance personnel were needed to make up the 
shortages in the units TAC deployed to Southeast 
Asia. Tactical Air Command attempted to meet the 
training burden from its own resources, increasing the 
output from its combat crew training schools and 
establishing replacement training units (RTU). By the 
end of 1965. however, it was apparent that these 
efforts would not be enough. Field training, the most 
tlexible of ATC's training mediums, was the logical 
choice to participate in the training program. As a 
result, USAF personnel going to Southeast Asia were 
trained at FTDs in the United States or at ones in 
Asian countries outside the combat /one. 



In 1966 Pacific Air Forces challenged Ihe rationale 
for keeping FTDs out of Southeast Asia. Stressing that 
F-105 wings needed better trained personnel to replace 
those who were departing. PACAF finally convinced 
the Air Force to send an FTD to Southeast Asia. With 
the exception of this field training detachment, ATC 
did not send any FTDs to Southeast Asia to train USAF 
people, preferring to use training teams from FTDs 
located stateside, in Asian countries peripheral to 
Southeast Asia, and at technical training centers to 
proN'ide upgrade, conversion, and familiarization 

After the Vietnam War. because of poor retention 
rates, the limited use of tlrst-term airmen, and the high 
cost of training, the Air Force directed ATC to revise 
weapon systems training. In 1976 ATC returned to a 
variation of specialized equipment training in two 
specialties, crew chief and avionics. This was 
accomplished by limiting initial training in the resident 
schools to the fundamentals, while providing hands on 
training on particular weapons systems at an FTD. 
These reforms, known as Able Chief and Able 
Avionics, produced competent graduates in less time 
than resident training and provided only enough 
training for the airmen's first job. Because airmen 
spent less time in training. ATC cut costs and increased 
the first term enlistees' productive time. 

It was generally understood. houe\er. that reducing 
resident training to just the fundamentals was an 
expedient measure taken when the Air Force was 
confronted by the need to reduce training costs and/or 
by poor retention rates. Once these limitations eased. 
Air Training Command would return to its preferred 
training philosophy, conducting training in the resident 
technical training centers to the fullest extent that 
resources allowed instead of just to the minimum skill 
levels required. Field training would then be free to 
concentrate on its traditional role of familiarization and 
transition training. 

From the beginning, the -Air Force had found field 
training a \ery cost effecti\e way of providing 
technical instruction, hut it still look millions of dollars 
to support equipmeni and personnel needs-dollars that 
had become extremely scarce as Congress curtailed 
defense spending. 

\S iih the Soviet L'nion no longer a major threat to 
national security, the American public turned its sights 
on domestic rather than military issues. It was in this 
light that in 1991 Gen Merrill A. McPeak, Air Force 
Chief of Staff, directed a review of field training, with 
the intent of reducing the program b> 50 percent. At 
that time. ATC operated 62 detachments and 29 operat- 

ing locations worldwide, and graduated almost lOO.CKK) 
students per year. 

In response. ATC developed a roailmap that laid out 
a long term plan to reorganize field training. Some of 
the approximately 7(X) courses provided through field 
training would be conducted using such advanced 
technology as computerized instruction and distance 
learning. So called low flow courses— those with 
extremely small enrollment— ct)uld be offered as on- 
the-job training and pro\ ided by one of ATC's resident 
training centers. Others would either drop by the 
wayside or become a part of ne\\l\ developed career 
field training programs. Finalh. the roadmap called 
for the remaining high-level courses lo move to one of 
the resident training centers, all a part of the Air Force 
plan to prov ide "cradle to grave" training programs for 
all career fields. 

Sh(»\\n is a \ie« of an instructor suptrvisiii}; stutlenis 
in a Field Trainin}; Course on the KB- 1 1 1 aircraft. 

In August 199.^. the command, now redesignated 
AETC. learned that General McPeak vvanted to end 
field training altogether. His reasoning was that field 
training violated the one base, one boss rule, because 
all detachments reported to the 82d Field Training 
Group, though thev were k)cated worldwide and 
received support from their host units. AETC planned 
to add the hands-on instruction from field training 
detachments to the Mission Ready Technician 
program, which used operational aircraft and 
equipment to give .^-level graduates the weapons- 
sysiem-specific skills they needed to become 
contributing members immediatelv upon reporting to 
their operational units. L'nder the plan. M.AJCOMs 
picked up about one-third of the existing courses. The 
field training drawdown was put on hold in 1996, 
however, when the high cost of adding the necessary 
manpower to AETC became apparent in a i:)OD audit. 
Because Field Training proved to be the most cost- 
effective solution in many cases, the program 




Lieutenant General Joseph W. Ashy remained as 
Commander of ATC. while HQ USAF reassigned 
ATC's vice commander. Maj Gen Robert S. 
Delligatti. to HQ USAFE as the Chief of Staff. 
Major General Eugene E. Habiger replaced General 
Delligatti as the ATC vice commander on 17 August 


After a one-year hiatus occasioned by the Gulf 
War, ATC resumed its annual competition for 
instructor pilots and maintenance teams in June 1991. 
Called Top Flight, the competition consisted of 
pretlight exercises, aircraft launches and recoveries, 
refueling operations, and forms documentation. 

The event got its start in 1984 at Laughlin as a 
local "turkey shoot" and involved only 47 FTW 
aircrews. Air Training Command liked the idea so 
well that it expanded the concept to include 
maintenance personnel and had a two-day command- 
wide Tinkey Shoot at Laughlin the following year. 
In 1986 ATC moved the competition to Randolph 
and expanded it further by adding more events to be 
judged. In 1987 the command changed the name to 
Torchlight. By 1989 Torchlight had become so 
elaborate it was five days long, and the wings were 
spending a great deal of time and money preparing 
for the competition. 

When he took over as ATC commander in June 
1990, General Ashy changed the name of the event to 
Top Flight and changed the thrust of the competition. 
Rather than reflect the results of weeks of practice by 
handpicked aircrevxs in specially maintained aircraft, 
the one-ilay competition evaluated the day-in. day- 
out proficiency of the command's instructor pilots 
and maintenance troops. 


and support. Air Training Command implemented the 
new structure at its flying training wings on 
15 December. 

Gen Merrill A. 

the "Year of 

was focused on 

ast time winu 

The Objective Wing Structure 

The .\ir Force CiucI ol Stall. 
McPeak. designated 1991 as 
Organization." Lots of attention 
organi/ational structure. The 
oi'iinization had received this much attention was in 
thi l''70s when the Air Force implemented its tri- 
dep 'V winp structure: operations, maintenance, and 
lime the Air Force developed an 
hat included two groups: operations 

Medical personnel carry an injured airman (»n a 
litter during an exercise at Sheppard. The medics 
are taking part in training directed by the 3790th 
Medical Service Training Wing that prepared 
personnel for treating the injured in a combat 

Joint Military Medical Command 

From its activation on 16 February 1987 to its 
inactivation on 1 October 1991. the San Antonio 
Joint Military Medical Command (SA-JMMC) 
caused controversy. The Department of Defense 
originally established JMMC as a way to centralize 
control over all direct medical care services and 
training that the Air Force and Army performed 
separately in the San Antonio area. While officials 
agreed that JMMC had fostered cooperation between 
the various medical services, the joint arrangement 
had not shown any cost savings. Therefore, the 
Department of Defense directed the disestablishment 
of the San Antonio Joint Military Medical Command. 
At the same time, the services set up a Health Care 
Coordinating Council in the San Antonio area to 
better coordinate military medical care in the area. 
Upon the inactivation of JMMC, Wilford Hall USAF 
Medical Center then reported directly to HQ ATC. 

ATCD Closes 

On 1 October ATC inactivated the Air Training 
Communications Di\ ision. the last step in its effort to 
integrate communications and computer systems 
functions inlo the headquarters and its subordinate 

DCS Name Changes 

The Dcputs Chicl ol SlatT. Comptroller (.AC) became 
the Deputy Chief of Staff. Financial Management and 
Comptroller (FM) on I October. This change came 
about as a part of a directive issued by the Assistant 
Secretar> of the Air Force (Financial Management 
and Comptroller) to restructure the comptroller career 



field throughout DOD. Two months later, on 
1 December. ATC's DCS/Operations and Readiness 
(DO) became DCS/Operations. a name change that 
brought ATC headquarters in hne with the rest of the 
Air Force. 

Air Force Bands 

On 15 July 1991. as part of the Air Force drawdown, 
the 502d .Air Force Band at Keesler and the 505th Air 
Force Band at Chanute AFB were inacti\ated. The 
5.^9th Air Force Band at Lackland became ATC's 
only band. On I October ATC redesignated the 
539th as the ATC Band and reassigned it from the 
Air Force Miiitar> Training Center (AFMTC) to the 
.^.^OOth Training Support Group at Randolph. 

MIMSO Relocated 

On 14 June l')^)l. General Ashy approved the 
relocation of the Military Indoctrination for Medical 
Service Officers (MIMSO) course from Sheppard 
AFB to the Officer Training School at the Lackland 
annex (Medina). The first .MIMSO class began there 
on 4 December. 



Pilot Assignments 

On 5 .•\pril ATC initiated its new merit assignment 
ranking system, which allowed UPT students to 
select their assignments. Earlier. ATC had decided 
upon a pilot selection and classification sNstem. but 
the Air Force chief of staff o\erturnetl that decision 
in Februar\ 1991. He was concerned about UPT 
graduates' lack of satisfaction with their assignments 
and so directed a return to a system used prior to 
1972 that allowed students to choose their own 
assignments based on their performance, i.e.. their 
rank order within the class. Also, once SUPT started, 
the Air Force chief of staff w anted students to he able 
to make track classification decisions, so he directed 
that classification take place at the end of the T-.37 
primary phase rather than before training began. 

ACE Detachments Realigned 

The Accelerated Copilot Knrichment (ACE) program, 
using ATC T 37 and T-3.S aircraft, provided a 
relatively low cost method that allowed Strategic Air 
Command (SAC) copilots to gain (lying experience 
and develop their decision-making skills and selt- 
confidence. Implementing the concept of one base, 
one wing, one boss. ATC transferred operational 
control for each ACE detachment to the local SAC 
flying wing commander on I July 1991 and the local 
TAC tlying wing commander on 1 October 1991. 
Air Training Command retained possession ot the 

aircraft, responsibility for aircraft maintenance, and 
the maintenance personnel assigned lo the ACE 


The concept of a career trainer force was related 
to the issue of pilot retention. Created in 1983. the 
career trainer force, whose name was shortened to 
trainer force in 1988. helped absorb aviators 
graduating from undergraduate pilot training for 
whom major weapons system training programs- 
such as the F-I6 or A-lO-did not have sufficient 
room. Additionally, it provided a means for ATC to 
develop a cadre of trainers who could spend almost 
an entire career within the command. These pilots 
would move from one responsible job to another and 
remain competitive for their promotion with 
contemporaries who went to Hying positions in other 
major commands. B\ 1989 the trainers acquired their 
own Air Force specialty code, and in 1990 Air 
Training Command had almost 500 pilots in the 
trainer I'oice. 

In March 1991 Air Force leaders decided to 
reduce the flow of pilots whose first assignments 
were as instructor pilots and also to increase the 
major weapon systems presence in ATC's instructor 
force. As a result, the Air Force Military Personnel 
Center (AFMPC) eliminated the career trainer 
designation on each of the pilots in the program and 
moved responsibility for their career planning from 
ATC to the Air Force Military Personnel Center. 
Instead of receiving the individualized attention that a 
small, specialized program offered, the former trainer 
force officers would be treated the same as all the 
other pilots. Also, instead of having a focused career 
path--as originally intended--the ofilceis would 
receive v aried duty assignments. 

By the end of 1991. the career trainer force 
program had ended, and AFMPC notified all ATC 
officers with less than seven years commissioned 
service that they could expect to be assigned to major 
weapon systems training for career broadening 
experience in the near future. 

Flight Screening 

On I July 1991. ATC reassigned the 1st Flight 
Screening Squadron at Hondo. Texas, which 
supervised the command's flight screening program, 
from the Officer Training School at Lackland to the 
12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph. .Although 
control of the program transferred to the 12th. flight 
operations continued al Hondo. The iransler was 



designed to place a flying operation directly under a 
flying training wing's control. The command 
maintained that flight screening under the supervision 
of the 12th Flying Training Wing would improve the 
screening process, lower pilot attrition, and save over 
$1 million yearly. 

Helicopter Pilot Production Declines 

In 1991 the Air Force had a surplus of helicopter 
pilots, so HQ USAF decided to reduce production 
from the 41 graduated in FY 91 to only 10 per year in 
FY 92-94. Under this program, the helicopter pilot 
trainees would be first assignment instructor pilots, 
who the Army would train in its rotary 
wing qualification course at Fort Rucker, Alabama, 
without any Air Force top-off training. Consequently, 
Air Training Command inactivated the 3588th Flying 
Training Squadron at Fort Rucker on 18 October. 
Also on the same date. ATC established 
Detachment 1, 14th Flying Training Wing at Fort 
Rucker to provide administrative support and 
super\ ision. 


Contract Technical Training 

In 1990 and 1991, Air Training Command 
investigated the idea of establishing preaccession 
training. First proposed by a Colorado company, the 
concept was that civilian contractors would provide 
technical training for the military, but there was a 
catch. That training would have been provided to 
individuals before they joined the Air Force, hence 
the title: Preaccession Enlistment Recruit Training 
(PERT). In February 1991 ATC received permission 
from HQ USAF to develop a test of the PERT 
concept, but Congress later disapproved legislation 
that would ha\e made the test possible. 

Field Training Cutback 

Along with all the other organizational changes 
taking place in 1991. the Air Force also decided to 
streamline field training. Air Training Command had 
62 detachments and 27 operating locations scattered 
worldwide, with a total authorized strength of over 
1. 800 personnel. Under the reduction plan, field 
training was left with 63 locations and 1,300 


'-' fj ^v^quirements Tightened in CCAF 

A- '■■■Civ as 198"^, the Comnumit\ College of the 
Air 1 fCCAi*) had a problem acquiring degreed 

facult; ir*-!--: nuide up the biggest portion of 

the CC i T, fortunately, because of the 

nature o rvonnel system--the constant 

movemer. Community College of the 

Air Force found it impossible to maintain a high 
percentage of degreed faculty. However, the 
community college had to find a way to meet 
requirements set by the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools or lose its accreditation. 
Beginning in 1990, ATC put together an aggressive 
plan to meet accreditation goals by 1994. It included 
identifying faculty members who did not have at least 
a two-year degree and counseling them to use 
college-level examination program tests and tuition 
assistance to meet degree requirements. By the end of 
the year, almost half of the instructors in the CCAF 
system had at least an associate's degree. 

A two-ship formation of C-130 Hercules flying 
over the oil fires at the end of the Gulf War in 


Operation Desert Storm 

Air Training Command took several actions to 
support Operation Desert Storm, the campaign to 
expel the Iraqi army from Kuwait. These included 
deploying over 3,000 personnel to other commands 
and implementing Push-Pull mobilization, a program 
designed to "push" inactive reservists and retirees to a 
specified ATC technical training center. After 
screening for physical fitness, personnel were 
"pulled" for assignment to fill active duty shortfalls. 
On 23 January 1991, HQ USAF directed the 
activation of the 11th Contingency Hospital for 
depUiyment to RAF Little Rissington. United 
Kingdom. The 11th was an Air Force Reserve unit 
assigned to ATC. More than 350 reservists were 
recalled and assigned duties at Wilford Hall or with 
the llth; 200 reservists deployed with 900 active 
duty personnel to operate the llth Contingency 
Hospital. The command also acti\ated four blood 
donor centers-Chanute. Keesler, Lackland, and 
Sheppard-to meet Desert Storm taskings. By the 
time the centers returned to normal operations on 
3 May 1991. they had shipped over 6.000 units of 



Though known formally as the \ ear of Training. 1992 «as more than anything else a \ear of change. 1 he 
changes started early in the year and finished late. On 1 Februar\ 1992, Air Training C ommand initiated the 
changes when it redesignated all the technical training centers (sa\e for ( hanute. scheduled for closure) as 
training centers. The command also changed the name of the Air force Militarv 1 raining (enter to 
Lackland Training Center. Simultaneously, ATC reorganized the training centers to conform to the 
objecti\e wing structure. As a result, the technical training wings were downgraded to groups, and the 
groups became squadrons. Then, on 15 September, the designations of most of the groups and squadrons 
were again changed, this time from four-digit units to three-digit units. 


(as of 31 December IW2) 


This simple but elegant aviation badge has 
been awarded to pilots upon completion of 
their training since 25 January 1919. 


Ari/ona-Willuinis; California-Mathei; Colorado- Loury; 
Illinois-Chanute; Mississippi— Columbus and Keesler; 
Oklahoma- Vance; Texas— Goodfcl low. Lackland, 
Laughlin. Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard. 


4?. 642 tS.()S4 otriccrs; 25.905 enlisted; 1 1.653 civilians') 


1.31 1 (T-37B. T-3SA. T-39A. T-4I.'\. T-43A) 


7 numbered air force equivalent units; 

Chanute Technical Training Center. Chanute AFB 



Goodtellovv Training Center. Goodfellou Al-'B 

Keesler Training Center. Keesler AFB MS 
Lackland Training Center. Lackland AFB. TX 
Lowry Training Center. Lovvry AFB CO 
Sheppard Training Center. Sheppard AFB TX 
USAF Recruiting Service, Randolph AFB TX 

I air tliv ision equivalent unit: 

Air Force Reserve OfFicer Training Corps. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

8 flying Irauiing wings: 

12th. Randolph AFB TX 
14th, Columbus AFB MS 

47th. Laughlni AIB TX 
64th. Reese AFB TX 
71st. Vance AFB OK 
8()th. Sheppard AFB TX 
S2d. Williams AFB AZ 
323d, Mather AFB CA 

1 wing equiv alent unit: 

Will'ord Hall USAF Medical Center. Lackland 

I combat crew training wing: 

3636th (Survival), Fairchild AFB W A 

3 independent group and equivalent units; 

Air Force Security Assistance Trng Gp. Randolph 



Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

338th Training Support Group, Randolph AFB 

2 independent squadron equi\ alent units: 

ATC Civilian AuttJUiated Training Office, 
Lackland AFB TX 

ATC Operations Center. Randolph AFB TX 


Henr\ \ iccellio, Jr. 

General Henry Viccellio, Jr, succeeded Lt Gen 
Joseph W. Ashy as the Commander of ATC on 
10 December 1992. For the first time since 28 August 
1986 when Gen Andrew P. losue retired as the ATC 
commander, the cominand was headed by a four-star. 
Prior to assuming command at ATC. General 
Viccellio was the Director of the Joint Staff in 
Washington. D.C. General Ashy became the 

Commander. Allied Air Forces Southern Europe and 
Deputy Commander in Chief for the Southern 
Region. United States Air Forces in Europe. Major 
General Eugene E. Habiger continued as vice 



Objective Centers Established 

Air Training Command converted its newly renamed 
training centers to the objective wing structure on 
1 February, a step it had already taken at the Hying 
training wings in December 1991. At the Hying 
training wings, that meant the command abandoned 
the tri-deputy structure (with Deputy Commanders 
for Operations. Maintenance. and Resource 
Management and a combat support group 
commander) in favor of a group-oriented wing with 
an operations group and a support group. A siinilar 
situation existed at the training centers where the 
technical training wing. Deputy Commander for 
Resource Management, air base group, and 
clinic/hospital were replaced by a technical training 
group, a logistics group, a support group, and a 
medical group. 

Officer Training Scfiool Redesignated 

Twice during the year, the Officer Training School 
(OTS) designation changed. On 1 February, as part 
of the major reshuffling of units. ATC redesignated 
OTS as the 3700th Officer Training Group. Then, on 
25 August, the 3700th underwent another redesigna- 
tion. becoming the 301st Officer Training Squadron. 


replaced the 1-4! as the .\ir Force's enhanced iliuht screener aircraft. 



At the same time. Air TrainiiiLi C\>mmand reiiesed 
the 301 St trom assignment to Laekiand Training 
Center and assignee.! il to the .i'-)4lh Mihlarx Trainiiii; 
(iroLip at Lackland. 

BMT School 

Known lor years simply as BMTS. the Basic .\lilitar\ 
Training School at Lackland traveled the same path 
as OTS^ On 1 February ATC redesignated BMTS as 
the 3720th Basic Military Training Group, and on 
25 August it hccame the 3y4th Military Training 
Group, which included not only basic military 
training squadix>ns. but also the otTicer training 
squadron among others. 

Instrument Flight Center Reassigned 

Air Trainnig Command actuated the USAF 
Instrument Flight Center (IFC) on I May 1972 and 
assigned it to the 12th Flying Training Wing at 
Randolph. The IFC was inactivated in 1978 but 
activated again in 1983. Twenty years to the day 
after its initial assignment to Air Training Command, 
the IFC was reassigned to the Air Force Flight 
Standards Agency on 1 May 1992. 

338th Training Support Group 

The 3300th Training Support Group, which reported 
directly to HQ ATC. was redesignated as the 33Sth 
Training Support Group on \5 September. 


Bj«^^«n« • 







The i-L\ "Jay hawk" is shown on display at Uctsc 
.VFB, Texas, during ceremonies to niai k the an i\al 
and .ATC's acceptanie ol the llrsi production 

First T-1A Squadron Formed 

To prepare lor the start ol specialized undergraduate 
pilot training (SLI'T). ATC activated the T- 1 A 
Flying Training Squadron Provisional. 52d, at Reese 
AFB on 3 February 1992. Initially, the provisional 
squadron concentrated on collecting data and 
verifying the training syllabus, developing instructor 
techniques, and establishing tlight profiles. As fall 
approached, the provisional squailron. manned by the 
initial cadre instructor pilots, turned its attention to 
getting the instructor transition course underway. On 
I October ATC inactivated the provisional squadron. 

and the .>2il Flying rraniing Squailron. one of two 
T-38 st|uadroiis already assigned to the 64th Flying 
Training Wing at Reese took on the responsibility of 
conducting 1- 1 A student training, slated to begin in 
.lanuary 1993. 

Flying Training Squadrons Inactivated 

With pilot production down dramatically, the 
command reassessed the need for four Hying training 
squadrons at each UPT and concluded two 
would do. .Xccordingly. on 1 October 1992. .ATC 
inactivated the lollowing units: the 43d and 49th 
Flying Training Squadrons at Columbus AFB, 
Mississip|ii; the 84th and 86th Flying Training 
Squadrons at l.aughlin A¥H. Texas; the 7th and 26th 
at Vance AFB. Oklahoma: and the 33d at Reese 
AFB. Texas. That left one T-37 squadron and one 
T-38 squadron at each UPT wing. As each wing 
implemented specialized undergraduate pilot training, 
ATC intended to reactivate one of the squadrons to 
serve as the V- 1 .>\ squadron. 

Navigator Training Squadron at Randolph 

.Air Iraining Commaiui intciKlcd to transfer 
specialized undergraduate navigator training (SUNT) 
from the 323il Flying Training Wing at Mather to the 
12th Flying Training Wing at Randolph, when the 
323d inactivated and Mather closed in 1993. To 
prepare for that eventuality, the command activated 
the .^58th Flying Training Squadron at Randolph on 
15 December 1992. assigning it to the I2lh. Air 
Training Conimand planned to activate three more 
squadrons in 1993 to accommodalc the navigator 
trainiiii: mission. 


Enhanced Flight Screener 

.Alter a delay ol five months because the original 
contract award was prittested. the Air Force 
confirmed on 22 September 1992 that Slingsby 
Aviation Limited of Great Britain would get the 
contract to replace the T-41 tlight screener. Slingsby, 
teamed with Norlhrup Worldwide .Aircraft Services, 
Inc.. won a contract worth almost S.5.5 million lo 
provide 113 "Firetly" aircraft to the Air Force for 
night screening operations thai Air Training 
Command conducted at Hondo. Texas, and the US 
Air Force Academy conducted at Colorado Springs. 
Colorado. Beginning in January 1993. ATC would 
get 51 of the new aircraft, and the .Air Force 
Academy would receive 5(-> planes. olTicially 
designated the T-3. 




Over the past 60 years, technical training had 
swung back and forth between two different training 
philosophies. On the one hand. Air Training 
Command could provide extensive instruction to 
nonprior service personnel at its resident training 
centers, thus minimizing the need for additional 
training at the operational units. On the other, the 
command could teach only the minimum job 
knowledge individuals needed for their first job. then 
upgrade their knowledge through on-the-job training. 
The first option was expensive in time and money; the 
second, though faster and apparently less costly, 
shifted much of the burden to the operational 
commands. Availability of money, quality of recruits, 
and level of retention rates were some of the most 
significant factors that determined which philosophy 
was ascendant. 

During the mid-1970s, the Air Force began to shift 
its philosophy of training. After Vietnam, defense 
dollars were more limited, the quality of recruits 
comparatively poorer, and retention rates lower. As 
part of an Air Force program to improve resource 
management. Air Training Command began cutting 
resources used for formal training. The command 
reduced mitial skills instruction to the absolute 
minimum by eliminating theory, fundamentals, and 
system specific elements in its basic resident courses. 
The most visible indicator of these changes was the 
decline in average course length from seventeen 
weeks in 1970 to eleven weeks in 1980. 

During the early 1980s, the Air Force entered a 
favorable recruiting period. Retention levels in- 
creased, and the defense budget was much less 
austere. Moreover, evidence began to accumulate 
that personnel were not being adequately trained in 
the shorter courses. When it became apparent the Air 
Force could no longer live with the cuts in initial 
skills training. ATC began a program to reverse the 
trend and return instruction in theory and 
fundamentals to many courses. The length of sortie- 
producing courses (those directly involved in support 

of the operational mission) rose from an average of 
nine weeks in 1979 to sixteen weeks in 1985. 

The end of the Cold War signaled more changes to 
ATC's technical training system. Spurred by a 
significant drawdown in the military services, two 
training centers, Chanute and Lowry, were scheduled 
to close in 1993 and 1994, respectively. At the same 
time. Air Training Command considered other ways 
to cut costs and save training dollars. These ranged 
from incorporating such advanced learning tech- 
nologies as computerized instruction and distance 
learning to expanding interservice training. 

For the Air Force. 1992 was the "Year of 
Training." a time for an indepth review of the training 
process. The biggest change to come out of that 
review was the merging of Air Training Command 
and Air University into Air Education and Training 
Command in 1993. 

For the technical training community, the review 
resulted in a reemphasis on resident training. No 
longer would on-the-job training and field training be 
expected to make up for shortfalls in initial skills 
training. Instead, training centers would improve 
initial skills courses to the point where a graduate 
could perform his job upon arrival at his first 
assignment. This would give the Air Force a more 
standardized trainee: everyone would receive the 
same training to do specific jobs. 

In addition, the Air Force tied career progression 
more closely to training. Previously, non- 
commissioned officers participated in follow-on or 
continuation training when it was convenient to do so. 
Under the new program, all NCOs would be required 
to go back to technical school for refresher courses as 
they prepared to assume seven-level responsibilities. 
Using career field training management plans. Air 
Education and Training Command now had the 
ability to establish "cradle to grave" training programs 
for all career fields. 

64th FTW Prepares to Implement SUPT 

111 .March the 1-1. As began arming al Reese on a 
regular basis. The 64th Flying Training Wing 
received four aircraft that first month, three T-l As in 
April, and five more in May. B) the end of the year, 
the wing had a total of 24 aircraft. Many of those 
aircraft were used for extensive testing conducted 
'"u^t by the Air Force Operational Test and 

Evaluation Center and then by the initial cadre of 
instructor pilots assigned to the 64th. The wing began 
flying local sorties to test syllabus maneuvers and 
aircraft effecli\eness on 9 March. Several Course 
Readiness Reviews and Start Training Readmess 
Reviews looked not just at the aircraft but also at 
other elements of the tanker-trainer training system, 
such as simulators and the Training Management 



System. In general, the 64th Fl)inj: Training Wing 
still had some wrinkles to iron out hut was far enough 
along that it began the Instriietor Transition Coinse 
on schedule in September. The course was designed 
to train T-37 and T-38 instructor pilots (IP) to be 
T-IA IPs: the initial cadre (who had received their 
training From Beech) taught the course. Meanwhile. 
the first SUPT class. Class 93-12. was already in 
training. It began Phase 1 training on 20 July \W2 
and would begin T-IA and T-38 training on 
24 January 1993. 

Reese AFB Receives First T-1A "Jayhawl<" 

On 17 JanuaiN 1992. the .Air Force accepted the first 
production miidel of the T-IA "Jayhawk" at the 
Beech Aircraft Corporation facilit\ at Wichita. 
Kansas. The T-\A was the aircraft that would get 
specialized undergraduate pilot training off the 
ground by preparing student pilots specifically for 
assignments in tanker and transport aircraft. The next 
da\ that aircraft, number 9()-()4(K). was tlown to 
Reese AFB. the first base that would switch to 
specialized undergraduate pilot training, for use as a 
maintenance training aircraft. Strictly speaking the 
T-IA at Reese was the third aircraft (TT-03) 
modified by Beech for the Air Force: the compan\ 
temporarily retained the first two to conduct its own 
testing. .Almost a month later, on l.'i February, the 
64th Fl\ ing Training Wing held a formal ceremony at 
Reese to mark officially the ani\al of the first T-l.A 
at the base. 


Water Survival Training 

The water survival training area at Turkey Point. 
Florida, near Homestead AFB. was one of the victims 
of Hurricane Andrew, which slammed into the east 
coast of Florida on 24 .Aus:ust 1992. The damage 

was so extensive the command was forced to move 
water survival training, transferring the 3613th 
Combat Crew Training Squadron from Homestead to 
Tvndall AFli. Florida.' 

Sl)()\>n are the remains of the I in ke\ PdIiiI "aler 
survival trainin;; complex loealeil near MoiiKslead 
.\FB after Hurricane Andrew struck the Florida 
toast. As an interim measure, the \ir I orce 
relocated the Water Survival School to Ivndall 
AFB on Florida's <;ulf coast. 

M.Sfit Alon/o Powell, an \ii 
Force recruiter and former jet 
en<;iiie mechanic, works late in 
his downtown l.os ,\n<;eles 
office. Powell came to the office 
in Novemher \W\ after it had 
bi'cn closed lor two vears due to 
lack of enlistments. In F^ ^2 
I4S percent of the recniitinj; 
};oal had been reached. 




Minority Officer Issues 

As early as 1990. the Minority Officer Procurement 
and Development initiative recommended the 
establishment of an AFROTC prep school, which the 
Air Staff approved in 1991 but put on hold the 
following year. The Air Force had not established 
minority officer accession guidelines, and ATC 
measured its progress compared to the representation 
of those groups among the population of college 
students. General Ashy recommended tabling the 
idea, observing that AFROTC forecasted 6.8 percent 
black officer production for FY93. and OTS selection 
board rates were promising. ATC continued to 
emphasize minority recruiting, and in March 1992 
AFROTC established a "Gold Bar" program, in 
which newly-commissioned minority AFROTC 
graduates recruited minority scholarship candidates 
and referred OTS candidates to Recruiting Service. 
General Viccellio ultimatels established a Minority 
Officer Accession Working Group to stay on top of 
the issue. 

General Henry \ ictellio, Jr., explains how ATC 
and .\ir University will be integrated into the .Vir 
Education and Training Command, durin<; an 
interview with Airman Magazine I December 



The Air Force, due to the very nature of its 
mission, had long been engaged in a variety of 
operations dealing with toxic and hazardous waste 
materials that had migrated into the surrounding area 
and resulted in environmental damage. This issue 
began receiving increased attention in 1978 when 
President Carter signed an executive order governing 
federal compliance with pollution control standards. 
In 1981 Department of Defense mandated that its 
bases institute the Installation Restoration Program 
(IRP) to identify and rectify environmental problems 
resulting from earlier methods of waste disposal. By 
the end of FY 1992, ATC had cleaned up 149 of its 
301 contaminated sites. These sites included low- 
level radioactive waste disposal areas, pesticides, and 
abandoned underground storage tanks. 


To reduce toxic waste and lower costs, ATC 
replaced liquid chemical stripping of paint from 
aircraft and other equipment with plastic particle 
blasting. The first booth became operational in 
April 1989 at Randolph AFB, Texas. 

In addition to IRP and related programs, ATC also 
was involved in over 30 bioenvironmental 
engineering programs. These included the removal 
of asbestos from military facilities, testing for radon 
gas in military housing, and establishing recycling 
programs. To help commanders measure the degree 
to which they were complying with federal and state 
environmental regulations, the Air Force established 
the Environmental Compliance and Management 
Program (ECAMP) in 198S. 

Finally. ATC worked to nnnimi/e ha/ardous 
waste, a major source of which was aircraft painting. 
Consequently. ATC began an extensixe program in 
the late 1980s to replace chemical stripping of 
aircraft paint with a blasting technique that used 
plastic particles called "media." Media bead blasting 
reduced significanti) the generation of hazardous 



The first da> of .Iul> 1993 «as more than just tlif da\ >\hfii Air Irainin}^ Command absorbed Air 
Inivcrsitx and changed the ciinimand desi<;nation to Air Kducation and rrainin<; ( iimmand (Af IC ). It >Nas 
the point \Nhen the Air Force vdw the iioals of the Near of ()r<;ani/.ation and the Near of I rainin*; come 
together to form a single cominand. AETC. For a moment, the focus shifted from downsizing to better 
organizing. AETC assumed respcmsibilitx for both aspects of career dexelopmenl. training and education. 
Missions such as combat cre\\ training, pararescue. and combat controller training, and (later) space training 
transferred to the new command. Airman would report to their operational units mission ready. 
Restructuring the command therefore assumed first place among the issues facing the command staff. The 
introduction of three new training aircraft, the T-l. T-3. and 1-6 (,JPA IS), joint training, the closure of 
Chanutc. Mather, and \\ illiams AFBs, and several A-76 studies were also major challenges. 



(as of December 1993) 

Alabama--Maxwell: Arizona--Luke; Colorado-Lowry: FIorida-Tyndall; 
Mississippi--Columbus and Keesler: Oklahoma--Altus and Vance; Texas-- 
Goodfellovs . Lackland. Laiighlin. Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard 


(lU.USO ( lU.I 13 officers; 35.160 enlisted; 14.759 civilians) 

1,377 (C-5. C-21. C-141. F-15. F-16. HC-13(). KC-135. MC-130. MH-53J. 
MH-6(). NCH-53A. T-l. T-37. T-3S. T-39, T-4i, T-43, TH-53A. UH-iN) 


4 numbered air force and equi\ alent units: 

MR VrSWERSnW Maxwell AFB AL: (including 
15 major subordmate units) 

502d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Command and Stall College. Maxwell AFB 

Air Force Institute of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Quality Institute. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air iorcc Reserve Officer Training Corps, 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Library. Maxv\ell AFB AL 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine. Research, and 
Education. Maxwell AF-B AL 

College for linlisted Professional Military 
Education, Maxwell AFB .AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Extension Course Institute, Maxwell AI'B AL 

Ira C. Eaker College for Professional 
Development, Maxwell AFB AL 

Officer Training School, Maxwell AFB .AL 

Squadron (3fficer School, Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil Air Patrol, Maxwell AFB AL 


(including 5 wings and equivalent units) 

l.owry Training Center. Lowry AFB CO 
17th Training Wing. Goodfellow .MB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland .AFB TX 
81st Training Wing. Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training \\ ing. Sheppard AFB TX 

NINETEE.MII AlU f()R( E, Raikk)lph \l H 1 \: 
(including 10 wings. I independent group, and 1 
independent squadron ) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
I4ih FIving Training Wing. Columbus AFB MS 
47lh FIving Training Wing. I.aughlin AI'B TX 
58lh Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
64lh Flying Training Wing. Reese AFB TX 
7 1 St Flying Training Wing. Vance AFB OK 
8()th Flying Training Wing. Sheppard AIM TX 
97lh Air Mobility Wing. Alius AFB OK 




325th Fighter Wing, Tyndall AFB PL 
3?6th Crew Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 
419th Operations Training Squadron, Randolph 

542d Crew Training Wing. Kirtland AFB NM 

TX: (including 4 groups) 

36()ih Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group, Rohms AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group, Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

3 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing, Lackland AFB TX 

338th Training Support Group, Randolph AFB 


Air Force Security Assistance Squadron, 

Randolph AFB TX 


General Henry Vicccllio. ,ir.. continued as the 
AETC commander, and l.t Gen Eugene E. Habiger 
remained vice commander. 


Air Training Command Redesignated 

On 1 July 1993. HQ USAF redesignated Air Training 
Command as Air Education and Training Command 
(AETC). For all practical purposes, this action made 
AETC the focal point for all education and training 
activities in the Air Force. The only notable 
exceptions were that operational commands 
continued crew training where the requirements were 
relatively small (e.g.. B-1 and F-117 training), and 
the United States Air Force Academy retained its 
independent status. 

Air University 

Ten years after its return to major command status. 
Air University again became a subordinate part of 
Air Education and Training Command. As part of the 
decision to realign Air University under AETC, HQ 
USAF also made the Air Force Officer Training 
School, Community College of the Air Force, and the 
First Sergeants Academy subordinate organizations 
of Air University. The Air Force legal and chaplain 
training programs also transferred to Air University. 

Numbered Air Forces Establislied 

On I July 1993. AETC activated the Nineteenth Air 
Force at Randolph to supervise living training and 
the Second Air Force at Keesler to manage all 
technical trainin>; units. 



Training Centers and Training Wings 

Et'fcclivc 1 Jiil> . ATC inactivated the training centers 
at GoikHcIIow. I^ackland. Keesler. and Sheppard. 
They were succeeded hy the i7lh. 37th. Slst. and 82d 
Training Wings, respectively all activated that same 

Technical Training Groups 

.\i the same time the umgs were activated, the 
designations of the training groups changed, 
assuming the same numerical designations as their 

General Mciiill \. Mel'eak and 
(Jeneral Henrx \ iciellio. .)r.. at 
the eercni(in\ marking tiie 
slandup of Air l.diK'alion and 
I rainin<: C Oniniand. I .liil\ 
1993 (above). 

Maj (;en .Inhn (. (irittlth 
assuiiu's command of Second 
Air Force, 1 .Inly 1V9.^ (lell). 

parent wings. Thus, the 341 si Technical Training 
Group at Goodfellow became ihc 17lh Technical 
Training Group, the 393d at Keesler became the SI si. 
the 3y4th at Lackland became the 37lh. and the 3yfith 
at .Sheppard becan)e the S2d, In addition, the 394ih 
Military Training Group at Lackland became the 37th 
Military Training Group, and at Sheppard the 39ftth 
Medical Training Ciroup became the S2d Medical 
Training Group and the H2d Field 1 raining Group. 



Medical Centers 

The status of AETC's two largest medical facilities 
also changed on 1 July 1993. The command 
redesignated Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center at 
Lackland as the 39th Medical Wing, though the 
facility continued to be called Wilford Hall Medical 
Center, and replaced the Keesler Medical Center with 
the 81st Medical Group. 

Crew Training Reassignments 

Smce .WilC picked up a niajor portion iif the crew 
training mission on 1 July 1993. HQ USAF 
reassigned the wings that had previously conducted 
the training to AETC. AETC gained the 5Sth Fighter 
Wing. Luke AFB. Arizona, and the 325th Fighter 
Wing. Tyndall AFB. Florida, from Air Combat 
Cominand. Also. AETC gained the 97th Air 
Mobility Wing. Altus AFB. Oklahoma, and the 342d 
Crew Training Wing. Kirtland AFB. New Mexico, 
from Air Mobility Command. 

.Aircrc\>s also trained for various special 
operations at Kirtland in the MC-I30H Combat 
Talon II aircraft. 

Space and IVIissile Training 

Another Year of Training initiati\'e implemented on 
I July 1993 was to combine space and missile 
training. Previously the 43L3th Combat Crew 
Training .Si|uadron. an ACC unit, had prosided 

iy:hter Winji at Luke .\FB. .\rizona, 
•crew training for the F-16 air-to- 

missile training at Vandenberg AFB, California, and 
ATC's 319th Space Training Squadron had conducted 
undergraduate space training at Lowry AFB. 
Colorado. Both of those units inactivated, and AETC 
activated the 392d Space and Missile Training 
Squadron at Vandenberg. assigning it to the 17th 
Training Wing to perform both missions. 

Survival School Redesignated 

In converting the tlying training wings and training 
centers to the objective wing structure. ATC also 
looked at the 3636th Combat Crew Training Wing 
(Survival) and determined it should be a group. 
Accordingly, on 29 January 1993, the command 
redesignated the 3636th as the 336th Crew Training 
Group. The redesignation was pail of a large Air 
Staff initiative to redesignate four digit units to three 
and to preserve distinguished unit designations. At 
the same time, the command changed the 
designations of the group's subordinate squadrons. 
The 3612th, 3613th, and 3614th Combat Crew 
Training Squadrons became the 22d, 17th, and 66th 
Crew Training Squadrons, respectively. 

Air National Guard Units 

Effective I July 1993, Air Education and Training 
Command was designated the gaining command for 
three Air National Guard units with training 
missions. They were the 114th Fighter Squadron, 
Kingsley Field, Oregon; the I62d Fighter Group, 
Tucson International Airport, Arizona; and the 1 84th 
Fighter Group, McConnell AFB, Kansas. 

Officer Training School 

In anticipation of its move on I October 1993 from 
Lackland Annex to Maxwell AFB. Alabama. AETC 
reassigned the 301st Officer Training Squadron from 
the 394th Military Training Group at Lackland to Air 
University. The 301 st Officer Training Squadron 
graduated its last class at Medina Annex on 
22 September 1993. On I October 1993. AETC 
redesignated the 301st Officer Training Squadron as 
the Officer Training School. 

College for Professional Military Education 

To consolidate all USAF enlisted professional 
military education under a single manager. Air 
Education and Training Command activated the 
College for Enlisted Professional Military Education 
(CEPME) as an Air University subordinate unit on 
15 December 1993. with the Air Force Senior NCO 
Academy and stateside NCO academies, which had 
belonged to the major commands, as the college's 
subordinate organizations. 

Other Changes at Air University 

Three Air Uni\ersity subordwiaic organizations were 
redesisnaled. Effective 1 October 1443, the Air Force 



I lit' 542(1 (reu I riiiniii;^ ^^il^"^; ;'• 
Kii'tland AIH. New Mr\ii-((, iisi'<l 
the .MH-6(I iu'licopti'i' to train crews 
in the Pa\e Ha^^k mission— coml)at 
search and rescue and the 
inrillration/extlltration <it' special 
operations forces. 

Quality Center became the Air Fi)rce Quality 
Institute: the name of the Air University Center for 
Aerospace Doctrine. Research, and Education 
changed to College of Aerospace Doctrine. Research. 
and Education: and the Ira C. Eaker Center for 
Professional De\elopment became the Ira C. Eaker 
College for Professional De\elopnient. 

Deputy Chiefs of Staff Become Directors 

In accordance with guidance from ihc Air Staff. Air 
Training Command dropped the use of the title Chief 
of Staff on 1 February 1993 and refen-ed to the 
indi\idual holding that position as the Director of 
Executive Services. At the same time, the command 
also discontinued use of the title Deputy Chief of 
Staff for those heading major staff agencies and 
referred to them as Directors. The changes in 
terminology had a trickle-down effect: DCSs became 
directorates, directorates became di\ isions. and so on 
down the line. 

Operational Support Airlift 

Htfective L^ April 199.^ ATC activated the 332d 
Airlift Flight and assigned it to Randolph's 12th 
Operations Ciroup. The activation of the 332d 
marked the transfer of five C-21A aircraft and 
operational support airlift responsibilities from Air 
Mobility Command to Air Training Command. 

Activation of Flying Training Squadrons 

To accommodate the navigator training mission at 
Randolph, A'I'C activated the .'562d and 563d Flying 
Training Squadrons on 14 May. On that same date, 
the command also activaleil the 99th Flying Training 
Squadron at Randolph to tram instructor pilots for the 

Flight Screening Squadron 

As the 12th Flying Training Wing added new Hying 
training squadrons to handle the T-IA and 
specialized unilcigraduate navigator training 
missions, ATC decided to redesignate the 1st Flight 
Screening Squadron as the 1st Flying Training 
Squadron. The name change took place on 28 Ma\ 

1993: the squadron remained assigned lo the 12th 
Operations Group. Also assigned to the 12th 
Operations Group was the 551th F-lying Training 
Squadron, the unit at the Air Force Academy that 
conducted flight screening and which was reassigned 
to .AETC on 1 .lul\ . 

Inter-American Air Forces Academy 

In August 1^^)2 Iknricane .Antlrcvv hn the Florida 
coast south of Miami and w iped out Homestead .AFB. 
Following the hurricane, the Air f-orce temporarily 
relocated the Inter-American Air Forces Academy 
from Homestead to Lackland. Subsequently, the Air 
Force decided to make that arrangement permanent 
and, on 2 June 1993, the academy was relie\ed from 
assignment to Air Combat Command and assigned to 
Air Training Command. The unit was ihcn further 
assigned to Lackland Training Center. 

Social Actions Relocated 

On i Noxcmbci \'N}. WW wings acted on HQ 
LiSAF's directions to move the social actions 
function from the mission support squadron to the 
wing commander's stalT. At the same time, the 
responsibility for equal opportunity and treatment 
inquiries went to the wing Inspector General, but 
counseling and complaint reviews remained in the 
social actions office. 


Chanute Inactivated 

Chanute AFB. Illinois, was one of the casualties of 
the first round of base closure. On 30 September 
1993. AETC inactivated the Chanute Technical 
Training Center, and the base closed the following 
day. Aerospace ground equipment, fuels, as well as 
jet and turboprop engine maintenance training moved 
lo Sheppard AFB. Fire protection moved to 
Cioodfellow .AFB. weather training moved to Keesler 
AFB. vehicle maintenance moved to [,ackland AFB. 
metals training moved lo Aberdeen Proving Ground, 
and Nondcsiruciive Inspeciio; moved to NAS 

2 85 


Shown is the flight crew of a T-43 preparing to 
depart Mather for the last time. 

Mather Inactivated 

Mather AFB, California, was another casualty of the 
first round of base closure. On 30 September 1993. 
AETC inactivated the 323d Flying Training Wing, 
and the base closed on 1 October 1993. 

Williams Inactivated 

The second round of base closure tapped Williams 
AFB, Arizona, for shutdown. AETC inactivated the 
host unit, the 82d Flying Training Wing, on 3 1 March 
1993. leaving the now independent 82d Operations 
Group to close the base. The command inactivated 
the operations group on 30 September 1993. and 

Williams AFB closed on 1 October 1993. 



Crew Training 

When AETC took on the crew training mission on 1 
July, it also picked up a sizeable number of fighters, 
tankers, transports, and helicopters from ACC and 
AMC. These aircraft were called "grey jets," which 
referred to the grey paint schemes used on 
operational aircraft versus the traditional white paint 
scheme used on undergraduate pilot training aircraft. 
Overall, the command gained 287 aircraft 109 F-15s, 
101 F-16s, 58 tanker-transport aircraft, and 19 
helicopters. At Tyndall AETC picked up 78 F-15s 
(A through D models) to conduct air-to-air training. 
At Luke the command inherited 101 F-16s and 31 
F-15E Strike Eagles to provide air-to-ground training. 
At Altus it gained 7 C-5As and 15 C-141Bs to train 
AMC aircrew members. Also, AETC took over 6 
KC-135A/Q and 21 KC-135R tankers at Castle AFB, 
California, to conduct air-to-air refueling training. 
And, the command gained a variety of special 
operations aircraft at Kirtland including five 
HC-130P and four MC-130H aircraft, as well as six 
UH-IN. four MH-60G. five MH-53J. two CH-53A, 
and two NCH-53A helicopters. 

A coptru-i simulator instructor monitors the performance of a prospective instructor pilot in the new 
"I'-IA simulatoi .t Randolph MB. 



At IMidall AKB, Florida, a pilot checks out in the l'-15l) air Nupcriorit\ n<ihlcr. 

First SUPT Class 

The 64th Flyint: Training Wing at Reese AFB 
graduated the Air Force's first SUPT class on 2^ July 
1993. These were the first students to select cither tiie 
bomber-fighter track or airlift-tanker track based on 
their standings when they completed T-37 training. 

Fighter Training Moved from Holloman AFB 

On 10. September \'-N2. HQ ISAf announced that 
Introduction to Fighter Fundamentals training would 
move from Holloman AFB. New Mexico, to ATC"s 
SUPT bases. A subsequent decision moved the 
training to only three bases: Columbus. Sheppard. 
and Randolph AFBs. Columbus conducted its first 
regular class on 20 September. Randolph on 
5 November 1993. and Sheppard in Januar\ 1994. 

Joint Specialized Undergraduate Pilot 

Bcgmnmg on S September 1993. the first six T-44A 
naval instructor pilots (one from ihe Marine Corps, 
one from the Coast Ciuard. and fiiur from the U.S. 
Navy) reported to the 64th Flying Training Wing as 
T-37 instructor pilots, adding the "joint" to JSUPT. 
Three instructor pilots from Reese joined VT-31 at 
NAS Corpus Christi to serve as T-44A instructors in 

T-1A Pilot Instructor Training 

On IS August 1993. with six T-IA aircraft on base, 
the 12 FTW began its first T-IA Instructor Transition 
Course at Randolph AFB. The first standard T-IA 
PIT class was scheduled to begin on \5 March 1994. 

F-15E Training 

On l.'S November 1993. the Air Force announced its 
decision to reassign the F-l.SF operations training 
program, beginning in FY95, from AETC at Luke 
AFB to ACC at Seymour Johnson AFB. in order to 
accommodate additional F-I6 training at Luke. 

The 97th .\ir Mohilily NN in>^ pro\i(li(l Irainiii'^ tor 
C-5 (top) and (-141 (niiddlel aircrews at the 
schoolhouse at Alius Al it. Oklahoma. Ihe «in^"s 
398th Operations (/roup al ( aslle MB, 
( alilornia. conducted aerial reluelin^ trainin^ lor 
KC-1 35 (bottom) crc«s. 

Navigator Training 

Speciali/ed Undergraduate Navigator Training 
moved from Mather AFB and began at Ranilolph 
AFB on 20 April 1993. On 10 August 1993. the first 
students, all ANG or foreign officers, entered the first 
SUNT class al Randolph AFB. earning their wings in 



late January 1994. However, the first active duty Air 
Force students did not graduate until the following 

Introduction to Bomber Fundamentals 

I'hc firs! SUPT class with graduates entering 
Introduction to Bomber Fundamentals (IBF) began 
training at Reese AFB in December 199.^. The course 
was designed to provide bomber pilots with class- 
room and simulator training in crew coordination, 
crew concept, and low-level flying procedures. 
Navigators and electronic warfare officers also 
attended the course. 

\ pararcscuc student, equipped \>ith parachute 
and survi\al 5»ear, trains cm a han<iin<; harness for 
an upciiminn parachute drop at the Pararescue 
Continuation I raining; School, kirtland .AFB, 
New Mexico. 


Biennial Review of BMT 

1 "'H Training Wing hosted the 16th Basic 

M; aining Biennial Review in Septeinber 

19' ew recommended that recruiting, basic 

mili and technical training be integrated 

into . '-S that would use a buildin>; block 

approach to bring a new member from the recruiter to 
his or her first active duty assignment. 

Recruiter Assistance Program 

Starting in August 1993. recent BMT graduates who 
went home on leave could work with local recruiters 
on a TDY status. The program generated leads by 
allowing potential recruits to speak directly with their 
peers who had recently become members of the Air 


Mission Ready Technician 

In early June 1993, General Viccellio told the Air 
Staff Director of Logistics and the ACC and AMC 
commanders that he would test a Mission Ready 
Training concept, which would produce a mission- 
ready technical training graduate, starting with the 
C-I4I apprentice crew chief course. The 82d 
Training Wing would conduct the course, supported 
by the 97th Air Mobility Wing at Altus AFB. 

Pararescue and Combat Control Training 

As part (if the \ear of Training initiati\e. Air 
Mobility Command passed responsibility for 
pararescue (PJ) and combat control (CCT) training to 
AETC. The command chose to align the training 
Luider Nineteenth Air Force, which inanaged flying 
training, though Second Air Force, the command's 
technical training component, ran the training 
pipeline and had responsibility for the conduct of the 
joint PJ/CCT indoctrination course, which the 37th 
Training Wing conducted. The career fields required 
lengthy specialized training, and few candidates 
completed the physically demanding programs. The 
career fields were chronically undermanned, 
therefore, and resolving this issue would be a 
persistent challenge over the next few years. 

Space and Missile Training 

.After the 392d Space and Missile Training Squadron 
stood up at Vandenberg. AETC began to consolidate 
space and missile training, including operations and 
maintenance. The biggest challenge was to combine 
undergraduate missile and undergraduate space 
training. The purpose of the new undergraduate space 
and missile training (USMT) was to produce a 
graduate who could fill any Job in the career field. 


Distance Learning 

The Air Force Institute of Technology broadcast its 
first distance learning course in November 1993 after 
the Air Force acquisition community levied a large 
training requirement for all personnel working in 
acquisition-coded positions. 



The reorganization of AETC continued, as the conuiiand adopted the concept of the objecli\e \>in}; at 
headquarters AETC and Air L'niversity. Because the eoiuniand had heeonie responsihie for cre>\ training, 
several new wings stood up or transferred into the command. These wings would conduct Special Operations. 
F-16. Space and Missile, and Airlift training. At the same time, the first Specialized I ndergraduale Pilot 
Training (SI PT) and .Joint Sl'PT courses commenced. The first round of the Base Realignment and Closure 
Commission concluded for AETC as Lowry AFB joined Chanute. Mather, and Williams Al- Bs, which had 
closed the pre\ ious year. 


(as ol l)ci.L-nibcr I'-^Mi 




Alabania-Maxwell; Ari/ona--i.Likc; Florida--T\rKlall: Mississippi- 
Columbus and Kcesler; ()klahonia--Altiis arui Vaiuc: Texas— 
Goodfellow. Lackland. LaLiyhlln. Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard 

58.642 (M.ySO otTicers: 34.369 enlisted: 14.243 en iliansi 

1.561 (AT-38. C-5. C-12. C-21. C-141. F-15. F-16. HC-I.30P. KC-!35, 
MC-130H. MH-53J. MH-60G, T-1, T-3, T-37, T-38, T-41, T-43, 
TH-53A. L'H-IN) 


4 numbered air force and eqiii\ alcnt miils: 

AIR UNIVERSITY. Maxwell AFB AL: (including 

15 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Comniaiid and SlalT College. Maxwell AF-B 


Air Force liistiiuie of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Qualily Institute. Maxuell AFB AL 
Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, 

Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Library. Maxuell AFB AL 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College ot Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 

Education. Maxwell AFB .AL 

College lor Fnlisted Protessional Military 

Education. Maxwell .AFB AL 

Community College ol the Air Force, Maxwell 


Extension Course Insiitule, Maxwell AFB AL 
Ira C". Faker College tor Professional 

Development. Maxwell AFB .AL 

Officer Training School, Maxwell AFB AL 
Squadron Officer School, Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Ci\il Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB AL 


(includiiig 4 wings. 1 independent group, .uid I 
indepeiulent squadron) 

17ih Training Wing. Goodfellow AFB TX 
37th rrammg Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing. Keesler ,AIB MS 
82d Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
381st Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 
6()2d Training Support Sq. F.dwards AFB CA 

(including 10 wings. I independent group, and I 
independent squadron) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
I4lh Fhing Training Wing. Columbus AF-B MS 
47th Flying Training Wing. I.aughlm Al B I \ 
56th Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing. Kirtland Al B NM 
64lh Flying Training Wing. Reese AF'B TX 
71st Flying Training Wing, Vance .MB OK 
8()th Flying Training Wing, Sheppaid .MB IX 
y7th Air .Vlobility Wing, Alius AFB OK 
325th Fighter Wing, Tyndall AFB F'F. 
336th Crew Iraining Group, laiichild AFB \\ A 
619lh Training Support Sq, Randolph AFB TX 




Randolph AFB TX: (including 4 groups) 

360th Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group, Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group, Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing, Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security 
Randolph AFB TX 

Assistance Squadron, 


General Henry Viccellio, Jr., continued as the 
AETC commander, and Lt Gen Eugene E. Habiger 
remained vice commander. 


Changes to the Objective Wing 

On 1 January 1994. the Air Staff replaced the Morale, 
Welfare, Recreation, and Services designation with 
Services. AETC redesignated its units as services 
squadrons on the same day. In another change 
implemented Air Force-wide on I March 1994. 
AETC replaced its civil engineering designations 
with a new term, civil engineer. HQ USAF added a 
fourth organization to the original three-group, 
objecti\e wing template as the medical group joined 
the existing operations, logistics, and support groups. 
Between I July and 30 September 1994, the Air 
Force began replacing its hospitals and clinics with 
the objective medical groups. Of AETC's various 
units, only the 37th Training Wing, 58th Special 
Operations Wing, and the 80th Flying Training Wing, 
along with the 336th and 381st Training Groups, did 
not establish objecti\e medical groups: the 37th 
because Lackland was also home to the 59th Medical 
Wing (Wilford Hall) and the other units because they 
were tenants who received their medical support from 
their host organizations. In November 1992, the 
CSAF added a plans office to the objective wing: but 
AETC chose to delay establishing a wing plans office 
until standup of the merged command. It was not 
until I July 1994 that AETC's wings moved their 
logistics plans functions out of the logistics or 
support groups into the plans offices, finalizing the 
new organizations. 

2d Lts John .loyce (lisht) and Craig Parker (left) 
perform an inspection in the Minuteman Rapid 
Execution and Combat Targeting (REACT) B 
"Deuce" Missile Procedures Trainer. 

Space and Missile Training 

On I April 1994. AETC activated the 381st Training 
Group (Provisional) at Vandenberg AFB. California. 
Still in existence but separate from the provisional 
group were the 392d Space and Missile Training 
Squadron and its detachment at Lowry. On 1 October 
1994. AETC inactivated the temporary organization 
and activated the 381st Training Group, with four 
training squadrons, including the newly redesignated 
392d Training Squadron. 

338th Training Support Group 

On 18 February 1994, AETC inactivated the 338th 
Training Support Group, redistributing its missions to 
other organizations. This was a move away from 
using a group to oversee non-management head- 
quarters functions. 

602d Training Support Squadron 

On 23 March 19^)4. AETC reassigned (he 602d 
Training Support Squadron, located at Edwards AFB, 
California, from the 982d Training Group (82d 
Training Wing) to Second Air Force. 

58th Special Operations Wing 

On 1 April 1994. HQ USAF redesignated the 58th 
Fighter Wing at Luke AFB. Arizona, as the 58th 
Special Operations Wing and. on paper, moved the 
unit to Kirtland AFB. New Mexico. There it replaced 
the 542d Crew Traininc Wina. which AETC 



inactivated the same da\. Peisniinel and resources (if 
the 542d were used to stand up the 58tli Special 
Operations Wing. 

56th Fighter Wing 

On 1 Aprd IM94. HQ Air Force transferred its 56th 
Fighter Wing designation from MacDiil AFB. 
Floinda. to Luke AFB. When the 58th Special 
Operations Wing moved to Kirthuid. it left most of its 
personnel and equipment at Luke, which HQ .AETC 
used to stand up the 56th Fighter Wing. 

336th Training Group 

An()ther change occurred on I .^pril 1Q94 when HQ 
Air Force redesignated the .^.^6tii Crevs Training 
Group at Fairchild AFB. Washington, as the .i36th 
Training Group 

619th Training Support Squadron 

On 1 April 1994. AHIC redesignated 419ih 
Operations Training Squadron as the 619th Training 
Support Squadron. 

Operational Support Airlift Training 

One of the initiatives of the Year of Training was to 
consolidate and relocate the Operatitinal Support 

Isl Lt .kannie ll\nn \mis first in her 
I ndtruradiiiile I'ilol I raiiiint; class in 1992 and 
chose to n> I -15s. IJ\ Ihi end of 2(1(12. she had 
logged over 2.0(10 hours in the F-15E, including 200 
hours In Operation Allied I (irce. 

.Airlift schoolhouses for the C-12F and C-2IA from 
Scott AFB, Illinois, and C-12C/D from Andrews 
AFB, Maryland. After looking at various locations, 
the Air Force decided to locale both programs at 
Keesler AFBon 1 .hiK 1994. 

Maxwell Air Base Wing Designation 

On I October 1994, AETC inactivated the 502d Air 
Base Wing, the host unit at Maxwell AFB. and 
replaced it with the 42d Air Base Wing. This was part 
of the Air Force's effort to retain on acti\e status 
those wings with the most illustrious histories. 

AETC Band 

Oil I Ocii.ber 1994. HQ I'SAI- redesignated the 
AETC Band as the AETC Band of the West. 


Lowry Inactivated 

lan\r\ .MB closed on 1 October 1994. Loury"s 
small missile maintenance. Undergraduate Space 
Training, and Enlisted Space Operations Training 
moved to Vandenberg. Other courses niosed elsew here. 



The March Toward SUPT 

Student pilots al the 47th ll>ing I'raining Wing made 
their first SUPT track selections on 18 May 1994. 
After recei\ing its first T-l.A on 19 November 1993, 
the tirst student sortie at Laughlin -AFB ni the new 
trainer occurred on 6 June 1994. Vance AFB received 
its First T-IA on 8 December 1994. and its firsi SUPT 
class entered training the following April. 

Joint SUPT 

The fust t\M) Navy students arrived at Reese ,\IB in 
September 1994 for joint specialized undergraduate 
pilot training. 

Enhanced Flight Screening 

Slingsb) ,\\Kitioii 1, muled delivered the first two 
T-3A Firefly aircraft on 4 February 1994 to Hondo 
Field, Texas, for the enhanced tlight screening 
program. On 14 March 1994. five students in 
Class 94-1 1 became the first to begin llight screening 
with the T-3A. 

Women in Combat Flying Training 

isl Li Jeaiinie M. I lynn became ihe lirst tcniale to 
complete training in the F-I5E Strike Eagle at Luke 
AFB, Arizona. After earning a master's degree in 
aerospace engineering from Stanford University, she 




The USAF did not create a true flight screening 
program until the Korean War. Before World War II. 
the Army Air Corps" stringent qualification require- 
ments naturally screened candidates for the relatively 
small number of pilots needed. During World War II, 
the Army Air Forces needed men to fill 100,000 
aircrew positions, and thousands of candidates went 
through training. Qualification requirements relaxed 
initially before becoming more rigiirous as the 
urgency for pilot production lessened during the 
course of the war. The Korean War increased the 
demand for more pilots, but the tight defense budget 
meant that the Air Force could no longer rely on a 
high washout rate to screen pilot candidates. 
Consequently, the USAF adopted the Revitalized 
Pilot Training Program in November 1952. 

The introduction of the all-Jet inventory of trainer 
aircraft in 19.58 called into question the usefulness of 
a light aircraft flight screening program, which did 
not offer any experience in a high-performance 
trainer. The program ended in 1960. only to be 
revived when the war in Southeast Asia again 
increased the demand for pilots. In 1965. contractors 
near the Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) bases 
offered student pilots 30 hours of training in the 
Cessna 172F. which the USAF designated the T-41 A. 
Later that year, ATC officials reported that the T-41 
was proving to be a good screening device to 
eliminate students who lacked the aptitude or 
motivation to fly. The Air Force Academy followed 
ATC by formalizing the Pilot Indoctrination Program 
(PIP) in 1968. Operational control of the Academy's 
flight screening mission switched several times 
between the Academy and ATC. 

As ATC planned to implement Specialized Under- 
graduate Pilot Training, Lt Gen Robert Oaks directed a 

review of all flying training programs. The outcome 
was a decision to adopt an acrobatic flight screener to 
better screen candidates with a goal of further 
reducing UPT attrition. Both AETC and the Academy 
adopted the Enhanced Flight Screening program with 
the mid-1990s arrival of the new Slingsby T-3A. 
Training started at Hondo. Texas, for ROTC and OTS 
students, and at the Academy for cadets. Almost 
immediately, the command experienced problems 
with the T-3, and ultimately cancelled the program in 
1998 following the loss of three aircrews at the 

After the cancellation of EFS, attrition rates in 
SUPT predictably rose. For pilots without prior flying 
experience, the washout rate doubled to 15.6 percent. 
In response. AETC and the Air Force Academy 
implemented the Introductory Flight Training (IFT) 
program in 1998. Through IFT. students earned a 
private pilot's license, which AETC had adopted as a 
prerequisite for UPT. Attrition rates improved in 
SUPT to 8.8 percent under the new program. 

Headquarters AETC began planning in 2002 to 
implement a flight screening program, which would 
be called Introductory Flight Screening (IFS). The 
Academy's version would be called Academy Flight 
Screening (AFS). Rather than requiring a private 
pilot's license, IFS would follow procedures similar 
to SUPT and would require a check ride to pass. 
Instructor pilots would still be mainly contractors, but 
training would be offered at a single location and the 
syllabus standardized. Headquarters AETC expected 
that under the new program students would solo after 
about 1 5 hours and fly their check ride at around 23 to 
28 hours. Despite setbacks, the flight screening 
program had pro\en its value to the command by 
reducina attrition in SUPT. 

graduated first in her UPT class at Laughlin AFB in 
December 1992, and chose the F-15 alter Chief of 
Staff General Merrill McPeak opened the door for 
women to fly combat aircraft. 

Joint Helicopter Training 

In 1992 the Air Staff decided that helicopter pilot 
training should become an SUPT track, which meant 
that prospective Air Force helicopter pilots would go 
through fixed-wing (T-37 and later JPATS) training, 
make their track selection, and go on to Fort Rucker. 
Alabama, for rotary-wing training. The Army agreed, 
offering to train 24 students (up from 10 a year from 

FY92-94) in FY94 and 50 in FY95. In preparation, 
AETC activated the 23rd Flying Training Flight at 
Fort Rucker on 15 January 1994, assigning it to the 
Air Force's helicopter schoolhouse. the 542d Crew 
Training Wing at Kirtland AFB. New Mexico. On 
2 November 1994. the first Air Force students to start 
the new helicopter training plan entered training at 
Fort Rucker in SUPT Helicopter Class 95-01. 

KC-135 Training 

The 1990 BR.AC Commission directed the closure of 
Castle AFB. California, by September 1995 and the 
minement of the KC-135 combat crew training 



school to Faircliild AFB. Washington. The BRAC in 
1993 redirected KC-135 training to Altus AFB. On 
20 January 1994. AETC acti\atcd the 97th Training 
Squadron at Altus to conduct the combat I'light 
instructor course. Academic and simulator training 
continued at Castle, while the first class stalled living 
at Altus on 21 January 1994 with three temporary 
duty KC-i35 aircraft from the California base. On 
9 November 1994. AETC activated the 5.5th Air 
Refueling Squadron at Altus. This new unit assumed 
responsibility for initial KC-135 training. 

C-17 Training 

While .AETC and .MVIC were working out a 
memorandum of agreement for support and operation 
of C-17 formal aircrew training, the first kmv 
students— four loadmasters from Charleston .AFB. 
South Carolina entered C-17 simulator and academic 
training at .Altus AFB. Oklahoma, on 22 June 1994. 

Conversion to JP-8 

HQ USAF had decided in 1991 to convert from JP-4 
to JP-8 jet fuel, primarily to address safety and 
environmental issues. The 58th Fighter Wing at Luke 
AFB converted in 1993. and AETC installed 
equipment to convert 479 T-37 aircraft to JP-8 
between February and May 1994. 

re\iew. DOD decided to move Air Force water 
sur\ i\al training to NAS Pensacola and consolidate it 
with the Na\y program. Training ended at Tyndall in 
May 1994. The consolidated program began on 28 
June 1994 for Navy students and on 15 July 1994 for 
Air Force students. 


We Are All Recruiters (WEAR) 
In October 1994. Gen Viccellio challenged each wing 
to send an active duty spokesman to every high 
school in its local geographical area and to work 
more closcls with their local area recruiters. 

The End of Direct Duty Assignments 

When Auiiian Basic Christuic Ingram graduated 
from basic military training at Lackland .AFB on 
17 March 1994, she became the last active duty basic 
trainee to go directly from basic training to her first 
duty assignment without going through a technical 
training program. New policy now required all BMT 
graduates to attend in-residence technical training to 
earn their 3-le\el certitlcation before reporting to 
their fiist thus assignments. 



C-141 Mission Ready Technician Program 

Shcp]iari.l gi'adiiaicd Us tnsi cLiss ol C'-I4I crew 
chiefs under the mission ready technician program on 
29 July 1994. Students then moved on to .Altus .'\FB 
for hands-on training where they graduated t)n 
16 August. This was the first AETC-developed 
training program that produced mission ready 
technicians upon graduation. 

Last Class at Lowry AFB 

Twenty-nine students completed the Apprentice 
Tele\ision Systems Specialist course on 29 April 
1994, the last class to graduate from Lowry Trainmg 
Center before the base closed on 1 October 1994. 

Undergraduate Space and Missile Training 

On 14 December 1994. the first class graduated from 
Vandenberg's new consolidated training course for 
all space and missile operations and maintenance 

Water Survival Training 

When Hurricane Andrew destroyed the facilities of 
the USAF Water Survival Scht)ol at Homestead AFB. 
Florida, in August 1992. the Air Force temporarily 
relocated the school lo Tyndall .AFB. where classes in 
water sur\i\al training began on 2ft January 1993. 
After an Interservice Training Review Organization 

SAAS Degrees Awarded 

Congress granted the Air Universii\ commander 
authority to award a master's degree to graduates of 
the School of .Advanced ,'\irpower Studies. 

A stiidcnl at \ir I niMrsii\s SiIiimiI uI \ii\anii(l 
AirpoMcr Studies hits the Ixiuks. 

Non-Resident PME Requirements 

1 he L S.AI reduced the mavuiium lime students could 
take to complete the Air Coniinand and Staff College 
nonresideni course from 4 years to 18 months, and 
the Squadron (^fUcer School correspondence course 
from 3 vears lo 18 months 




One of AETC's key missions was to produce 
technical training graduates who were mission ready 
or as nearly mission ready as possible. The 
command increasingly moved away from lecture- 
based training towards more experiential learning 
and more student-focused learning. The Mission 
Ready Technician (MRT) and Mission Ready 
Airman (MRA) programs, developed in the mid- 
1990s, sought to prepare course graduates to become 
contributing members of their units on day one of 
their arrival. On the one hand, the MRT program 
concentrated on training that required formal task 
certification, typically aircraft maintenance. On the 
other hand, the MRA program dealt with career 
fields in which airmen had to demonstrate an 
aptitude or skill that was not precisely measurable, 
such as customer service, mission support, and 
administrative Air Force Specialty Codes. 

The military reduced the size of its active duty 
force at the end of the Cold War. The Air Force 
consequently had excess front line aircraft and 
equipment available for transfer to AETC for 
training purposes. The transfer of Luke, Tyndall, and 
Altus AFB to AETC gave the command bases that 
could be used for realistic operational training. If 
AETC could employ the new equipment and 
facilities to produce a task-certified or more mission 
ready apprentice, operational units could reduce the 
amount of on-the-job training provided to new 

In early June 199.^, General Henry Viccellio. Jr.. 
the ATC commander, told the Air Staff Director of 
Logistics and the Air Combat Command and Air 
Mobility Command commanders that he would test 
a Mission Ready Training concept with a C-141 
apprentice crew chief course. The 82d Training 
Wing would conduct the course, supported by the 
97th Air Mobility Wing at Altus AFB. The first C- 
141 MRT class graduated on 16 August 1994. Even 
before the test was complete, AETC planned 
additional courses, with the enthusiastic support of 
the MAJCOMs. The program. hcnvc\cr. faced 
several hurdles. 

Mission Ready Technician training required a 
great deal of funding for instructors and student 
man-years. Training was the command's mission, 
and General Viccellio was adamant that AETC 
would pay the bill. The command used a series of 
temporajy fixes to come up with the manpower nec- 

essary to implement the first MRT courses, but by fall 
1995, it was obvious that AETC could not fund more 
than 61 percent of the 2,649 authorizations necessary to 
implement all 74 desired courses. General Boles asked 
the other MAJCOMs for help, but they did not have the 
authorizations to give up. Command training managers 
also tried, unsuccessfully, to gain resources through the 
program objective memorandum (POM) process. 

The term "Mission Ready Airman" evolved to 
include both MRT and MRA programs. At the same 
time, the acronym "MRT" came to signify "Mission 
Readiness Training" in common usage instead of 
mission ready technician. In December 2001, 
responsibility for the program transferred from HQ 
Second Air Force to HQ AETC. In 2000. HQ AETC 
gave up its quest for the hundreds of manpower 
authorizations and the tens of millions of dollars 
needed to convert approximately 50 more 3-level- 
awarding courses to an MRA format. Instead, at the 
June 2000 CORONA, the Air Force leadership decided 
that the candidate courses should undergo their normal 
utilization and training workshop review and that the 
career field managers and the other MAJCOMs should 
program money to accommodate the requested caieer 
field changes. 

Overall, AETC's senior leadership was very pleased 
with the feedback it had gotten from the field. Funding 
problems had delayed the implementation of additional 
courses, but overall the program was successful in its 
goal of better preparing airman for their first duty 

A student in Tyndall's Mission Ready Technician 
program marshals out an F-15. 



The command reached an important milestone in the iip};rade ol aircralt tor undergraduate flying 
training with the announcement that Beech Aircraft ( orporation was selected to de\elop and delixer the 
Joint Primary Aircraft Training System, which comprised an aircraft later designated the I-6A lexan II 
along with associated simulators, equipment, courseware, and data management systems. The JPATS system 
would replace the \enerable T-37 and represented a joint \enture between the Air Force and Navy. Technical 
training continued to e\olve in the wake of the creation of AETC. as the drawdown in the field ! raining 
Program was put on hold. The Base Realignment and C losure commission announced the closure of Reese 
AFB and the realignment of Kelly AFB. as Congress and the Department of Defense sought to reduce the cost 
of maintaining unnecessary infrastructure. An increasingly challenging recruiting environment, created in 
part by a strong economy and the sense that military service in the wake of the post-Cold \\ ar drawdown 
provided fewer opportunities than previously, prompted the command to bolster recruiting programs. 


(as of December 1995) 



Alabama--Max\\ell: Ari/ona--Lukc; Fk)rida--Tyndall: Mississippi— 
Columbus and Keesler; Oklahoiiia-Alius and Vance: Texas— 
Goodtellow, I.aL'kland. I.aiiyhlln. Randolph. Reese, and Sheppard 


58.085 (9.998 officers: 34.558 enlisted; 1.^.529 civilians) 

1.536 (AT-38. C-5, C-12. C-2i. C-141. F-15. F-16. HC-13()P. KC-1.35. 
MC-130H, MH-53J. MH-6()G. T-l. T-3. T-37. T-38. T-43, TH-53A, 


4 numbered air force and cquisaleni units: 

AIR UNI\ERSITY. Maxwell AFB AL: (including 
15 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Command and .Staff College. Maxwell AFB 

Air Force Insiiiule of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Quality Institute. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air F-orcc Reserve Officer Training Corps. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Ciunter Annex, 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Library. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine. Research, and 
l-Alucation. Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Professional Military 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ir.i C. Eaker College for Professional 
Development, Maxwell AFB AL 

Officer Training School, Maxwell AI B AL 
Squadron Officer School. Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil An Patrol. Maxwell AlH AI 

(including 4 wings, 1 indepenileni group, and I 
independent squadron) 

17th Training Wing, Goodtellow AFB TX 
37th Training Wing, Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing. Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing, Sheppard AFB TX 
381st Training Group, Vandenberg AFB CA 
6()2d Training Support Squadron, Edwards AFB 

(including 10 wings. I independcnl group, and I 
independent squadron) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus AFB MS 



47th Flying Training Wing. Laughlin AFB TX 
56th Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing. Kirtland AFB NM 
64th Flying Training Wing, Reese AFB TX 
71st Flying Training Wing. Vance AFB OK 
80th Fi> ing Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air IVIobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
325th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Crew Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 
619th Training Support Squadron. Randolph AFB 


Randolph AFB TX; (including 4 groups) 

360th Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group. Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 

Air Force Security 
Randolph AFB TX 

Assistance Squadron. 


Billv J. Boles 

On 20 Juno 1995, General Billy J. Boles assumed 
command ot AETC from General Henry Viccellio. 
Jr.. who became the new Air Force Materiel 
Command commander. General Boles had replaced 
Lt Gen Fugene E. Habiger temporarily as vice 
commander on 23 April 1995. before he, in turn, was 

V. Garland Depart nient ol Defense Fire 
-• located at (ioodfell()\\ .\FB, I exas. 

replaced by Lt Gen John C. Griffith, formerly the 
Second Air Force commander. General Boles had 
been the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel at 
Headquarters Air Force before coming to AETC. 
General Habiger left AETC for that same Air Staff 


Extension Course Institute 

On 15 February 1995, AETC inactivated the 
Extension Course Institute, and Air University 
transfeiTed its mission to the College of Aerospace 
Doctrine. Research, and Education. 

inspector General 

In the spring of 1995. HQ USAF decided the wings 
needed a separate Inspector General function rather 
than using the wing vice commanders to fulfill this 
role. By the end of the year. 13 wings within AETC, 
as well as the Air Force Recruiting Service, had 
established dedicated Inspector General functions. 


In 19^4. the Air Staff shortened the title of its 
financial management and comptroller organization 
to the older and simpler title of comptroller. AETC 
made the title change on 13 December 1994. 
However, it wasn't until February 1995 that the Air 
Force Chief of Staff agreed to establish numbered 
comptroller flights or squadrons, depending on the 
number of authorizations on the unit manning 
document. In May 1995. AETC activated four 
comptroller squadrons and six flights, ending with 
the stand up of the squadron at the 12th Flying 
Training Wing in January 1996. 

Director of Staff 

In March 1995. the Air Force Chief of Staff approved 
establishing a Director of Staff position at each of the 
major command headquarters. HQ AETC alread\ had 
a Director of Executive Services, which the com- 
mander chose to rename as the Director ol Stall, 
effective I April 1995. 


Joint Pilot Training 

On 15 April 19^3. Secretary of Defense Les Aspin 
announced his decision that all ser\ices would 
consolidate fixed-wing aircraft training, beginning 
w iih the .Air Force and Navy. The changes took years 
to miplement. and it was not until 27 January 1995 



AF.TC l)iicn> 

conducted F-I5E 
crc« lr:iiniii^ alter 
^aiiiinji l.ukc \FB 
in 1993. rrainin<> 
t'ctiiiiH'd III \( ( in 

that the Air Force graduated its lii si Joint Specialized 
Undergraduate Pilot Training class, which included 
two Na\ \ ot't'icers. at Reese AFB. 

Joint Navigator Training 

Immediately after the 19^3 decision to consolidate 
pilot training, the Air Force and Navy began to study 
the possibility of training their navigators in a 
common course. On 1 October 199.^. all .Air Force 
and Navy students entered na\ igator training at NA.S 
Pensacola and followed a common syllabus. 

F-15E Training 

The last (i|ieralional F-l.^E training class at Luke 
graduated on 2.^ February 1995. Less than a month 
later, on 21 March, the final F-15E departed for 
Seymour Johnson AFB. transferring the F-15E 
training program to Air Combat Command. 


On 22 June 1995. the Secretary of the .Mr Force 
announced the selection of Beech Aircraft 
Corporation to tlevelop and deliver the Joint Primary 
Aircraft Traimng System. The Air Force would 
receive .^72 ot the new trainers and the Navy 339. 


Fire Protection Training 

Cjoodlcllovv .'\FB dedicated its new. $44 million tire 
training complex on 19 January 1995. The facility 
housed all classrooms, instructor offices, and vehicle 
and trainer maintenance facilities, providing DOD 
with mission ready, nationally certified graduates. 
The 17th Training Wing graduated its first class of 
fire protection apprentices using the mission ready 
technician approach on 31 March 1995. 

FTD Drawdown on Hold 

On 2ft January 1995. at the request of the DoD 
Inspector Cieneial. AHTC put the field training 
detachment drawdt)vvn on hold. The command 

developed a new FTD regionalization concept to 
which the M.AJCOM comniamlers agreed. 

Air Base Ground Defense 

Lackland's Security Police .Academy conducted .\ir 
Base Ground Defense training at Camp Bullis from 
1966 to 1985. at which time the USAF and .Ariin 
agreed the latter service would conduct ground 
training jointly. The .Air I'orce regained the ABGD 
training mission after the ,Arm_\ retired the former 
school at Fort Dix. New Jersev. The first Air Force 
students started at Lackland/Cam|i Bullis in .August 
1995. and the final class completed their training at 
Fort Dix in October. 


Recruiter Manning 

Cieneial \ iccellio aulhorized SO additii>nal manpower 
slots and S2.5 million to pay for advertising in order 
to help APRS meet recruiting goals. Between July 
and December 1995. these additional recruiters filled 
critical \acancies in the areas of health professional 
recruiting aiul Officer Training School. 

Retirees as Recruiters 

APRS started an iniiiaine using retirees in October 
1995 to su|iplemeni active-duty recruiters. These 
"Retirees as Recruiters" volunteered in recruiting 
offices and assisted recruiters in getting the message 
out in their local communities. 

BMT Attrition 

in FY95 the rate of attrition of BMT recruits reached 
10 percent, up from an average of 7 percent from 
PYS5 to F\'92. Medical disqualifications accounted 
for 70 percent of those eliminaled. Physicians more 
quickly eliminated trainees with potentially chronic 
illnesses, such as asthma, which had been the 
principle medical cause for return from Operation 
Desert Stornt deploymenl. 




First Interservice CCAF Graduates 

On 18 April 1995. the Community College of the Air 
Force graduated its first Army. Navy, and Marine 
Corps students. In September, however. Congress 
restricted eligibility to Air Force members only. 
However, those students from other services who 
were currently enrolled in CCAF could complete 
their degree programs. 

Foreign Job Exchange 

On 1 July 1995. SMSgt Christopher Bryans departed 
the U.S. to serve as the first enlisted member in 
USAF history to participate in a formal job exchange 
with a foreign country. He served as an instructor at a 
German NCO schooi. CMSgt Peter Bothstede. from 
the German Air Force, performed similar duties at the 
Air Force Senior NCO Academy. 

TOPCA T Program 

In April 1995 AETC kicked off the TOPCAT 
Program to create a "below-the-zone" type of 
promotion system for the command's superstar 
instructors. Brig Gen Karen S. Rankin. AETC's 
Director of Technical Training, later decided to 
discontinue the program because the envisioned 
opportunities never materialized. 


BRAC Announcement 

The Realignment and Closure Commission 
announced its decision to close Reese AFB in 1997. 
It also recommended realigning the Kelly AFB 
runway and the portion of land west of the runway to 
adjoining Lackland AFB in 2001 . 


Several new AETC initiatives helped the Air Force 
to solve a critical shortage of pilots in the 1990s. The 
end of the Cold War precipitated a military draw- 
down, and the Air Force inactivated units so quickly 
that the reduced force structure could not absorb 
many new pilots. In 1995 AETC turned out the fewest 
number of new active duty pilots the command had 
graduated since 1947. Under such volatile conditions, 
it came as no surprise that Air Staff planners 
projected a reversal of the downward trend and called 
for an increase in annual production to 1. 1 00 pilots by 
FY02. Pilot retention problems exacerbated the 
projected training shortfall. The robust airline 
industry offered excellent employment opportunities, 
and their demand for new pilots was more than 
double the number reaching the end of their initial 
active duty service commitment each year. High 
operations tempos in support of contingency support 
operations degraded pilots' quality of life, persuading 
many pilots to leave for those jobs. For every three 
pilots who left, only two entered the force. The 
retention problem became so acute that in early FY98 
the Air Staff shortened the period of time to double 
pilot production by two years. 

The closure of Williams AFB in 199."^ and Reese 
AFB in 1997 limited AETC's capacity to increase 
pilot production easily, so the command focused on 
other initiatives. The command changed the emphasis 
of training from rigorous evaluation to tailoring 
instruction to meet student needs without lowering 
st?'r\dards, and attrition rates declined from a peak of 
37 e:i; in FY87 to 2.^ percent h\ F^'9(). Enhanced 

Flight Screening aimed at further reducing attrition. 
AETC also counted heavily on the Air Force Reserve 
Command (AFRC) and the Air National Guard 
(ANG) to complement its active duty instructor pilot 
force. Under the innovative Instructor Pilot Associate 
Program, nearly 500 Air Reserve Component 
instructor pilots served at six AETC pilot training 
bases. By the summer of 2001, Reserve associate 
squadrons were in place to support flying training. 

Because of SUPT. AETC no longer produced 
universally assignable pilots and therefore had to pay 
close attention to the requirements of fighter, 
transport, tanker, and helicopter units. As production 
increased and attrition fell, students not only faced 
delays while awaiting limited SUPT spaces, but also 
faced delays from one phase of training to the next. 
AETC reduced the numbers of entering students to 
better manage the pipeline. 

To improve retention, senior Air Force leadership 
reduced the number of rated positions at headquarters 
staffs, to free more pilots for flying assignments. The 
length of the initial active duty service commitment 
for pilots increased frt)iTi 8 to 10 years, and the Air 
Force increased retention bonuses. 

In just four years. Air Education and Training 
Command doubled the number of acti\e duty pilots it 
produced. From a baseline of 523 new pilots in FY96, 
the command increased production to 1 .078 graduates 
in FYOO. 



The second half of the decade \\as a time of {greater stabilii\ for the \ii force and for AETC. 
Modernization, recruiting, and retention replaced do\>nsi/in<; and reorjjani/alion as priniar\ concerns. Pilot 
production began to expand after F> 96. «liich sa>\ the smallest niimher of officers complete Indergraduate 
Pilot Training since 1947. The command continued updating Hung training programs and e<iuipiiient. 
Columbus AFB became the last wing to recei>e the f-l A .laxhawk. which marked the end of \l'.l( 's 
transition to Specialized I ndergraduate Pilot Fraining that began in 1992. I he Air force awarded three 
contracts to McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Corporation to upgrade r-38 avionics systems. 

Shown is a view of C -17 Loadmaster training at Vitus AFB. 


(as of December IW6) 




Alabama-Maxwell: Ari/ona-l.uke: Fiorida-Tyndall: 

Mississippi-Colunibus and Kceslcr: Oklahoma-Alius and 
Vance: Texas-Goodlellow. Lackland. I.aui;hlin. Randolph. 
Reese, and Sheppard 

."Sfi.SZS (9.1 12 officers: 32.997 enlisied; 14.719 civilians) 

I S69 (AT-3S. C-.S. CI 7. C-21. C-i3(). C-I4I. \--\5. F-l 6. KC- 
135. MC-I.V)H. MC-I3()P. MH-5.^J. HH-60G. T-1. T-3. T-37. T- 
3«.T-43.TH-.'i3A. UH-IN) 



College for Enlisted 

Professional Military Education. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the 
Air Force. Maxwell AFB AL 

Ira C. Eaker College for 
Professional Development. 

Maxwell AFB AL 

Officer Training School, 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Squadron Officer School, 
Maxwell AFB AL 

USAF Civil Air Patrol, 
Maxwell AFB AL 


Keesler AFB MS: (including 4 
wings, 1 independent group, and 
1 independent squadron) 

17th Training Wing, 

Goodfellow AFB TX 

37th Training Wing, Lackland 

81st Training Wing. Keesler 

82d Training Wing. Sheppard 

38 1 St Training Group. 
Vandenberg AFB CA 

602d Training Support 
Squadron. Edwards AFB CA 


_^__^^^^__^^_____^^____^^___^^^__^^__^ Randolph AFB TX; (including 
Two 97th Airlift Wing C-17s practice air-dropping cargo pallets at a lo wings. 1 independent group, 
training range near Altus AFB, Oklahoma. ami I independent squadron) 


4 numhcrcd air force and eqinvalent units: 

AIR UNIVERSITY, Maxwell AFB AL: (including 
15 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing, Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB 

Air Force InsiJiutc of Technology, Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Quality Institute, Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps, 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Senior NCO Acadenn, Ciunicr Annex. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Office of Academic Support 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
FHucation, Maxwell AFB AL 

12th Flying Training Wing, 

Randolph AFB TX 

14th Flying Training Wing, Columbus AFB MS 

47th Flying Training Wing, Laughlin AFB TX 

56th Fighter Wing, Luke AFB AZ 

58th Special Operations Wmg, Kirtland AFB NM 

64th Flying Training Wing, Reese AFB TX 

71st Flying Training Wing, Vance AFB OK 

XOth Flying Training Wing, Sheppard AFB TX 

97th Air Mobility Wing, Altus AFB OK 

325th Fighter Wing, Tyndall AFB FL 

336th Training Ciroup, Fairchild AFB WA 

619lh Training Support Squadron, Randolph AFB 



Randolph .AFB TX: (mcluduig 4 groups) 

36()lh Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367tli Recruiting Group. Robins AFB GA 



369th Recruiting Giiiup. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units; 

59th Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
An Force Security Assistance Stjuadron, 
Randolph AFB TX 

563rd Flying Training Squadron Inactivated 

As part c)l an Air iorcc and \a\s decision to 
consolidate some training. AETC inacii\ated the 563 
FTS at Randolph AFB on 3 June 1996. AETC 
transferred its electronic warfare officer training from 
Randolph to Corry Station. Florida, when the 
command mcned portions of the navigator training to 
NAS Pensacola. 


General Billy J. Boles continued as the AETC 
commander, and Lt Gen John C. Grilfith remained 
\ ice commander. 



Directorate of Communications and 

On 20 December 1995. the Secretary of the Air Force 
approsed the integration of command, control, 
communications, and computers with information 
management. Organizational changes within the 
command began in April 1996 when the 81st 
Training Wing combined its information 
management flight in the mission support squadron 
with the communications squadron. The merger 
command wide was completed early in 1997. 
Earlier. HQ AETC created its Directorate of Com- 
munications and Information on 29 August 1996. 


Air University Office of Academic Support 

On 1 October U^Ki. AI.IC actisalcd the Academic 
Support Office, which consolidated all of Air 
University's education support activities. This action 
realigned the Air University Library (which 
inactivated on the same date): the Education Services 
Division from the College of Aerospace Doctrine. 
Research, and Education; the Academic Instructor 
School; and the International Officer School. On 2 
December 1996. HQ AEI'C redesignated the office 
as the Air Lhiiversity Office of Academic Support. 

Pararescue and Combat Control Training 
General Viccellio approved moving the PJ/CCT 
school from Nineteenth Air Force lo Second Air 
Force. On 1 April 1996. both schools, along with the 
advanced weapons course at Nellis AFB. Nevada, 
were reassigned from the 58th Special Operations 
Wing to the 37th Training Wing's .342d Training 
Squadron at Lackland AFB. 

21st Figfiter Squadron Activated 

On 8 August 1996, the Air Force activated the 2 1st 
Fighter Squadre)n as a combined unit with the Taiwan 
Air Force at Luke .-XFB. The .Americans pnnided 
F-16 flight training and maintenance for the 

Quality and Management Innovation Fligtit 

In the kill ul 199.S. the An foicc Cliict ol Staff 
announced it was time for the Air Force to 
"operationali/e quality." To do this, he decided to 
integrate manpower and qualit) functions. On 
12 December 199(i. HQ USAF redesigned the AETC 
Management Engineering Flight as the .AETC 
Quality and Management lnno\ation Flight. The 
wings had the option of creating a Manpower and 
Quality Office. 

1-1 A .laxhawk assiunid In (he 
1 rainin" W In" at Coiunibus AIB. 

I4(h I ivlnu 


Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training 

The 14th ll>ing I raining Wing at Columbus AFB 
received its first T-IA Jayhawk on 25 Januar_\ 1996. 
the last SUPT wing to do so. This delivery marked 
the end of the transition lo SUPT that began in 1992. 

T-38 Avionics Upgrade Program 

On 31 July I99(i. ilic .\ir I orce awarded three 
contracts to McDonnell Douglas .Aerospace 



Coipt)raiii)n lor the $750 million. T-38 Avionics 
Upgrade Program. The upgrades included improved 
avionics systems, new aircrew training devices, and 
contractor logistics support. Crucial to the SUPT 
program, the upgrades would extend the service life 


Student Housing 

In February \W6. General Billy Boles outlined a 
.S-year. $123 million initiative to replace Korean 
War-era dormitories at Keesler AFB. The issue of 
dorms, both perinanent party and student, received so 
much attention Air Force-wide that the Air Staff 
developed a Dormitory Master Plan in August 1997. 
The new standard envisioned two people living in 
single rooms sharing a kitchen area and a bathroom. 
AETC prioritized student dorms at Keesler, 
Sheppard. and Lackland, which had been neglected in 
the past. 

This new student dormitory at Keesler AFB was 
hiiilt to the new standards adopted in the 
Dormitory Master Plan. 



Ihc Air Force Recruiting Service opened its new 
recruiting site at www.airl' on the World 
Wide Web in February 1996. From the beginning. 
AFRS got the reaction to the web page they wanted: 
in October 1996, for exainple, about 22,()()() people 
visited the site, producing about 1.200 leads for 
recruiters nation-wide. Numbers grew diamatically 
over time. 

Diamondback Ridge 

In /\- :ust 1996. the 737th Training Group at 
Lackl i ' XFB began a month-long test of a field 
trainir cise for basic trainees at "Diamondback 

Ridge. . uiiated bare base located on Medina 

Annex. The overnight exercise became fully 
operational on \5 November 1996. 


Squadron Officer School Opportunities 

On I January 1996. following on the heels of an 
expanded class in late 1995. the USAF enacted a 
policy providing active duty line officers a 100 
percent opportunity to attend Squadron Officer 
School (SOS) in residence. Between 15 July and 
10 August 1996. Air University conducted a 4- week 
SOS Total Force Prototype Course in order to 
increase the opportunity for Air Force Reserve and 
Air National Guard officers to complete this training. 

C onipany-grade officers solve a traininj; problem 
during Squadron Officer School, at Maxwell .\FB. 


Khobar Towers 

On 25 June 1996. a terrorist attack killed 19 airmen 
and wounded hundreds more at Khobar Tovsers at 
King Abul Aziz Air Base, Saudi Arabia. The Air 
Force responded, in part, by combing law 
enforcement and security training while increasing 
the trained personnel requirements for security 



In 1997 the Air Force celebrated its golden anniversary. Secretary of the Air Ictrce Dr Shelia li. Widnall 
said the ser\ice had tra>eled a great distance in the past 5(1 \ears. "from the grease board to computers, out 
of the atmosphere and into space." Ho\>e\er. she noted, "tlie most impressi\e story in the de\elopmenl ol the 
Air Force is the story of our people's willingness and eagerness to step up to change." Ihat change included a 
new strategic vision. "Global Engagement: A \ision for the 21 si C"enlur> Air Force." «hich led to the 
establishment of the Air and Space Basic Course at Maxwell AFB. In other matters, national attention 
focused on the issue of women's role in the military, and gender-integrated training came under scrutiny. The 
Air Force realigned all I'S-based theater airlift assets to Air .Mobilit> Command, which also assigned 
responsibilitx for C-130 training to AFTC. To carr\ out this task, the command gained the 3l4lh Aiilift \N ing 
at Little Rock AFB, Arkansas. Finall>. the deaths of 19 airmen in Khobar Towers bombing in Saudi Arabia 
spotlighted the continued instability in the Middle Fast and led t<i restructuring in the securil> police career 


(as 1)1 DcLL-nihci 1947) 




Alubama-Mawsell; Aikansas-Liulc RoL-k; Ari/oiia-l.ukc: i-londa-T\ndall; 
Mississippi-Columbus and Kecslcr; Oklahoma— Alius and Vance; icxas— 
Goodfeilovv. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph, and Sheppard 

5S.()66 (9.224 otficers; 33. S5.^ enlisted; I4.9,S7 civilians) 

1.344 (AT-38. C-3. C-17. C-21. C-1.30. C-141. F-15. F-16. KC-135. 
MC-I3()H. MC-I3()P. MH-.S3,I. HH-6()C>. T-1. T-3. T-37. T-3S. T-43. TH-.'>3A. 


4 numbered air force and equixalcnt miits: 

AIR UNI\'ERSIT^'. Maxwell AFB AL; (including 

14 major subordinalc units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air and Space Basic Couise School. Maxwell 

Air Command and Slalt CoIIcl-c. Maxwell AFB 

Air Foicc liistiiulc ol Tcchnolotiy. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Officer Accession antl Training 
Schools. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Gunter Annex. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Office of Academic Support 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Education, Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Professional Military 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ira C. Eaker College for Professional 
Development. Maxwell AFB .AL 

Squadron OlTicer School. NLixwell Al-'B AL 

USAF Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB AL 

(including 4 wings ami I inilcpcmlenl group) 

17lh Training Wing. Goodlellow AFB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
8 1st Training Wing. Kcesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
381st Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 


(including II wings anil I independent group) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus .'\1B .\1S 
47th Flying Training Wing. Laughlin AFB TX 
.S6lh Fighter Wing. Luke AFB A/ 



58th Special Operations Wing, Kirtland AFB NM 
64th Flying Training Wing. Reese AFB TX 
71st Flying Training Wing. Vance AFB OK 
80th Flying Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air Mobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
314th Airlift Wing 

325th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 


Randolph AFB TX: (including 4 groups) 


360th Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group. Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing, Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security Assistance Squadron. 
Randolph AFB TX 


Llovd W. Ne>vton 

On 17 March 1997. General Lloyd W. Newton 
replaced General Billy J. Boles as AETC 
commander. General Boles retired on 1 April. Just 
before assuming command. General Newton served 
as the Assistance Vice Chief of Staff at HQ US AF. Lt 
Gen John C. Griffith remained vice commander. 


Two New Directorates at HQ AETC 

On 1 January 1997. HQ AETC established iwo new 
directorates. For the first time since 1958. and only 
the second time in the command's hislor\. ihc 
command had a single manager in charge of both 
flying and technical training, the Directorate of 
Operations. Also, the headquarters consolidated 
plans, programs, and requirements under a single 
organization, the Directorate of Plans and Programs. 

,\n instructor pilot and civilian maintainer 
complete a preflight checklist. In addition to 
contract maintenance, .AETC used US.\F Reserve 
instructor pilots to augment its active-duty force. 

AETC Field Operating Agencies 

On 1 January 1997, the AETC Air Operations 
Squadron assumed tlying-related support functions 
like life support, weather, and air traffic control from 
the AETC Training Support Squadron (TRSS) at Hill 
AFB, Utah. On 1 April, the command moved the 
AETC TRSS. in name only, from Hill to Randolph to 
assume the mission of the 619th TRSS. which it 
inactivated on the same day. AETC also activated the 
367th TRSS at Sheppard AFB on 1 April and 
inactivated the detachments at Keesler AFB. 
Mississippi, and Lackland AFB. Texas. In addition, 
AETC inactivated the 602d Training Support 
Squadron at Edwards AFB, California, on I April 
and moN'ed its mission, equipment, and personnel into 
the AETC Studies and Analysis Flight, redesignating 
it as the AETC Studies and Analysis Squadron the 
same day. 

Systems Acquisition School 

Effective 18 February 1497, Air Force Materiel 
Command transferred its 7()th Training Squadron at 
Brooks AFB, Texas, to the Air Force Institute of 
Technology. HQ USAF redesignated the squadron as 
the Systems Acquisition School. With its 
reassignment, the school pnnided Air Force 
acquisition personnel with instruction on developing 
and implementing acquisition policies and processes. 

Air Force Officer Accession and Training 

The AU Board of Visitors met in 1995 to discuss the 
AV commander's increased span of control. One 
recommendation was to put Air University's 
accessioning programs. Air Force Reserve Officer 
Training Corps and the Officer Training School, into 
one organization, which the Air Force Chief of Staff 
approved 6 January 1997. AETC activated the Air 



Force OtTicer Acccsskui and rraining Schools on 14 
Februiiry 1997. At the same time. AETC reassigned 
AFROTC and OTS from HQ Air University to the 
new school. 

Air Force Quality Institute 

As part ot ihc An" I'orcc C'hiel ol Stall's continued 
push to "operationali/e quality."' AETC inactivated 
the Air Force Quality Institute at Maxwell on .^i 
March 1997. transferring its resources from Air 
University to the recently redesignated .Air Force 
Center of Quality and Management Innovation at 
Randolph AFB. 

Little Rock AFB 

On I April |yM7. as part of an Air Force-wide move 
that realigned all continental US-based theater airlift 
assets to Air Mobility Command. AETC gained 
responsibihiv for C-130 training. Along with the new 
training requirement, the command acquired Little 
Rock Al'H. Arkansas, and its host organization, the 
314th Airlili Wint:. 

( -13(ls ul the .114th Airlift NMnj; prepare to take 
off from Little Rock AFB, Arkansas. 

Band of the West 

Effective I May 19^7. HQ USAF redesignated the 
Band of the West as the Air Force Band of the West, 
but left the band organizationally a part of the 37th 
Training Wing at Lackland AFB. Texas. 

Security Forces 

As part of its response to the terrorist attack on 
Khobar Tt.wers in June 1996. HQ USAF changed the 
name of all Air Force security police organizations to 
security forces. 

Air and Space Basic School 

On 12 September 1997. the Air and Space Basic 
School activated at Air University under a direct 
mandate frt)m the Air Force Chief of Staff. 'I'he 
school we)uld conduct a new course, the Air and 
Space Basic Course, for all new Air Force 


Reese AFB Closed 

A casually (il the lillh round of base closure in the 
post-Cold War period. Reese AFB. Texas, closed on 
I October 1997. AETC inactivated its host unit, the 
64th Flying Training Wing on 30 September 1997. 
Reese's flying training mission was divided among 
the remaining three undergraduate pilot training 



Air Reserve Component Instructor Pilots 

AETC needed to double pilot |iriKluclioii Irom .^2.^ in 
FY96 to I lt)() a year by FY()2. On I May 1997. two 
Reserve instructor pilots (IPs) assigned to the S"" 
Flying Training Flight at Vance AFB. Oklahoma, 
became the first associate IPs to train student pilots 
on a T-3.S sortie. The idea behind the ]-)rograiii was to 
get help from the .An Force Reserve and Air National 
Ciuard In geltuig the right nmnbcr and mix of IPs. 

Suspension of T-3A Flying 

AETC Commander. (Icncral l.loyd \S . Newton, 
suspended all T-3A flights on 2.^ .luly 1997 and 
ordered a Broad .Area Review of the Enhanced Flight 
Screening Program. His decisions followed three 
T-3A crashes at the Air Force Academy that killed 
both the insiruclor pilot ami student in each inciilenl. 


Training Consolidations 

During 1997. the Interservice Training Review 
Organization managers consolidated several training 
courses. Al Shcppard AFB. the Basic and Advanced 
Biomedical Equipment Technician training programs 
consolidated, as did the Dental Assistant basic and 
advanced laboratory training. The Air Force and 
Marine Corps consolidateil enlisteil aircrew 



loadmaster basic, initial, and mission qualification 
training at Little Rock AFB. 


Gender Integrated Training 

At the behest of the AETC commander, basic 
military training (BMT) took one more step in 
integrating training. The 737th Training Group began 
to combine nights from adjacent dormitories in all 
bays of the recruit housing and training facilities, 
creating peer gender integrated flights. After several 
high-profile scandals, integrated training became a 
national issue. The DoD created a Federal Advisory 
Committee on Gender-Integrated Training and 
Related Issues, which came to be known as the 
Kassabaum-Baker Commission, to review current 
training issues. The commission recommended 
against gender-integrated training. Before the 
Kassabaum-Baker Commission could issue its 
findings. Congress established a second commission, 
known as the Blair Commission. v\ hich on 1 7 March 
1999 recommended continuing cunent gender- 

integrated training. The Air Force continued to train 
gender-integrated BMT flights. 


Air Force Institute of Technology 

Early in FY97, the Secretary of the Air Force decided 
to close Air Force Institute of Technology (AFITl 
resident graduate schools, directing that students 
pursue advanced degrees only through a program that 
funded Air Force officers to earn advanced degrees at 
civilian institutions. The Ohio Congressional 
delegation protested the plan and blocked the move 
with legislation. Consequently. AFIT continued a 
resident program but reduced the number of students 
and staff through reorganization and downsizing. 

Professional Reading Guide 

The Air Force commenced a formal reading program 
by implementing the CSAF Professional Reading 
Program on I March 1997. Air University 
incorporated the reading list into its own Air 
Universin- Professional Reading Guide. 


In the 1990s, the military sought to reduce personnel 
costs through competitive sourcing. The Office of 
Management and Budget (OMB) Circular nuinber A-76 
governed a process which determined whether a 
government entity, deemed a "most efficient 
organization (MEO)," or a private contractor should 
pro\ ide a particular service. AETC had a long history of 
contracted services, and contractors and MEOs handled 
15 percent of the command's workload. Manpower 
savings achieved through noncoinpetitive processes, 
such as restructuring organizations or adopting more 
efficient practices, complemented A-76 studies. 

In 1996, the Air Staff initiated Project Jump Start to 
accelerate competitive sourcing and pri\ati/ation. 
Because AETC found that larger studies yielded greater 
manpower savings, the command chose to focus ITS 
efforts at an entire base in a process known as "Pick-a- 
Base." By August 1997, AETC had identified five bases 
at which to conduct Pick-a-Base studies-Maxwell, 
Lackland, Keesler, Sheppard, and Randolph. Maxwell 
volunteered to go first, and with the Kelly closure 
scheduled for July 2001, AETC decided Lackland 
should be second. 

f ritical issues caused the Maxwell and Lackland 

liase initiatives to lag behind their programmed 

i '" both cases, appeals by the losing side 

unc Mocess. After nearlv two vears of studv. 

AETC announced on 27 November 2000 that an in- 
house MEO had won the Maxwell support services 
contract. The competing contractor appealed the 
decision, but the appeals board reaffirmed the decision 
to convert to an MEO. The contractor then appealed to 
the Government Accounting Office, which upheld the 
protest. The appeals delayed the start of work eight 
months. Similarly, after Lackland's MEO team lost an 
appeal of Lackland"s August 2000 decision to award the 
work to a contractor, six members of the Texas 
Congressional delegation asked Secretary of the Air 
Force F. Whitten Peters to delay the conversion. A few 
days later, the DoD Inspector General agreed to conduct 
a review of the process. The workers union at Lackland 
independently filed suit, and the U.S. District Court 
issued a restraining order hairing the Air Force from 
entering into any agreement with either an MEO or a 
private company. 

By the end of 2001. the Pick-a-Base effort had 
significantly changed direction. The DoD Inspector 
General concluded that the Air Force had not reached 
supportable results. The command leadership and the 
Inspector General study team concluded that although no 
one had acted in bad faith, the procedures used were not 
adequately co\ered in published guidance. Headquarters 
AETC cancelled the Lackland study and placed the other 
studies on hold, with a view to restarting them again 
from the beginning of the process. 



The tempo ol Air Force operations remained hi};h after the end of the C;uH\\ar. Deployments in support 
of militar> operations worldwide had strained resources and left personnel anxious as to whether lliev would 
ha>e to lea>e home on short notice. I'he Air Force introduced the concept of Aerospace F\pedilionar\ Forces 
to give its personnel a measure of stability and predictability. The Air Force grouped its combat and support 
forces into ten Air Expeditionary Forces (AFF) and assigned Airmen to both a home unit and an AFI'. 
Airmen knew they could deplo> at any time during a three-month window, but normallx did not have to 
worry about deployments for the remainder of a fifteen-month cycle. This reduced the strain of deployments 
on family life and unit training. In 1998 (Jeneral Flo>d Newton spoke about AFTC's role in the 
implementation of the Expeditionary Air Force: "We're laying the grcuindwork: providing airmen the 
knowledge, experience and skills necessary to flourish in an expeditionary environment... one that requires 
Might, lean and lethal' forces poised for deployment." 

— X 

\ ^ 

- -v^^-af^^sMa^tjgj^ 

Aircraft designated as numbered Air Force, wing, 
operations group, and flving s(|uadron commanders' 
aircraft at the unit's option are called ( ommanders' 
Aircraft (Flagships). Each base is authorized to 
designate one flagship per authorized commander. 
Bases and units with more than one mission (lesion 
series assigned will select onlv one aircraft for the 
wing and operations group flagships. Each flving 
squadron comiiiaiider may select one aircraft for 
designation as a tlagsiiip. ShovMi are llie nai;"-liip 
markings for the 49lli living I raining Squadron on 
an AT-38B aircraft at ( olumbus \FB. Mississippi. 


Us ol Occciiihci ivysj 




Alabama-Maxwell; Arkansas-Liltle Rock: Ari/ona-Liike; Ilorida- 
Tyndall: Mississippi-Coiunibus and Kcesler; Oklahoma -Alius and 
Vance: Texas-Goodlelluw, Lackland. Laughlin. Kandi)lph, and 

56.680 (9.240 officers: .^Z.-^ZO enlisted: 14.920 civilians) 

1,544 (AT-.^8. C-5, C-17. C-21. C-i.M). C-Ml. K-i5, 1-16, KC-1.^5, 
MC-I.WH. MC-I.3()P. MH-5.3J. HH-60C.. T-1. J-}. T-.^7. T-.18. T-43. 
TH-.53A. ITl-IN) 




Basic trainees negotiate a water obstacle during a Warrior Week march. 

Warrior Week, the biggest change to Air Force 
basic mihlary training (BMT) in over 30 years, was 
designed to instill in new airmen a wanior mindset by 
exposing recruits to the field encampments they 
v\ould likely experience on deployments. The 
program expanded gradually. Military Training 
Instructors (MTIs) in 1996 created a simulated bare 
base location on Lackland AFB's Medina Annex, 
initially named "Diamondback Ridge." Trainees 
marched to the site after completion of M- 1 6 training 
and spent one night in hard-back tents. While at 
Diamondback Ridge. MTIs taught self-aid and buddy 
care and the code of conduct. After a month-long test, 
the new field experience was fully operational by 13 
November 1996. The exercise was met with such 
enthusiasm that officials wanted to expand the 

Included in the new Warrior Week curriculum 
were several items previously required during initial 
certification training. By performing this training 
during BMT. new airmen would arrive at their first 
duty stations closer to being a mission-ready member 
of the Air Force. This initial certification training 
included law of armed conflict, code of conduct, self- 
aid and buddy care. M-I6 training, computer and 
operational securitv training, and chemical warfare 
training. Other training oriented the new airmen to 
deployments. This training included processing 
through a mohilitv line, an Expeditionary Aerospace 
Force posture briefing, field hygiene, anti-terrorism 
measures, unexploded ordnance, basic field tactics 
and field security, tent set up. defensive fighting 
positions, and basic field communications and 
notifications. Providing this training at BMT would save 


4 numbered air force and equi\ alent units: 

.*'R UNIVERSITY. Maxwell AFB AL: (including 
1- -r subordinate units) 

Base Wing. Maxwell AFB .\L 

.Air and Space Basic Course School, Maxwell 

Air Command and Staff College. Maxwell AFB 

Air Force Institute of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Officer Accession and Training 
Schools. Maxwell AFB AL 



wings time and money. These savings allowed the 
Air Force to in\est in BMT. and on 1 October 
1999 the overnight tleld training experience 
expanded to a full week. 

Recruits spent part of Warrior Week, their fifth 
week of training, in a tent encampment adjacent to 
Lackland" s confidence course and the remainder 
at an austere forward deployment site at Medina 
Annex. The encampment facilities included 40 air- 
conditioned sleeping tents, latrines and showers, a 
dining facility, a cadre office, and ten academic 
tents where MTIs taught much of the academic 
portion of the training. Recruits trained for several 
days at the main encampment. Toward the end of 
the week, they received M-16 familiarization at the 
shooting range. From there, they marched to the 
field training exercise (FTX) area, whose 
nickname changed to the Scorpion's Nest, which 
simulated a forward deployment location with no 
air conditioning, no running water, and no 
showers. In fact, during the FTX recruits learned 
how to erect tents. Warrior Week course designers 
built the FTX around an actual mission defending 
the base from enemy infiltration. At the end of the 
exercise, recruits marched the 5 miles back to the 
main encampment. 

During 2000 and 2001. the 737th Training 
Group continued to improve Warrior Week. 
Instructors reorganized the training scenarios to 
build steadily in intensity, culminating in exercises 
that tested trainees in camp security, challenge and 
reporting procedures, and airbase defense. Smoke 
and ground burst simulators enhanced the realism 
of the exercise. Instructors also included 
intelligence reports, constructive debriefings. and 
leadership reaction exercises to the week's 
curriculum, which became increasingly important 
when Airmen deployed in support of contingency 
operations in the Balkans and Middle East. 

Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Gunter Annex. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Office of Academic Support 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine. Research, and 
Education, Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Professional Militar> 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Develop- 
ment, Maxwell AFB AL 

Squadron Officer School. Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB AL 

(including 4 wings and 1 independent group) 

17th Training Wing. Goodfellou AFB TX 
37th Training W ing. Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing. Keesler .-XFB MS 
82d Training W ing. Sheppard .AFB TX 
381st Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 

(including 10 wings and 1 independent group) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus .XFB MS 
47th Flying Training W ing. Laughlin .AFB TX 
36th Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
.'SSth Special Operations Wing. Kirtland .AFB XM 
71st Flying Training Wing. Vance AFB OK 
80th Fl> ing Training Wing. Sheppard .AFB TX 
97th Air Mobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
314th Airlift Wing. Little Rock AFB AR 
32.3th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group. Fairchild .AFB WA 


Randolph AFB T.\: (including 4 groups) 

360th Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group. Robins .AFB G.A 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland .AFB TX 
372d RecruitingGroup. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units; 

59ih Medical W ing. Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security 
Randolph AFB TX 

Assistance Squadron. 


General Llo>d W. .\c\Mon continued as AETC 
Commander. On 12 March 1998. Ll Gen David W. 
Mcllvoy replaced Lt Gen John C. Griffith as vice 
commander. General Griffith retired. 


Command Chief Master Sergeant 
(Jn I November IW.S. the iiile oi cacli of the major 
command's Senior Enlisted Advisor changed to 
Command Chief Master Sergeant, a move designed 



to make the Air Force designation more in line with 
the other services. 

Activation of AFRC units 

On I April 1998. HQ AFRC activated the 340th 
Flying Training Group at Randolph and three 
squadrons to manage the expanded reserve instructor 
program within AETC. including the 96th Flying 
Training Squadron at Laughlin AFB. the 97th Flying 
Training Squadron at Sheppard AFB, and the lOOth 
Flying Training Squadron at Randolph. 

IFF Training at Randolph 

On 14 May 1998, AETC activated the 435th Flying 
Training Squadron to conduct Introduction to Fighter 
Fundamentals training at Randolph. 


articulate the contributions of air and space power to 
a military campaign. 

Master's Degrees Awarded 

On 7 December 1998 the US Department of 
Education approved the award of master's degrees to 
graduates of the resident Air War College and Air 
Command and Staff College. 

Distance Learning 

On 10 April 1998. approximately 150 Air Force 
courses converted to a distance learning format, 
which employed web-based technology to provide 
greater access to training. 

New Officer Training Sciiool Complex 

A groundbreaking ceremony on 5 March 1998 
marked the official construction start of the OTS 
complex at Maxwell AFB. 


Introductory Flight Training 

In late October 1998, the US Air Force Academy 
implemented the Introductory Flight Training as a 
replacement for the suspended Enhanced Flight 
Screening Program. AFROTC followed suit in mid- 
November. In this interim program, prospective Air 
Force pilots attended civilian flying schools to earn a 
private pilot's license before entering SUPT. 

Electronic Warfare Training at Randolph 

In October 1998. the 12th Flying Training Wing 
conducted its first electronic warfare officer 
instructor training class as AETC began to move this 
and na\ igator training back to Randolph. At the end 
of Ni)\ember. the last group of Air Force officers 
entered training at NAS Pensacola. 



Weather-related Damage 

Severe flooding delayed Hying training at Laughlin 
AFB after remnants of Tropical Storm Charlie struck 
Del Rio, Texas. 23-24 August 1998. The 47th 
Training Wing aided the town by assisting with 
rescue, relief, and support functions. On 25 
September 1998, Hunicane George made landfall 
near Biloxi, Mississippi, damaging several USAF 
installations. Keesler AFB suffered damages 
estimated at about $26 million. Heavy rainfall in the 
Schertz and Universal City area caused tltwding 
around Randolph AFB, Texas, on 17-18 October 
1998. Base personnel provided rescue services, 
volunteers for local agencies and shelters, cleanup 
assistance, and transported displaced civilians to 
nearby shelters. 

End of EMT Training at Kirtland 

Kirtlanil AFB's medical training pixigram closed uith 
the last graduating emergency medical technician 
class at the facility on 24 June 1998. This action 
marked the transfer of pararescue training to the Joint 
Special Operations Medical Training Center 
paramedic courses at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. 


Air and Space Basic Course Begins 

On 6 July 1998, Air University began a 7-week test 
class for the new Air and Space Basic Course. The 
purpose of course was to inspire new USAF officers 
to recognize their role as airmen and warriors, to 
embrace USAF core values, and to be able to 

An instructor and a studenl pilot wade tlnou<;h 
floodwaters at Lau<;hlin AFB. Tcvas. The 47th 
Fl>in<; rrainin<> Winj; experienced hca\y rain 
from Tropical Storm Cliarlie. 



At the end of the 1990s, AETC found itself involved in reengineerin};, an effort 1)\ tlio entire Air I (iree to 
identif> personnel sa\ings in the support commands, so that authorizations could he applied to >\artime 
requirements. Though Air Force Recruiting Ser\ice missed its recruiting goal for the first time in 2(1 \ears, 
se\eral inno>ations were improxing recruiter prospects—increased advertising, more bonuses, and more 
recruiter authorizations. AETC finished the centurx on a high note. The command accepted its first T-6A. the 
aircraft that would replace the T-37, as part of the J PA IS s\ stern. 

A C-I3()J assigned to the Air Force Reserve Command's 53d Weather Reconnaissance 
Squadron at Keesler AFB, Mississippi, where the unit conducted an operational test and 
evaluation of the aircraft. 


(as ol DcLCinlx-i I^A^^i 




Alabama-Maxwell: Arkansas-liltic Rock: Ari/ona-Luke: Florida-- 
Tyndall: Mississippi-Colimibus and Keesler: Oklahdma-Altus and 
Vance: Texas-Cioodrcllovv. Lackland. Laughlin. Randolph, and Shcppard 

.5.5,221 (8.-569 ot'tlcers: 32.229 enlisted: 14.423 civilians) 

1.540 (AT-38. C-5A. C-17. C-21A. C-l.^O. C-141B. F-I.5. F-I6. 
MC-1.30P. KC-I.\5. MC-13()H. MH-53J, HH-(30G, T-1 A, T-3, T-37. T-.^8. 
T-43.TH-53A. UH-IN) 


4 numbered air force and equi\ alcni units: 

AIR UNIVERSITY, Maxwell AFB AL: (including 
15 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AFB AL 
Aerospace Basic Course School. Maxwell AFB 

Air Command and Slal'f College. Maxwell AFB 


Air Force Institute of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force OITicer Accession and Training 
Schools. Maxwell AFB AL 




US Air Force personnel assigned to the Aircraft Generation Squadron (AGS), 149th Fighter 
Wing, Texas Air National Guard, secure an AlM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air 
Missile (AMRAAM) onto an F-16 using a MJ-1 weapons loader at Kelly Field Annex, Lackland 
AFB, Texas. 

Air Force Senior NCO Academy. Guiiter Annex. 
Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Universily Office of Academic Support 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Protessional Military 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Develop- 
ment, Maxwell AFB AL 

School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Maxwell 

Squadron Officer School. Maxwell AFB AL 

USAF Civil Air Patrol, Maxwell AFB AL 

SE(()N[) AIR FORCK. Keesler AFB 
(including 4 v\ings and 1 independent group) 

17th Training Wing, Goodtcllmv AFB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
8 1 St Training Wing. Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 


381st Training Group, Vandenberg AFB CA 

(including 10 wings and I independent group) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus AFB MS 
47th Flying Training Wing. Laughlin AFB TX 
56th Fighter Wing, Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing. Kirtland AFB NM 
71st Flying Training Wing, Vance AFB OK 
80th Flying Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air Mobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
314th Airlift Wing. Little Rock AFB AR 
325th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group, Fairchild AFB WA 


Randolph AFB TX: (including 4 groups) 

360lh Recruiting Group, Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group, Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 



2 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security Assistance Squadron, 
Randolph AFB T\ 


General Llo\d VV. Newton coniniucd as AETC 
Commander and. Lt Gen Oa\ id W. Mclivoy 
remained as \ ice commander. 




Headquarters Changes 

On 1 September 1999. HQ AETC redesignated its 
AETC Quality and Management Innovation Flight as 
the .AETC Manpower and Innovation Flight. This 
reorganization followed the decision b\ .Air Force 
Chief of Staff General Fogleman to redefine 
manpower to include the quality function. 

Air National Guard Units Transfer 

On 1 .April 1944 .AETC gained command of the 
149th Fighter Wing at Kelly AFB. Texas, and the 
178th Fighter Wing at Springfield ANGB. Ohio, 
from Air Combat Command. These units became 
F-16 FTUs to reduce the overburdened 56th Fighter 
Wing workload. 

School of Advanced Airpower Studies 
AETC acli\ated the School of .Advanced .Airpower 
Studies on 15 September 1999 and assigned it to Air 
University. It served as the Air Force graduate school 
of air and space power strategists, awarding a 
master's degree in airpower arts and science upon 
successful completion of the program. 

C-12 and C-21 Training 

The 81st Training Wing at Keesler AFB. Mississippi, 
lost C-12 and C-21 training. On 1 October 1999 the 
C-12 training program transferred to Fort Rucker, 
.Alabama, under the control of the 2.^d Flying 
Training Flight, a unit that reported to the 5Sth 
Special Operations Wing located at Kirlland AFB. 

The C-21 training transferred to the .il4th .Airlift 
Wing at Little Rock AFB. 

94th Airlift Wing 

The Nineteenth Air Force and AETC gained a 
reserve unit, the 94th Airlift Wing stationed at 
Dobbins Air Reserve Base. Georgia, on 1 October 
1999. which was responsible for training C-130H 

Students learn to maintain a C -K^OIl at the 94lh 
Airlift W in<i. Dohhins MB, (iforsjia. 

563d Flying Training Squadron Activated 

On Mi .April 19W. AhlC acli\ated the .sO.M llxing 
Training Squadron to run the electronic warfare 
courses that hail mined from Corr\ Station. Florida, 
to Randolph AFB. The first students entered the 
newly fashioned primars navigator training at 
Randolph on 5 .April, while the last Air Force 
students graduated from training at Corry Station on 
IS.Iune 1999. 



F-16 Mishaps at Luke AFB 

On 20 Se|->lcmher 1999. an f 160 crashed at Luke 
AFB. marking the 5(Mh Fighter Wing's seventh Class 
A mishap in FY99. In all cases, the pilots ejected 
safely. Engine problems caused most of the mishaps. 
The 5ftth Fighter Wing commander. Brig Gen John 
Barry, grounded the vung's l-16s alter the second 
mishap. Maintenance personnel discovered that 
engine augmenlor ducts had failed in both cases. 
They developed a new inspection procedure to 
identify cracks, which was subsequenth used 
throughout the Air Force. A inanufacturing defect in 
turbine blades was responsible for many of the 
mishaps, and General Barrv grounded the licet a 
second time to allow mainlainers to upgrade the 
turbine blades, which improved safely. 



AlC Danny Zickafoosc clears jets for takeoff at the notional Canyon AFB, a virtual runway created by a 
simulator in the air traffic control schoolhouse at eesler. 

C-130J Evaluation 

KccsIlt's lust C-I3().ls arrived at the 53rd Weather 
Reconnaissance Squadron on 17-18 February 1999, 
and the operational test and evaluation process began 
in the fall. 

Air National Guard Instructor Pilots 

ANG IPs staited Hying at Tyndall AFB on 1 October 
1999 as part of a program to alleviate fighter pilot 
shortages and increase major weapons system 
experience in AETC\ instructor pilot force. 

T-3A Grounded 

On 8 October 1999. AETC announced a permanent 
end to T-3A flying operations and expansion of the 
Introductory Flight Training program in its place. 


New Air Traffic Controller Program 

The Department of Defense and Federal Aviation 
Administration (FAA) initiated the Phoenix 
Controller Program on 1 October 1999 to promote 
Air Traffic Controller (ATC) retention and keep 
experienced personnel in the Air Force. The program 
allowed Air Force ATCs to move into FAA positions 
after 20 years of military ser\ice. 

New AFSAT Course 

The Am- Force Security Assistance Training Squadron 
(AFSAT) was instrumental in establishing a new 
course in 1999. After Hurricane Mitch devastated 
much of Central America in October 1998, AFSAT 
proposed a new in-countr\ mobile education team 
(MET) course, "Leadership Program in Disaster 
Response and Trauma System Management." The 
first MET course was held in El Salvador between 30 
.August and 5 September 1999. Ecuador, Nicaragua, 
and the Dominican Republic also hosted the course. 



Intelligence Training 

After Miming Ri\cl Joint traininsi to Ott'uti AFB, 
Nebraska, in 1996 to collocate AETC language 
training programs at the same base as Rivet Joint 
aircraft, the command decided in 1999 to re-locate 
training to Goodfellow. The operational mission ol 
the Rivet Joint aircraft was to monitor foreign 
military activity using electronics intelligence 
monitoring and analysis equipment. 


Air and Space Basic Course Renamed 

During a speech at the first ASBC graduation 
ceremony on 20 August 1999. Air Force Chief of 
Staff General Michael E. Ryan referred to the course 
as the Aerospace Basic Course, and the Air Staff 
approved the new name on 6 December 1999. The 
program continued to inspire new officers to 
understand their role as Airman. 

Students take a break in front ot the lanuuam' liuildiiio 
at Lackland AIB. Icvas. Sludenls fi(im omt 7(1 
countries were Inimersed in American culture and 
language stud> al the Knglish Language Center's 
college-like campus. 

Members of the .^7lh .Security Forces Squadron from Lackland ALB. Texas, deployed to ilu ^rd 
Security Force Squadron al Rinas Airport in Tirana. Albania, prepare (heir e(|uipmen( ba^s to 
ing in Mbania in support of Operation Mlied Lorce. 


send home. rhe\ had been ser\ 




Warrior Week 

WaniiM- Week officially began on 1 October 1999. 
The new program tor basic trainees expanded the 
previous field training exercise to a full week, which 
now included M-16 qualification, self-aid/buddy 
care, chemical warfare training. Law of Armed 
Confiict training, and mobility processing. The goal 
of Warrior Week was to provide airmen ready for the 
challenges of the Air Expeditionary Force upon 
arris al at their first operational unit. 

j^9i^^i'-<^*^<^,-^~':^ 'jff^. 

Basic Trainees prepare for the Expeditionary Air 
Force during Warrior Week at Lackland AFB. 

Recruiting Goal Unmet 

For the first time in 20 years, the Air Force in FY99 
failed to meet its goal of non-prior service recruits. 
Although AFRS set records for the highest number of 
non-prior service recruits since FY92, the Air Force 
had increased the requirement by 14 percent from the 
initial FY98 soal. 


Environmental Issues 

In ilic niid-199()s. AHTC ci)nverted most of its small 
arms ranges from an outdoor to an indoor or trap 
design, inadvertently creating a potential health risk 
caused by airborne lead dust. AETC established a 
tiger team comprised of security forces, civil 
engineering, and bioenvironmental personnel, which 
recommended the substitution of commercially 
available lead-free ammunition, a plan the HQ LISAF 
Munitions Safety Board approved in 1999. Solving 
the range problem showed HQ AETC the value of 
having a cross-functional environmental, safety, and 
occupational health committee. The approach 
a.: '-^ command to progress beyond merely 

reaL nvironmental problems to adopting 

mea,'~' -vely to avoid or minimize violations 

■'fenv: ■^uiations in the first place. 


For the first time in 20 years, the Air Force failed 
to meet its goal of non-prior service recruits. The 
booming economy of the late 1990s produced record- 
low unemployment, which meant the military 
competed with abundant civilian sector opportunities 
for high school graduates. Furthermore, the 
percentage of graduates going on to college had 
increased from ."i.^ percent in 1983 to 6.'i percent by 
1999, and financial assistance for college students 
approached the level of educational benefits the 
military offered. Despite the difficult recruiting 
environment, moreover, the Air Force raised its mid- 
year goal for new recruits from 30.000 to 31.300, and 
in September 1998, increased the FY99 goal by 
another 2,800 recruits. Therefore, though AFRS set 
records for the highest number of non-prior service 
recruits since FY92. the Air Force fell 5 percent short 
of the increased goal for FY99. 

The Air Force spent more on advertising and 
increased recruiter manning levels to make up the 
shortfall. AFRS's advertising budget Jumped from 
$16.6 million in FY98 to $74 million in FY99. 
mainly to pay for commercial television advertising. 
Previously, the service had relied on a public service 
advertising program, which provided about $22 
million of free aiilime in 1998. In addition, the Air 
Force started new marketing incentives. The WEAR 
program (We Are All Recruiters) sponsored active 
duty members to address high school students and 
community groups. Over the next two years, 
recruiters also relied on the Air Force Experience, 
Recruiting Outreach Vehicles, kiosks, and advertising 
at National Association of Stock Car Racing 
(NASCAR) events to attract recruits. Recruiting 
Service supplied its front-line team with new displays 
and upgraded office furniture that retlected favorably 
on the Air Force. The new recruiting slogan "No One 
Comes Close" replaced "Aim High," and the Air 
Force began a new recruiting advertisement 
campaign themed: "Cross into the Blue." 

Recruiter maiuiing in FY98 was 20 percent below 
authorized levels, despite several mid-1990s 
initiatives to provide cell phones, lap top computers, 
and a centralized database: improve recruiters' 
quality of life: and reopen the career field to E-4s. 
The Air Force allowed volunteers from career fields 
that also faced manpower challenges, especially 
security forces, to become recruiters. In early 2000, 
the Air Force added S.SO new recruiters under the 
"Plus-Up" program. These initiatives allowed AFRS 
to cope with new recruiting challenges. 



As the century ended, AETC continued to face challenges of modernization. Keen^ineerinj> efforts 
continued, and labor unrest marred the success of outsourcing at Vance AFB. The year 200(( brought 
closure to the troubled T-3 saga. AETC inactivated the .^d EKing Training Squadron at Hondo Municipal 
Airport. Texas, where the command had conducted the Enhanced Elight Screening Program, and retired 
the Eirefly. On the technical training side, the command implemented measures t(» increase production in 
Pararescue. Combat Control, and Survival. Evasion. Resistance, and Escape career fields. \>hile planning a 
curriculum for a new career field, the Combat Rescue Officer. 


(asol 31 Dcccnihci :()()(! I 


Alabama--Muxv\ell; Arkansas--Litlle Rock; 
Arizona-Luke: Florida-Tyndall: Mississippi-- 
Columbus and Keesler: Oklahoma— Alius ami 
Vance: Texas— Goodfellovv. Lackland. 

Laughlin, Randolph, and Sheppard 


.S4.S67 (8.394 officers: 31.S.^y enlisted: 14.614 
ci\ iliansl 


1.571 (AT-3,S. C-5. C-17. C-21. C-I.^OL. 
C-141. F-15. F-16. KC-I3.5R. MC-130H. 
HC/MC-i3()P, MH03J. HH-6()G. T-l. T-3. 
T-37. T-38. T-43. TH-.S3A. UH-IN) 


4 luinibered air force aiul eqiiiv.iienl units: 

(including l.'i major sLibortiinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell AlB AL 
Acatlemic Instructor School. Maxwell AlB 

Air Comniaiul and Stall College. Maxwell 


Air Force Institute tor Advanced Distributed ^^"^^ "-aining as the enlisted pararescue speciali.v. with 

additional training in the leadership and manageiiunl iil 
combat search and rescue missions. 

I he new ( ombal Rescue Olficer career field re(|iiire(l ihe 

Learning. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Institute of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

Air Force Officer Accession aiul Training 
Schools. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Library. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Fducation. Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Prolessional Military 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ira C. Eakcr College for Prolessional Develop- 
ment. Maxwell AFB AL 



Schoiil of Advanced Airpower Studies. Maxwell 

Squadron Officer College, Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil Air Patrol, Maxwell AFB AL 

(including 4 wings and I independent group) 

1 7th Training Wing. Goodfellow AFB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing, Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing, Sheppard AFB TX 
?Slst Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 

(including 10 wings and 2 independent groups) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus AFB MS 
47th Flying Training Wing. Laughlin AFB TX 
56th Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing. Kirtland AFB NM 
71st Flying Training Wing, Vance AFB OK 
80th Flying Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air Mobility Wing, Altus AFB OK 
314th Airlift Wing, Little Rock AFB AR 
325th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 
479th Flying Training Group. Moody AFB GA 


Randolph AFB TX: (including 4 groups) 

360th Recruiting Group, Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group. Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting'Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units: 

59lh Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security 
Randolph AFB TX 


Assistance Squadron, 


Hal M. Hornburg 

The 479th Flyin<; 1 rainin); Croup motto, 
"Protectores Libcrtatis." translates to 
Defenders of Liberty. 

On 21 June 2000, 
General Hal M. Hornburg assumed command of 
AETC from General Lloyd W. Newton, who retired. 
Upon the retirement of Lt Gen David W. Mcllvoy, Lt 
Gen John D. Hopper, Jr., became the new AETC vice 
commander on 20 October 2000. 


Changes at Air University 

The Air Force Institute of Advanced Distributed 
Learning (AFIADL) was activated on 1 February 
2000 at Maxwell AFB. Gunter Annex, Alabama, 
when the Extension Course Institute merged with the 
Air Force Distance Learning Office. AETC activated 
the Squadron Officer College at Maxwell AFB on 8 
February 2000, reassigning the Aerospace Basic 
Course School and Squadron Officer School from Air 
University to the new college. 

Entianced Flight Screening Program 

On 8 April 2000, AETC inactivated the 3d Flying 
Training Squadron at Hondo Municipal Airport, 
Texas, where the command had conducted the 
Enhanced Flight Screening Program w ith the T-3A. 

479th Flying Training Group Activates 

On 31 July 2000. AETC reactivated the 479th Flying 
Training Group at Moody AFB. Georgia. The new 
unit assumed responsibility for Introduction to 
Fighter Fundamentals (IFF) and a pail of the 
Specialized Undeigraduate Pilot Training missions. 
Fourteen students began IFF training at Moody AFB 
on 8 November 2000. the first flying training class to 
be taught at the Georgia base since Air Training 
Command left 25 years earlier. 

557th Flying Training Squadron 

The .Air Force reassigned the 557th Flying Training 
Squadron, located at the US Air Force Academ> in 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, from the 12th Flying 
Traininii Wins: to the Acadenn on I October 2000. 



Ar-38Bs ti(tm the nL«l\-actiMilc(l 479th H>in<i I lainiiifj Group lly in tbrmation mar Moody AFB. 




When 1st Lt Joshua Padgett completed the F-16 basic 
course on 8 March 2()()(). he became the 5{).0()0th 
fighter pilot to graduate from Luke AFB. Ari/'ona. 
since the Arms Air Forces siarteil training there in 
Juh 1041. 


Combat Rescue Officer 

In Oclohci :()()() llic Chid ol SlalT ol the Air l-'orce 
announced the creation ol the Combat Rescue Officer 
(CRO) AFSC. The training tor this specially included 

T-6A Texan II 

The 12th llsmg Trainmg W nig at Randolph Al'li. 
Texas, received its first operational T-6A Texan II. 
the Air Force's new primary trainer, on 23 May 2000. 
The Air Force Operation Test and Fvaluation Center 
(AFOTEC) began the air vehicle assessment phase of 
the T-6A Texan II Multi-Service Operational Test 
and Evaluation (MOT&E) at Randolph on 6 June 
2000. This phase of the test ended 29 November 

IFF Ends at Columbus 

Ihe 14ih 1 l>nig Irainmg VVuig flew its last AT-3SB 
sortie on 6 December 2000. bringing an end to the 
IFF mission at Columbus AFB. Mississippi. The 
aircraft m()\ed to the 47yth Flying Training Group at 
Moody .AFB. Georgia. 

A I-6A lc\an II taxis iiilii posilion 
for takeoff at Randolph MB. Iixas. 




In the 1990s and beyond, AETC struggled to meet 
student production goals in several of its most 
strenuous training programs, namely Pararescue (PJ), 
combat control (CCT), and survival, evasion, 
resistance, and escape (SERE) training. Measures to 
improve career field manning implemented in the 
mid-1990s, which included increased bonuses and a 
promotion for graduates of PJ and CCT courses as 
well as efforts to recruit students in basic training, 
failed to solve the problem. In 2002 program 
inanagers removed combat diver qualification and 
basic military freefall training from the AFSC- 
awarding curriculum and postponed them to the 5- 
level training course, which reduced the pipeline from 
52 to 35 weeks and reduced attrition from nearly 80 
percent to 20 percent. The CCT apprentice course 
would reach full capacity in 2003. Finally, in 2001 the 
command planed for a new CCT schoolhouse just 
outside of Pope AFB. 

pipeline remained low— only 16 students received the 
PJ AFSC in FY02. 

In addition to modifying the training cumculum, 
the command changed the PJ training locations 
several times. In 1996, AETC moved the PJ 
Advanced Weapons Course from Nellis AFB to 
Kirtland AFB, and in 2002, the cominand returned the 
Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic course to 
Kirtland. These moves reduced the student awaiting 
training time as well as the stress of repeated moves 
for the trainees and their families in a complicated 
training pipeline that stretched over 18 months and 
sent students to four temporaiy duty (TDY) locations 
and required two permanent change of station moves. 

Beyond the indoctrination course, many students 
in both the CCT and PJ training programs experienced 
a significant delay in getting into Army-sponsored 

TSgt Kyle Standbro. a combat 
controller liaison at Keesler AFB 
in 1999, directs SrA Jesse Fleener 
and a group of combat control 
hopefuls during one of their twice 
daily physical fitness workouts. 

Similarly, AETC looked for ways to improve 
course production for the PJ career field. A new 
physical abilities and stamina test replaced the pass- 
fail system and allowed students to overcome a 
weakness in one area with a satisfactory aggregate 
test score, which significantly increased the pool of 
candidates. During 2002, AETC established an 
optional, 2-week preparatory course to prepare 
students for the rigorous, 10-week indoctrination 
course. Although this change slightly reduced attrition 
'.K'trination course from the historical rate of 
• oinpletion of the full, 3-level awarding 

training. The Air Force sent a proportional number of 
instructors and students to the military free fall 
schoolhouse. As more Air Force students entered the 
career fields in FY02, the senice experienced a 
shonfall in qualified personnel it could add to the 
instructional statT. and AETC temporarily hired four 
civilians during FY03. Conversely, physical 
limitations at the training facility limited the number 
of combat dive courses available in Key West, 
Florida. As student numbers grew to meet Air Force 
requirements, AETC utilized every available class 
seat and scrupulously filled last-second vacancies. 



After miles of marching and eari\iiij; a 70 puuiul 
pack in tlie Texas heat. Airmen help each other 
finish a march at Lackland. This 10-\veek Special 
Operations course, which took place in 1998 and 
included both pararcscue and combat controller 
participants, started out \>ith 76 students, of which 
nnl> 1 1 finished. 

The SERE career field, like PJ and CCT. was 
physically and mentally demanding, as students 
learned survival skills, how to evade capture hy 
enemy forces, escape tactics in the event of capture, 
and how to resist revealing sensitive or classified 
information during interrogation while a prisoner of 
war. Following technical training trends across the 
command, the 3.^6th Training Gnuip instructors 
increasingly employed computer-based training and 
simulators in the curriculum. In February 2003. a new 
laboratory allowed students to participate in simulated 
survival scenarios involving jungle, desert, and arctic 
environments, which reduced students" time in the 
field and cut TDY costs. More importantly, students 
retained more of the information learned in the lab 
than in a traditional classroom. 

As the conunand unplemented these changes to 
correct shortfalls in training production, the Chief of 
Staff of the Air Force in October 2000 announced the 
creation of the Combat Rescue Officer ICRO) AFSC. 
The new CROs would become leaders and advocates 
for both PJ and SERF personnel, which previously 
had been enlisted airmen only. Operationally. CROs 
would deploy as command staff members, advising 
commanders on personnel recovery operations and 
sometimes participating in the operations themselves. 
The training for this new specialty included the same 
courses PJs took, with additional training in 
leadership and the management of combat search and 
rescue missions, and an advanced SERE course 
scheduled to begin at Fairchild in 2003. Planners 
expected only 100 active iluty and fi6 guard and 
reserve officers to enter ihc career field by 2007. 

taking the same courses as pararescue (PJ) personnel, 
with additional training in leadership and the 
management of combat search anil rescue missions 
(CS.AR). Prior to this time, only enlisted personnel 
entered the pararescue career field, and Air Force 
leaders expected the new CROs to become leaders 
and advocates for both PJ and Survival. Evasion. 
Resistance, and Escape (SERE) personnel. Opera- 
tionally. CROs would provide an officer's presence 
on battle staffs, providing advice on personnel 
recovery operations and sometimes participating in 
the t)perations themselves. The ad\anceil SI-RE 
course lor CROs was scheduled to come on-line at 
Fairchild AFB in 2003. 

A competitor in Ihc pistol eompi uiinn is e\alnale(l 
on accurac> durin<^ Defender ( lialleii<^e 2(1(1(1 at 
Lackland AFB on October 31. 2(1(10. Defender 
Challen>;e was (he annual Mr lorce-wide 
competilion sponsored 1)> Vir l-orce Securi(\ 
Torccs. I his competilion showcased (he lalenis 
and capabilities of 13 international Securilv 
Forces (earns in seven phxsical fitness, base 
defense, and policinj; skills e\enls o\er six da>s. 



Secretary of the Air Force F. Witten Peters observes appendix removal training in the 
simulated operating room, building 1900, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas, on 27 September 


SrA Jeanette Todd, a cardiopulmonary journeyman 
assigned to the 81st Medical Operations Squadron, 
became the Community College of the Air Force's 
2()().()(K)th graduate on 19 October 2000 at Keesler 
AFB, Mississippi. 

Training Policies Consolidated 

In April 2000. the Air force published an overhauled 
version of API 36-2201, "Developing, Managing, and 
Conducting Training." consolidating many disparate 
training policies into one comprehensive publication. 


New Officer Training School Complex 

A ribbon-cuuing cercmonv al Maxwell AI-B on 27 
January 2000 marked the opening of the academic 
facility and the fitness center for OTS use. These 
were the first two buildings to open in the $52 
million complex, which would also include a quarter- 
mile track, three Basic Officer Training dormitories, 
a Commissioned Officer Training dormitory, a dining 
hall/activity center, and an addition to the academic 


Expeditionary Air Force 

AETC personnel regularly deployed in support of 
contingency operations in the 1990s. The USAF 
maintained combat air patrols over Iraq in Operations 
Northern and Southern Watch to enforce United 
Nations sanctions against Saddam Hussein. Forces 
deployed to the region, including Desert Fox in 1998, 
during times of heightened tension. Morecner. the 
Air Force deployed in support of NATO operations 
in the Baltic region, including Operation Allied Force 
in 1999. Terrorist attacks on the Khobar Towers in 
1996 and on .American embassies in Kenya and 
Tanzania in 1998, as well as against the USS Cole in 
2000, culminated in the hijackings in the United 
States in 2001. The already high operations tempo 
would increase further as forces deployed for 
Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom. 



The response to the terrorist strike on New York City and the Penta<;oii on 1 1 September swept ,\K I'C 
into national security e\ents imniediately and precipitated a new era ol change. Imiiu(lialcl\ alter the attack, 
HQ AETC acti\ated the command's Crisis Action learn, and tlfihlers and tankers Irom AtlC \>in}js 
provided combat air patrols over American airspace as part of Operation NOBLE EAGLE. The crisis 
affected the command in other wa>s as \\ell. Ili<;ht cancellations dela\ed recruits altemplin<; to report lo 
BMT. As the nation went on a \>ar footing, the importance of training new airman became as clear as it had 
in previous national emergencies. In one example, the demand for militar> working dogs to search for 
explosives skyrocketed, and further change in training courses was certain to begin the following \ear. 


(as of 3 1 December 2001) 




Alabama— Maxwell; Arkansas-Little Rock: Ari/ona-Luke: Florida- 
Tyndall: Mississippi-Cokiiiibiis and Keesler: Oklahonia-Alius and 
Vance; Texas— Goodt'ellou. l.aekland. Laughlin, Randolph, and 

?6.003 (S.377 orCicers: 32.3')S enlisted; 15.228 civilians) 

I ..S9 1 ( AT-3S. C-5. C- 1 7. C-2 1 . C- 1 30E. C- 14 1 . F- 1 5. F- 1 6. KC- 1 35R. 
MC-l3nH. HC/MC-I.^OP. MH 53.1. HH-60G. T-l. T-3. T-6. T-37. 
T-38, T-43, TH-53A, UH- 1 \ ) 

Emergency crews stand li> in .iid iliii-<i. hiilh'. .; I'n 
the crash of a hijacked commercial airliner into 
the Pentagon. 


4 luiniheied air force and equi\alenl units; 

AIR UNIN KRSH"\ . Maxwell AFB AL; (including 
1 5 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing, Maxwell \l H \l 

Academic Insiruclor .School. Maxwell AFB .AL 

Air Coniniand and Stall C\)llege, Maxwell ,\FB 

Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed 
Learning. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Institute of Technolog). Wright- 
Patterson AFB OH 

■Air Force Officer Accession aiul Iraining 
Schools, Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Librar>\ Maxwell Al H Al. 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine. Research, and 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Professional Military 
l-ducation. Maxwell AFB AL 

Community College of the .Xir I orce. Maxwell 

Ira C. Baker College lor Professional Uevelop- 
ment. Maxwell AFB AL 



School of Advanced Airpower Studies. Maxwell 

Squadron Officer College. Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB AL 

(inckiding 4 wings and 1 independent group) 

1 7th Training Wing, Goodfellow AFB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing. Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
381st Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 

(including 10 wings and 2 independent groups) 

12lh Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing, Columbus AFB MS 
47th Flying Training Wing, Laughlin AFB TX 
.S6th Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing. Kirtland AFB NM 
71st Flying Training Wing. Vance AFB OK 
80th Flying Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air VIobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
314th Airlift Wing. LitUe Rock AFB AR 
325th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 
479th Flying Training Group. Moody AFB GA 

A 58th Special Operations \Mng TH-53.\ llics a 
training mission. The TH-53 A was the first model 
of the H-53 helicopter students learned to fly 
before progressing to the more ad\anced MH-53J 
Pave Low IIIE. 

2 independent units: 

59th Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security Assistance Training Squadron. 
Randolph AFB TX 


Donald G. Cook 

General Hal M. Hornburg left AETC on 
9 November 2001 to assume command of Air 
Combat Command. General Donald G. Cook 
assumed command of AETC on 15 December 2001. 
Lt Gen John D. Hopper, Jr., the vice commander, 
temporarily took over the helm of AETC from 9 
November 2001 until 15 December 2001. while 
General Cook awaited Senate confirmation. Maj Gen 
Marvin J. Barry served as vice commander during 
this period. 


Headquarters Changes 

In preparation for the direct conversion to contract 
support for undergraduate Hying training courseware 
development, the command inactivated the AETC 
Training Support Squadron on 3 January 2001. The 
AETC An Operations Squadron v\as inacti\ated on 
22 January 2001. The command inacti\ated the 
AETC Manpower and Ininnation Flight on 


Randolph ,\FB TX: (including 4 groups) 

36()lh Recruiting Group, Hanscom .(^FB MA 
367th Recruiting Group, Robins AFB GA 
369th Recruiting Group. Lackland .-XFB TX 
372d Recruiting Group. Hill AFB UT 

Moody AFB 

On 2 April 2001 the Air Force Reserve Connnand 
activated the 39th Flying Training Squadron at 
Moody AFB. Georgia, and assigned it to AETC. Its 
instructor pilots would support both the IFF and 
SUPT missions. AETC simultaneously reactivated 
the 3d Flying Training Squadron at Moody to provide 
Joint SL'PT with the command's first T-6s used for 
student training. The 479th Flying Training Group at 



Moody AFB recei\c(J iis lirsi operational T-6A 
Texan II on I May 2001. 

944th Fighter Wing 

On 1 July 2001 AETC was designated the gaining 
command for the Air Reserve Component's 944th 
Fighter Wing, which conducted F-16 training at Luke 
AFB. .Arizona. 

Jurisdiction of the Cahe/a Prieta NWR; and the 
military turned over jurisdiction of an additional 
8.1.000 acres in the Sand Tank Mountains, on the 
northeast corner of the range, to the Department of 
the Interior to form a portion of the Sonoran Desert 
National Monument. The military continued to tly 
through the airspace above the refuge and maintained 
four ground sites for electronic equipment. 

57th Airlift Squadron 

On 2S July 2001 AETC inactivated the .S7th Airlift 
•Squadron at Altus AFB. Oklahoma, which at that 
time was the Air Force's sole source for initial 
qualification and upgrade training for the C-141. An 
Air Force Reser\e Command luiit wcnild assume 
responsihilit\ for this mission in the future. 

TH-53A Helicopters Retire 

On 3 August 2001. during a commemorative event at 
Kirtland AFB. New Mexico, the 58th Special 
Operations Wing retired the last four TH-.'i.^A 
helicopters from active ser\ ice in the Air Force. 

314th Logistics Readiness Squadron (Prov) 

As part of the test of the reorganization resulluig 
from the Chiefs Logistics Review. AETC designated 
and activated the 314th Logistics Readiness 
Squadron (Provisional) on 13 August 2001. 

435th Flying Training Squadron 

On 1 October 2001 AETC assigned the 435th Flying 
Training Squadron from the 12th Flying Training 
Wing at Randolph AFB. Texas, to Moody AFB. 
Georgia, to complete the 474ih Flying Training 


Kelly AFB Closure 

The 37th Irammg Wing at Lackland AFB. Texas, 
assumed responsibility for Kelly field and the area 
west of the runway on 1 April 2001. 

FIA-22 Maintenance Facility 

On 29 November 2001. Detachment 13 of the 372d 
Training Squadron at Nellis AFB. Nevada, officially 
opened its first F/A-22 maintenance training facility 
to prepare for the introduction of the new F/A-22 
aircraft into the Air Force inventory. 

Barry M. Goldwater Range 

The lunsdiclion of the range transferred to DOD in 
2001 under the Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 
1999. which renewed military use of 1.7 million 
acres in the area for 25 years. The Air Force assumed 
management responsibility over the eastern halt ol 
the range anil tlelegated it to the 56th Fighter Wing. 
The Department of the Interior, however. letamed 

VI- , 

The Barry B. < .uUlwaii. i Uanm- w;i^ n ii nnlv a 
premier lrainin<i lacilil\ to practice air ciimhat. hut 
also the larj^esl rcmaininji. well-preserved tract of 
the Sonoran Desert. 



DiIacliMU-nl 13 |)r(iviik(l leiliiiical inainiiiiance 
Irainiiij; In the T \-22 usin<^ classroom and hands- 
on practical instruction. The delachnunt also 
offered trainiii"; for National (Juard. Mr I orce 
Kesei ve. and students eiiroule to I' A( Al . 



Next Generation Navigator Training 
At the Rated Summit in June 2001. HQ I'SAF 
announced substantial changes were in the oiling in 
the Navigator/Electronic Warfare Ottlcer career Held. 
AETC began to plan for new training as the role of 



the traditional navigator changed. Each new navi- 
gator, tentatively labeled an Air Warfare Officer, 
would receive electronic warfare training and more 
robust flight training that would promote more air 
leadership and decision-making capability (the title 
Combat Systems Officer later came into use). This 
approach was designed to create a more versatile 
crewmember as the force structure continued to 

IFF Training Consolidates at Moody AFB 

The transition of the 43.Sth Flying Training Squadron 
from Randolph to Moody completed the plan 
approved almost five years earlier to consolidate 
Introduction to Fighter Fundamentals training at the 
South Georgia base. AETC's first operational T-38C. 
which would enhance IFF training by providing an 
advanced avionics suite, arrived at Moody on 9 April 


Explosive Detector Dog Teams 
AETC was the executive agent within DOD for 
military working dogs. Already operating at a high 
tempo to meet expanding AEF requirements, after the 
events of II September 2001. the demand for EDD 
teams increased dramatically. 


NCO Leadership Conference 

More than 40 junior nonconiiiiissioned officers from 
thrt)ughoul the .Mr Force attended the first junior 
NCO leadership conference, which was held from 
17-20 July 2001 at Randolph AFB. Texas. AETC 
Commander Gen Hal M. Homburg initiated the 
"Torch Bearer" conference to facilitate an open 
leadership forum between the attendees and the 
AETC senior staff. 


Base Housing Privatization 

In 1996. Congress passed legislation creating a five- 
year experimenial program that enabled the services 
to upgrade inadequate on-base family housing and to 
increase the number of units if necessary by allowing 
private contractors to build housing units. AETC 
recei\ed approval in February 1997 to begin a 
privatized housing project at Lackland AFB. and the 
Lackland Military Housing Corporation won the 
contract and began construction in March 1999. A 
99-unit base housing development, known as Frank 
Tejeda East, opened in November 2001. 


Shortly after the second hijacked aircraft struck 
the World Trade Center on 1 1 September 2001, Col 
John A. Neubauer. the command's Assistant Director 
of Operations, activated the command's Crisis Action 
Team. Within a matter of hours. AETC adopted an 
elevated Force Protection Condition and imple- 
mented increased security measures across the 
command. On that first day, AETC also suspended 
routine flying training operations, as the Federal 
Aviation Administration shut down the nation's 
airways to all but select military flights. 

The next day. AETC dispatched medical teams 
and equipment from Wilford Hall Medical Center at 
Lackland AFB. Texas, and the hospital at Keesler 
AFB to assist emergency workers in New York City 
and Washington. D.C. Also, the 56th Fighter Wing at 
Luke (F-16s). the 325th Fighter Wing at Tyndall 
(F-I5s), and one of the Air National Guard units 
aligned with AETC-the 162th Fighter Wing at 
Tucson. Arizona (F-16s)-flew combat air patrols in 
support of Operation Noble Eagle. The 97th Air 
Mobility Wing at Altus provided KC-135s to fly air 
refueling missions and provided aircraft to augment 
the AMC fleet for worldwide missions in support of 
Operation Enduring Freedom. 

The cominand, which was not geared toward 
operating in a heightened state of alert for long 
periods of time, responded with ad hoc solutions to 
solve unfamiliar problems. The command staff 
augmented communications and security to create a 
facility for the Crisis Action Team, and logisticians 
created a Movement Control Center to expedite the 
mobilization and deployment of personnel and cargo. 

Throughout the crisis, training continued. Even 
the wings that maintained alert aircraft for air defense 
resumed their normal training mission. Turning out 
newly trained personnel was essential to maintaining 
the force structure to support the war against terror. 
During past conflicts, when combatant commands 
conducted crew training, the exigencies of war 
curtailed crew training. Moving so-called "grey jet" 
training to AETC allowed the combat commands to 
focus on warfighting. while AETC continued to train 
new personnel. 



Air Education and Training Command faced the unique challenges of the Global V\ar on I error while 
continuing to prepare nc\\ airmen for dut\ and pro\iding continuing education and training throughout their 
careers. In the 1990s the Air Force transitioned from a Cold War. n\ed-base. garrison force structure, 
toward an Air and Space Expeditionary Force (AEF) model. Ihe concept was originall\ called the 
E\peditionar> Air Force, a term that was changed to Air and Space E\peditionar> Force l)\ 2(102. Forces 
from geographicall> separated units were organized into standing Air and Space Evpeditionary Forces, or 
AEFs, which could deploy for contingency operations on short notice and be quickly axailable to an area 
Commander in Chief for combat or humanitarian operations. Operations in the 1990s regularly called for a 
smaller I SAF to deplo\ tailored forces to enforce IN sanctions against Iraq, to exert American power in 
regional conflicts, and to support peacekeeping operations worldwide. The e>ents of II September 2001 
accelerated the transition to an AEF model. As the command responsible for recruiting, training, and 
educating airmen. AETC not onl\ reacted to the transformation of the Air Force, but also pla>ed a central 
role in fostering this cultural change. Over 6,400 AETC personnel deploved in support of contingencies and 
named exercises in Fiscal ^ car 2002, an increase of nearh three times compared to the previous \ear when 
measured in man-days. Nearly all of this effort supported Operations Enduring Freedom. Noble Eagle, 
Northern W atch, and Southern \\ atch. 


(.IS of 3 1 December 2002) 


Alabaiiiu--Ma\\\ell; Arkansas-I.iltle RcK'k: Ari/ona-Luke: 
Florida--T\ndall; Mississippi— Ci)lumhus and Kecsler; 
Oklahoma-Altus and Vance; Texas— Goodfeliow. 

Lackland. Lauyhiiii. Randciiph. and Sheppard 


57.033 (8.847 officers: 33.495 enlisted: 14.691 civilians) 



Airmen from the 366th Air Expeditionarx Group , -|,j ^^^ ^^ C-\1A. C-21A. C-130E. F-i5C/D. F-16r/D. 

pick up and move a mobile kitchen teni to its new |^(^-.]3^r MC-130H. HC/MC- 1 30P. MH-53J. HH-6()G. 

resting place at a remote base during Operation j_\^ T-6A. T-37B. T-38A. T-38C. T-43. TH-53A. 

Enduring Freedom. UH-IN) 


4 numbered air force and equivalent unils: 

AIR UNIN'ERSITV. Maxwell APR AL: (includmg 
15 major subordinate units) 

42d Air Base Wing. Maxwell Al'B AL 
Academic Instructor School. Maxwell AFB AL 
An Command and Stall College. Maxwell AFB 

Air Force Institute for Advanced Distributed 
Learning. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air Force Institute of Technology. Wright- 
Patterson AFB Oil 

Air Force Officer Accession and Training 
Schools. Maxwell AFB AL 

Air University Library, Maxwell AFB AL 

Air War College. Maxwell AFB AL 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Education. Maxwell AFB AL 

College for Enlisted Professional Military- 
Education. Maxwell AIB Al. 

Community College of the Air Force. Maxwell 

Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Develop- 
ment. Maxwell AFB AL 



School of Advanced Aiipower Studies. Maxwell 

Squadron Officer College. Maxwell AFB AL 
USAF Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB AL 

(including 4 wings and I independent group) 

1 7th Training Wing, Goodfellow AFB TX 
37th Training Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
81st Training Wing, Keesler AFB MS 
82d Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
38 1st Training Group. Vandenberg AFB CA 

(including 10 wings and 2 independent groups) 

12th Flying Training Wing. Randolph AFB TX 
14th Flying Training Wing. Columbus AFB MS 
47th Flying Training Wing. Laughlin AFB TX 
."^Ath Fighter Wing. Luke AFB AZ 
58th Special Operations Wing, Kirtland AFB NM 
71st Flying Training Wing, Vance AFB OK 
SOth Fh ing Training Wing. Sheppard AFB TX 
97th Air Mobility Wing. Altus AFB OK 
314th Airhft Wing, Little Rock AFB AR 
32.5th Fighter Wing. Tyndall AFB FL 
336th Training Group. Fairchild AFB WA 
479th Flying Training Group. Moody AFB GA 


Randolph AFB TX: (including 4 groups) 

36()th Recruiting Group. Hanscom AFB MA 
367th Recruiting Group. Robins AFB GA 
369lh Recruiting Group. Lackland AFB TX 
372d Recruiting" Group. Hill AFB UT 

2 independent units: 

5yth Medical Wing. Lackland AFB TX 
Air Force Security Assistance Training 
Squadron, Randolph AFB TX 


General Donald G. Cook coiuinucd to serve as 
connnander of AETC and Ll Gen .lohn D. 
Hopper, Jr., continued as vice commander. 


Technical Training Division 

Ihc conuiiand realigned rcspi)nsibililics for 
technical training management between HQ 
AETC and Second Air Force in 2002. The 

headquarters Technical Training Division assumed 
responsibility from Second Air Force for the 
reclassification and prior service functions and the 
programming of non-resident training. 

Combat Wing Organization 

As the AEF concept matured, lessons learned in 
contingency operations led to a new wing structure 
for logistics and support functions throughout the Air 
Force. These changes originated in 1999 with the 
Chief of Staff of the Air Force Logistics Review. The 
overall objectives of the Combat Wing Organization 
were to standardize the wing structure across the Air 
Force, enhance expeditionary capabilities, and 
enhance the way the Air Force delivered air and 
space power. Specifically, the new organization 
merged supply and transportation squadrons and 
logistics plans into a Logistics Readiness Squadron, 
assigned them to a new Mission Support Group 
(which also included the former Support Groups. 
Contracting Squadron, and Aerial Port Squadron). 
The new structure also established a Maintenance 
Group, which included all maintainers currently in 
the Operations Group or Logistics Group, and created 
a Logistics Readiness Officer career field, whose 
members were responsible for supply, transportation, 
and logistics plans. 

Field Training Detachments 

In January 2002 the 82d Training Wing began to 
examine whether the wing's FTDs might be 

Airman \ ancssa Dohos of the 58th Training Squadron at 
Kirtland AFB hccamc the Air Force's first female aerial 
gunner after graduating from her technical school in 2002. 
As a gunner and member of a search and rescue cre\> on 
the H-60 helicopter, she would perform a combat duty that 
was formerly closed to women in the Air Force. 



combined with cn-located uiivrati niainienance 
training Operating Locations. As a prciiniinar\ step. 
HO AETC acli\ateti the 360th Training Squadron at 
Sheppard. et'feetive 1 March. rehe\ing the .i62d 
Training Squadron of a significant portion of its 
wori<.load. This nio\e allovsed the command to 
reahgn technical training operating locations at Little 
Rock AFB; New River. North Carolina; and Do\er 
AFB. Delaware, from the 362nd to the new squadron, 
as well as the FTD at Fort Eustis. Virginia. These 
nunes reduced the sciipe of operations for the 362nd 
and allow ed better management tif field training. 

Air and Space Redesignations 

In 20(12. Air Lni\eisii_\ ledesignated the School of 
Advanced Airpower Studies as the School of 
Advanced .Mr and Space Studies, and the Aerospace 
Basic Course School became the Air and Space Basic 
Course School, in order to reflect the increasing 
emphasis of the space component of the Air Force 


Land Acquisition at Luke AFB 

In 2(J02 the 56th Fighter Wing, responsible for F-16 
training at Luke AFB and the nearby Barr\ M. 
Goldwater Training Range, became concerned that 
urban development near the base would curtail flying 
training if left unchecked. In addition, the Munitions 
Storage Area (MSA) stood outside of the base 
compound, adding a burden to the Security Forces 
Squadron. In October 2002. Senator John McCain of 
Arizona shepherded a MILCON funding insert of $13 
million to purchase 273 acres needed to incorporate 
the MSA into the base perimeter and to acquire 
additional land in order to preserve access to the 
Goldwater Ranae. 

Ck-neral Ddnald ( (lok at the 43d I i«;hti-r 
Squadron aclisalion cirTMUnn on 25 <)ttol)er 2002 
at Tvndall AFB. Florida. 



In 2002 the USAF and Navy initialed the JPATS 
multi-service operational test and evaluation of the 
full system at Moody AFB. completing the study at 
the end of January 2003. The services concluded that 
JP.ATS effectively trained students and that the 
system performed well, with one exception: the 
Training Integration Management System (TIMS), 
designed to manage undergraduate flying training, 
experienced several software problems. The 3rd 
Flying Training Squadron at Moody tested the 
software operationally and helped to identify 
shortfalls. AETC iilannetl to implement an improved 
TIMS at Moody. Randolph, l.aughlin. Columbus, and 
Vance in 2003. and at Sheppard in January 2004. 



The dilTerenei's between the analog displavs of the 
r-38.\ and the modern iiislrunK'ntalioii of the 
T-38C are apparent from these photojiraphs. 


AETC introduced an essentially new advanced 
trainer, the T-38C, in the bomber-flghter track of 
specialized undergraduate pilot training (SUPT). 
Through the T-38 Avionics Upgrade Program, the 
command intended to modernize its entire fleet of 
T-38s. both the -A models used in the SUPT program 
and the .AT-38Bs used in the Iniroduction to Fighter 
Fundamentals program. The glass cockpit upgrade 
was designed to eliminate the technology gap 
between the 40-year old T-38s and operational 
flghters and bombers. In addition, the Propulsion 
Modernization Program would extend the service life 
of the engines as well as improve their performance. 

FIA-22 Training 

In 2002 ALIC was completing preparations for 
standing up the F/A-22 FTU. The first pilot selection 
board met in July 2002 and chose seven instructor 
pilots with recent FTL' experience from the \'-\5 and 
F-16 communities. On 25 October 2(K)2. AETC stood 
up iis first F7.'\-22 squadron, reactivating the 43rd 
Fighter Squadron, assigned to the 32.'Slh lighter Wing 
at Tyndall AFB. The first aircraft lo be delivered to 



the 325th Fighter Wing was scheduled to arrive at 
Tyndail in 2003. 

Air Operations Center FTU 

Air Force experience in the 10 years between 
Operations Desert Storm and Enduring Freedom 
proved the validity of the Air Operations Center 
(AOC) concept as the nerve center for air operations. 
The AOC comprised the personnel and equipment 
necessary to integrate air operations, weather. 
intelligence, space, and other functions to command 
and control all aerospace missions throughout its 
assigned region. The Air Force had made much 
progress in standardizing and using AOCs. Air Force 
Chief of Staff General Michael E. Ryan announced 
that the AOC would he considered a weapons system. 
which precipitated the creation of a separate funding 
and training pipeline for the AOC. Air Combat 
Command, which had been conducting ad hoc 
training, and AETC discussed creating an AOC 
Formal Training Unit (FTU) under AETC control. In 
December 2002. however. General Hal M. Hornburg. 
ACC commander, decided that the FTU would 
remain in ACC. 

AUH-IN assigned to the 512th Rescue Squadron. 

Helicopter Training 

Late in 2001. the Army announced its intention to 
retire its aged UH-lHs and to replace them with the 
newer TH-67. AETC's Undergraduate Helicopter 
Training students had filled surplus slots at the Army 
Aviation Center at Fort Rucker. AL, since the 1970s, 
and so the Army's announcement precipitated a 
major change in helicopter training for Air Force 
pilots. After studying the issue, AETC concluded that 
it preferred to convert a portion of the UH-lHs into 
Huey lis and to conduct training independently of the 
Army, which had implemented a new training 
program that did not meet Air Force requirements. 


Air Command and Staff College 

Starting ni Nos ember 20112. ,\n l'ni\ersiiy began to 
overhaul the Air Command and Staff College 
curriculum to better prepare students for career 

broadening assignments and expeditionary employ- 
ment. A new modular approach accommodated the 
AEF rotation cycle, and the third of three modules 
emphasized one of eight broad categories of air and 
space power employment, depending on a student's 
likely career path. 


Centers of Excellence 

In 2002 AETC announced a plan to realign its 
technical training courses and associated resources in 
order to conduct all training of a given functional 
area in one location. Consequently, the Enlisted 
Aircrew Undergraduate Course moved from 
Sheppard to Lackland, comptroller training and 
Education and Training courses relocated from 
Sheppard to Keesler, the Basic Loadmaster course 
moved from Sheppard to the airlift wings at Altus 
and Little Rock, and the Electronic Principles course 
moved from Lackland to Keesler. 



Recruiting fared well in 2002, though AFRS 
continued to have difficulty recruiting hard-to-fill 
specialties, such as the demanding enlisted career 
fields of Combat Controller, Pararescue, and Air 
Traffic Controller, as well as the perennially difficult 
officer career fields of engineering, computer science, 
and health professions. AFRS not only targeted these 
AFSCs specifically, but also continued to advertise 
Air Force opportunities to the general population. In 
2002. AFRS expanded its sponsorship of the popular 
National Association of Stock Car Automobile 
Racing (NASCAR) events. 

Lt (;en David Mcllvoy. AETC vice commander in 
October 20(10, eliriibs into the Air Force-sponsored 
Wood Brothers Racing #21 at C (tncord Motor 
Speed\>ay. \>here Klliott Sadler <;ave him an 
orientation ride. I he Air Force announced in 
October 2000 that it would advertise on #21 lor 
the 2001 NASCAR \\ inston Cup season. 




The Air Force's new Military Personnel Data 
System (MilPDS) became the system of record tor ail 
Air Force military personnel data on 1 June 2001. 
Unfortunately. MiLPDS and AETC's Technical 
Training Management System (TTMS)--v\hich 
allowed the command to manage the students in its 
courses, program resources, and evaluate its training 
programs--did not interface as well as expected. By 
the end of August 2001. registrars at the schoolhouses 
were weeks behind in entering student transactions 
into MilPDS. and the technical training centers shifted 
personnel and work schedules to try to meet the 
burgeoning backlog. A Tiger Team convened in 
December 2001 to review MilPDS and concluded that 
while the problem would be difficult and expensive to 
fix. several short-term fixes were possible. Moreover, 
the team noted, all the military services were working 
toward a single personnel system, the Defense 
Integrated Military Human Resources System 
(DIMHRS). expected to be operational in FY07. The 
team therefore proposed the development of a new 
data system, the Student Registration and Reconl 
System (SRRS). to reduce the command's 
dependence on MilPDS and the future DIMHRS. 

Instead of the schoolhouses relying on a series of 
interactions with MilPDS and the tlow through of 
information into TTMS, SRRS would allow the 
command to capture the data it needed in the 
command data management system, with the flow of 
information out to MilPDS. Instead of 17 system 
interfaces between AETC and AFPC, there would be 
one. SRRS would provide a master student record. 

inckKling basic student infornialion. training and 
education data, eligibility status, and training status; a 
master school and course catalog that provided course 
listings and schedules, course availability data, 
enrollment information, and funding data: and the 
ability to track students through the various pipeline 
training programs. Another significant benefit would 
be the accumulation of data in a single system that 
AETC training managers and leadership could access 

By May 2002 significant progress had been made 
in resolving interface problems, and data had begun to 
tlow from MilPDS to TTMS. Nevertheless, AETC 
reported to the Air Staff in June 2002 that despite this 
progress, the personnel data system problems were 
the greatest impediment to the command's training 
and education programs. 

At the end of August 2002, General Hopper 
approved the creation of a SRRS project team to 
implement a prototype, define changes in command 
processes to posture AETC for the coming DIMHRS 
implementation, and dexelop a funding and imple- 
mentation plan to deploy TTMS to Basic Military 
Training and to Officer Training School, if 
appropriate. Altogether, the command expected it 
would take about five years to fully implement SRRS. 
Because of the long-range implications, the prototype 
was seen as a relatively inexpensive way to .see if the 
command could decrease its dependence on AFPC. In 
the meantime, the cominand continued to retlne the 
existing command data systems and MilPDS. 


Force Shaping 

Fiscal year 2002 marked the first increase in USAF's 
end strength in lllleen years, reversing a downward 
trend that began in 19X7. Nevertheless, the Air Force 
began to correct two manpower problems. The 
aggressive recruiting efforts in the late iy90s and a 
high retention rate in 2002 resulted in the Air Force 
exceeding authorized active-duty end strength. The 
budget could not support the extra people in the 
workforce, and so reducing the workforce size 
became necessary. At the same lime, the active duty 
force was unbalanced. .A high depknment tempo had 
placed great demands on military members, and the 
service faced unanticipated shortages of trained 
personnel in many career llelds. The Air Force could 
not simpl\ adil military or civilian authorizations in 

order to perform new missions required in the war on 
terror, and thus had to reduce manpower while 
moving authorizations between career fields to 
remedy the force balance problem. One of the llrst 
steps taken to balance the stress measures in the 
career fields was to give prioriis in recruiting for 
those expressing an interest in the most stressed 
AFSCs. AETC realigned 1,000 accessions in FY()2 to 
the stressed career fields. 

Luke AFB Removed from Superfund List 
Luke was placed on the National Priorities List, olien 
called the Superfund list, in 1990, and on 22 April 
2002 became the first Air Force base to be removed 
from the list, after satisfying the rec|iiirement to 
remove pollution dating hack as far as World VN'ar II. 
The command lauded the action as it worked to 
resolve past issues and to preveni new pollution. 



Global War on Terror 

Airmen from AETC deployed as members of Air and 
Space Expeditionary Forces in support of operations 
in the Global War on Terror. A total of 6,429 AETC 
personnel deployed in support of contingencies and 
named exercises in FY02. which represented an 
increase of 62 percent over FYOl. These deploy- 
ments totaled 448.796 man-days, nearly three times 
the le\el of effort in FYOl. Contingencies 
represented 95 percent of the total man-days, nearly 
all in support of Operations Enduring Freedom, 
Noble Eagle, Northern Watch, and Southern Watch. 
In addition to deploying personnel, several AETC 
units directly supported operations from their home 
base. From Goodfellow AFB. some language in- 
structors deployed to the U.S. Central Command 
(USCENTCOM) Area of Responsibility (AOR). and 
others translated captured documents while con- 
tinuing their training responsibilities stateside. The 
58th Special Operations Wing trained 126 personnel 
(21 crews) in high-altitude operations and landing in 
dusty conditions for missions in Afghanistan. AETC 
also provided approximately a third of the medical 
personnel deployed to the USCENTCOM AOR. 
Finally, headquarters AETC maintained a Crisis 
Action Team on heightened alert throusihout 2002. 


A security forces installation patrolman from the 
455th .Mr E\peditionar> Group, mans an entry 
control point at Bagram .\ir Base, Afghanistan. 

' Jsi.thia Warwick (right) and SSgt Chad Smith (left), both from the 81st Medical Surgical 
.ladron at Keesler .MB. prepare a s>ringe with local anesthesia while deployed with the 28th 
ledival Group in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. 




Army Air Corps Flying Training Command 

(Ksiahhslk-il 23 .kiiuiaiA 194:i 

Lt Gen Bartcin K. Yount 2S Jan 42 

Army Air Forces Flying Training Command 

(Redesitinated t(/. 15 March UM2) 

Lt Gen Barton K. \ oiint. 

Army Air Forces Training Command 

(Rcdesiyiialcd 7 .lul\ U)43l 

Lt Gen Barton K. "> oiuit - 26 Sep 45 

Maj Gen James P. Hodges 27 Sep 45 - 1 2 Apr 46 

Lt Gen John K. Cannon 13 Apr 46- 

Air Training Command 

(Redesignated I .lul\ 1446) 

Lt Gen John K.Cannon - l3 0ct4S 

Lt Gen Robert W. Harper 14 Oct 4<S - 30 Jtin 54 

Maj Gen Glenn O. Barcus 1 Jul 54 - 25 Jul 54 

Lt Gen Charles T. Myers 26 Jul 54 - 31 Jul 58 

Lt Gen Frederic H. Smith. Jr 1 Aug 5S - 31 Jul 59 

Lt Gen James E. Briggs I Aug 59 - 31 Jul 63 

Lt Gen Robert W. Burns I Aug 63 - 10 Aug 64 

Lt Gen WUIiani W, Momyer 1 1 Aug 64 - 30 Jun 66 

Lt Gen San Maddux. Jr...' 1 •)"' (^(^ - ^ ' Aug 70 

Lt Gen George B. Simler 1 Sep 70 - 9 Sep 72 

Lt Gen William V. McBride 9 Sep 72-31 Aug 74 

Lt Gen George H. McKee I Sep 74 - 28 Aug 75 

General John W. Roberts 29 Aug 75 - 31 Mar 79 

General Bennie I, . Davis ■ Apr 79 - 28 Jul 81 

General Thomas M. Ryan. Jr 29 Jul 81 - 22 Jun 83 

General Andrew P. losue 23 Jun 83 - 27 Aug 86 

Lt Gen John A. Shaud -« Aug 86 - 5 Jun 88 

l,t Gen Robert C. Oaks 6 Jun «8 - 24 Jun 90 

Lt Gen Joseph W. Ashy 25 Jun 90 - 9 Dec 02 

General Henrv Viccellio. Jr '** ^'^'^ ^2 - 

Air Education and Training Command 

(Redesignated 1 July 1993) 

General Henrv Viccellio. Jr " ''^ ••"" ''^ 

General Billv J. Boles 20 Jun 95-16 Mar 47 

General Llovd W. Newton ' ^ M^"- ''^"21 J"" <»" 

General Hal M. Hornburg 22 Jun (M) - 9 Nov 01 

Lt Gen 1). Hopper. Jr '" Nov 01-14 Dec 01 

General Donald G. Cook '^ ^"'^ "' " P'''^^^"' 





tech' field 


1942 14.279 1.762 105.000 N/A 273.000 23.000 N/A 

1943 46.832 8.422 576.000 70,000 1.400.000 47.342 N/A 

1944 87.283 17,915 417.000 144.063 968.000 27,927 N/A 

1945 41,062 20.088 267.000 321.004 112.533 9.755 N/A 

1946 4,925 1,953 32,289 49,000 148.165 2.411 N/A 































1 .574 






Does not iiickidL' toieign siudcnls. except UNT. f-Y42-FY61. 

Only previously rated USAF DlTieers entered traminj; troni FY47-FY4'). liyures Imin FY47-48 are aerial .>hserver 
bombardment course graduates. Figure from FY49 includes graduates of both aerial obser\ er bombardment and 
navigator-bombardier course courses. Figures from FY5()-S7 are UNT for USAI- personnel. See also note h. 

*" Includes Hexible gunnery production for FY42-F^'4.'S. which was considered llymg rather than technical training. 

Includes aviation cadets, officer candidate school, officer basic military school, officer training school, and all 
indoctrination courses for new professional officers. OT.S began 15 November 1959: OCS closed I July 1963. 
*" Congress aulhori/ed AFROIC in 1946. but the Inst giaduales did not enter active dut\ until l')4S. 

SOIRCFS AH underiiraduate pilot Iraininc (UPT) and undergraduate navigator training (UNT) production from 
AT( llisinrical Reference Papers. "Maior Changes in Undergraduate Pilot Training 19.VJ-I99()." I Dec 90; "Major 
Changes in Undergraduate Naviuator Training. I94()-199()." Oct 91: and ATC and AHTC histories. Field and mobile 

unimj production from ATC monouraph. Thomas A. Manning. Tlw li'orUI Is Our Cla.s.snmm: .( liricj History of 
c Mr Force Field Traininii Proiiram. n.d.. and AF:TC histories. Technical training (TECH TRNG). basic mililary 
training (BMT). officer candidate school (OCS) and .officer training school (OTS). and Air Force Reserve Officer 
Training Corps (AFROTC) pri)duction from ATC and AliTC histories. Production figures lor 1942 are estimated. 
Field Trainin" figure for FY42 is total number of students at BMT centers January-June 1942. and ligure tor FY4.3 
IS total number o"i students at BMT centers July 1942-June 194.^. The length of training varied. Mobile training 
beizan in July 1942. in FY43. Source: Army Air Forces Suillstical Digest: World ((«/// (Dec 45). 


Appendix B 

















































































































143.312 96.979 165.246 

147.305 107.407 149.755 

137.390 111.294 

111,583 200,295 1 

128.344 209.773 1 1 

130.893 281.191 

























167.766 404.693 

156,930 484,832 1 

311.242 391,732 











1 .076 














279,287 203.897 























Appendix B 



384 240.962 162.007 78.232 

224.127 142,222 82,026 

173.110 L'SO.287 94.723 

103.146 142.194 73.715 

127.316 157.416 69.360 

117.584 156.421 61.786 

116,570 155,848 74,653 

137.663 159.301 79.047 

148,883 172,134 65,800 

148,608 147.677 64.171 

148.180 186.248 67.636 

131.583 188.159 65.189 

170.533 171,342 67,708 

179.361 175,363 58,554 

167,039 194.108 46.740 

152.797 178.389 44.098 

148.971 121.277 40.841 

128.718 104.048 32.133 

113,506 93,310 36,841 

75,641 11.929 28,063 

' Includes production during the three-month transition perie.d (July-September 197e)) when the federal government 
moved the start of the fiscal year from I July to I October. 
^ FY87 figure includes graduates of UNT and .SUNT. 















1 . 1 25 



























1 ,505 



1 ,603 






1 ,694 



1 .67 1 
















































Appendix B 
















tech' field^ 

trng trng bmt ocs/ots afrotc 





1 ,785 










1 .522 

107,898 44,135 


105,780 41,667 31.524 

123,049 38,510 32,961 

121.709 38,003 36.542 

115.146 33.902 


118,892 38.059 40.143 







TOTAL 315.242 111,754 9.415,461 9,121,435 7,603,963 305,879 


Figures for FY97-()1 include USAF graduates of Airlift/Tanker/Marine and holh L'SAF and US Navy graduates of 
Strike and Strike Fighter courses. Figure for FY02 includes USAF and USN graduates of Joint Electronic Warfare 
Officer, Strike, and Strike Fighter courses. There were no USAF graduates of Airlift/Tanker/Marine in FY()0-()2. 

Figures for FY93-95 are the production figures for Type 1, 2. 3. 5. and 6 training for USAF military . ci\ ilian. and 
Reserve/Guard from the AETC command histories. Appendix Q. Figures for FY96-02 are the production figures for 
ail personnel completing Type I. 2. .^. .'^. and 6 training for all personnel from the AETC command histories. 
Appendix Q. 

Figures for FY93-95 are the production figures for Type 4 training for USAF military . ci\ ilian. and Reserve/Guard 
from the AETC command histories. Appendix Q. Figures for FY96-02 are the production figures for all personnel 
completing Type 4 training from the .AETC command histories. Appendix Q. 




The Air Coips or Army Air Forces activated many of the iraining bases lisied prior to the activation of the Army 
Air Forces Training Command (AAFTC) on 7 Jui> 1943. Those bases came under AAFTC control on that dale. 
Abbreviations are: AB — air base; AETC — Air Education and Iraining Command; AFB — Air Force base; AFS — Air 
Force station; AAB — Army air base; A.AC — Arms air ccnlcr; .•\.'\F — .■\rniy air field; ANG — Air National Guard; 
ATC — Air Trainine Command. 

ADAMS FIELD. Little Rock, Arkansas. Leased 
then activated 13 .Aug 42. Conducted Hying training 
until inacli\atcd Oct 44. 

AJO AAF. .\jo. Arizona. .Activated as Ajo Field 
22 Aug 41. Redesignated .\jo AAF prior to acti\ation 
of .A.AFTC. Conducted Hying training until 
inacti\ ated on 7 Oct 46. 

training until inactivated .^0 Jun 46. Activated as 
Amarillo .AFB 1 .Mar 51. Conducted technical 
training until 27 .Aug 68 and basic Iraining until 1 1 
Dec 6cS. Inactivated 1 Jan 69 and passed to Sheppard 
AFB. Texas, until disposal action completed when it 
transferred to civilian control on 16 Feb 71. 

AMERICUS, GEORGIA iScc Souther Field) 

ALBANY, GEORGIA iScc Turner Field) 

Kirtland Field) 

ALOE AAF. Victoria. Texas. Activated 27 Oct 
42. Conducted Hying training until inactivated 31 Oct 

ALTUS AFB. Alius. Oklahoma. .Activated as 
Army Air Forces Advanced Flying School. 17 Jun 
42. Redesignated Altus AAF S Apr 43. Conducted 
Hying training until inactivated l.'i May 4.s. 
Redesignated Altus AFB. activated S Jan .'i3. and 
assigned to Tactical Air Command. Reassigned to 
Strategic Air Command 21 Jun 1954 and to Military 
Airlift Command I Jul 6<S. Reassigned to .Air 
Education aiul Training Command 1 Jul 93. 

AMARILLO AFB. Amarillo. Texas. Activated 
as .Amarillo .A.AF 20 .Apr 42. Conducted technical 


Durin<; World War II. larye hotels were used in 
several eilies lor llie housing aiul Irainiiij; of 
troops. I his is the Congress Motel in ( hica<;o. 

ANNISTON AAF Fastoboga. Alabama. 
Activated 19 Oct 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 30 Jun 45. .Activated I Jul 49. 
Conducted flying training until transferred to .Air 
Materiel Command 1 .Aug 5i). 

APALACHICOLA AAF Apahichicola. Florida. 
Activated 21 Feb 42. Conducted Hexible gunnerv 
training until transferred to Army Di\ ision Engineers 
2 Feb 47. 

ARCADIA, FLORIDA (See Carlstrom Field and 
Dorr Field) 

ARLEDGE FIELD. Si.imloid. lexas. Activated 
1 Apr 41. Conducted conlracl tlMiig training until 
inactivated S Sep 44. 

Jersev. .Aciiv.ncd !'■) Jun 42. Conducted basic military 
Iraining tor officers and enlisted ami was a 
classification center until inactiv aleil 5 Jan 44. 

AUGUSTA. GEORGIA (See Bush Field) 


Alabama. Activated 17 Mar 41. Conducted living 
Iraining iiniil inactivated 10 Dec 45. 

AVENGER FIELD. Sweetwater. Texas. 
Activated 30 Jul 42. Conducted contract Hying 
training for Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) 
until inactivated 9 Dec 44. 

AVON PARK AIRPORT Avon Park, l-lorida. 
Aclivaled 4 Oct 41. Conducted contract Hying 
training until inaclivaled 16 Oct 44. 



Appendix C . 

BAINBRIDGE AB. Bainbridgc. Georgia. 
AclnatL'd as Bainbridge AAF 7 Aug 42. Conducted 
flying training and contract tlying training until 
inactivated 15 Dec 45. Redesignated Bainbridge AB 
and activated II Jul 51. Conducted contract Hying 
training until inactivated .^1 Mar 61. 




BALLINGER, TEXAS [Sec Bruce Field) 

BARKSDALE AFB. Bossier City, Louisiana. 
Activated as Barksdale Field 1 8 Nov 30 and assigned 
to the Army Fourth Corps Area. Transferred to 
GHQAF I Mar 35 and to Southeastern Air Corps 
Training Center 15 Oct 40. First Air Corps navigator 
school established I Nov 40. Transfeired to Air 
Force Combat Command 6 Dec 41, Third Air Force 
10 Feb 42. and then Continental Air Forces 6 Jun 45. 
Transferred to Army Air Forces Training Command 
I Nov 45. Conducted tlying training and was HQ 
AAFTC location from 25 Feb 46 until 17 Oct 49. 
Redesignated Barksdale AFB 13 Jan 48. Transferred 
to Strategic Air Command 30 Sep 49. 

BARTOW AB. Bartow, Florida. Conducted 
medium bombardment crew training under Third Air 
Force during World War II until inactivated 28 Dec 
45. Activated I May 51. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 19 May 61. 

BEALE AFB. Marysville. California. Activated 

as Camp Beale I Oct 42. Declared surplus by War 
Department 31 May 47. Activated 10 Feb 48 and 
assigned to ATC. Redesignated Beale Bombing and 
Gunnery Range 7 Oct 49. Not an active base, but 
used as bombing and gunnei^ range. Activated and 
transfened to Continental Air Command I Apr 51. 
Redesignated Beale AFB I Dec 51. Transfened to 
Stategic Air Command 1 Jul 56. 


South Carolina. Activated 6 Oct 41. Conducted 
contract living training until inactivated 1 6 Oct 44. 

BIG SPRING AAF. Big Spring, Texas. (See 
Webb AFB) 

BLACKLAND AAF. Waco. Texas. Activated 
2 Jul 42. Conducted advanced 2-engine tlying 
trainmg until 4 Feb 45. Became a suhpost of Waco 
AAF until inactivated 3 1 Oct 45. 

BLYTHE FIELD. BIythe. California. Activated 
29 Jun 42. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 4 Aug 44. 

BLYTHEVILLE AFB. Blytheville. Arkansas. 
Activated as Blytheville AAF 10 Jun 42. Conducted 
flying training until transfeiTed to Continental Air 
Forces on 16 Jun 45. Redesignated Blytheville AFB 
10 Jun 53. 

A sunncrv student from Eiiickinsham I ickl. Ilctiida. practices air-to-air tiring with a 30-caliber machine 
gun from the rear seat of an A r-6. 


Appendix C 

BOCA RATON AAF. Boca Raion. Florida. 

Acli\alcd I Jiin 41 

a radar school. Overseas 

replaccmcnl depot established 8 Nov 43 for radar 
personnel. Conducted technical training until 5 May 
47. Between Sep-Nov 47 radar school moved to 
Keesler. Transferred to the Corps of Engineers 1 
Mar 4S. 

13 May ."^'^ ami transferred from Navy t<i An Force 
and assigned to ATC. Transferred to Conlinenlal Air 
Command 1 .Aug 63. 

BUSH FIELD. Augusta. Georgia. Activated 
2.'^ .Aug 41. Conducted ct)ntract flying training until 
inactivated S Sep 44. 

BONHAM, TEXAS (See Jones Field) 

CAMDEN. ARKANSAS iScc Hanvll 1 icld) 

BRADY, TEXiAS (See Curtis Field) 

BROOKS AFB. San Antonio. Texas. Activated 
as Brooks AAF Ui Feh 1918. Conducted balloon and 
airship training. Hying training and observation 
training until transferred to Continental .Air Forces on 
30 Nov 45. Redesignated Brooks AFB on 24 Jun 48. 
Transferred to ATC on I Oct 59. Conducted flying 
training and technical training until I Nov 61. when it 
transfeiTed to Air Force Systems Command. 

BRUCE FIELD. Ballinger. Te.xas. Activated 
4 Oct 41. Conducted contract tlying training until 
inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

BRYAN AFB. Bryan. Te.xas. Aclnaied as Bryan 
AAF 26 Jun 42. Conducted living training until 
inactivated in Feb 47. .Activated as Brvan .AFB I Jul 
51. Conducted tlying training until 12 Jun 58 and 
then inactivated 1 Oct 58. Transferred to Air 
Materiel Command I .Apr 60. 

Woodward Field) 

CAMPBELL AAF. Clarksville. leiinessee. 
.Activated 1 Jun 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 31 Oct 45. Transferred to Tactical Air 
Command 3 I Mar 46. 


(iirardcaii. Missiuin. Aclivaled 25 Dec 42. 

Conducted contract I'lvmy tiauuug until inactivated 
24 Mar 44. 

CARLSBAD FIELD. Carlsbad. New Mexico. 

.Activated 12 Oct 42. Conducted contract tlying 
training and bombardier training until inactivated 30 
Sep 45. Transferred to Corps of engineers 15 Jul 46. 

CARLSTROM FIELD Arcadia. Florida. 

.Activatctl 22 Mar 41. Conducted contract living 
trainin'i until inactivated 30 Jun 45. 

.\n instructor uses a mock-up instrument trainer 
controls to make a point at the Instructor Pilot 
Instrument School at Br>an I ieUI. I e\as. 

BUCKINGHAM AAF. l-ort Myers. Florida. 
Activated 5 Jul 42. C unducled flying training and 
tlexihle gunnery training until inactivated 30 Sep 45. 

BUCKLEY FIELD. Denver. Colorado. Activated 
1 Jul 42. Conducted technical training and basic 
training until 1 Jan 45 when il became a subpost ot 
Lowry lield. Transferred to the Navy and 
redesignated Buckley Naval Air Station. 
Redesignated Buckley Air National Ciuard Base 

CHANDLER. ARIZONA iS,c Higley Field) 

CHANUTE AFB. Rantoul. Illinois. Activated as 
Chaiiiiic field Mav 1917. Conducted tlying training 
in World War I and converted to technical training in 
1921. retaining that mission to the present. .Also 
conducted specialized four-engine tlying training 
between Sep 43 and Sep 44. Redesignated Chanute 
AFB on 1 3 Jan 48. Closed I Oct 93. 


Wancii \l li) 

WYOMING (See Francis E. 

Boiilils I icldi 

CHICO AAF. Chico. California. .Activated 6 Jan 
41. Conducted flying tiaining unlil iransfcrrcd to 
Fourth Air Force 25 Apr 44. 

CHILDRESS AAF. Childress. Texas. Activated 
20 Jan 43. Conducted bombardier and Hying training 
until inactivated 30 Nov 45. 


Appendix C . 

CIMARRON FIELD. Oklahoma City. Oklahoma. 
Activated 1 Apr 41. Conducted contract Hying 
training until inactivated 27 Jun 44. 

CLARKSDALE FIELD, Clarksdaie, Mississippi. 
Activated ."^ Jul 42. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

CLEWISTON, FLORIDA (See Riddle Field) 

CLOVIS AFB. Clovis, New Mexico. Activated 
as Clovis AAB 25 Sep 1942 and assigned to 
Contential Air Forces (which became Strategic Air 
Command on 21 Mar 46). Redesignated Clovis AAF 
8 Apr 43 and Clovis AFB 13 Jan 48. Transferred to 
ATC from Strategic Air Command 1 Apr 50. 
Conducted contract flying training. Transfened to 
Tactical Air Command 23 Jul 51. Redesignated 
Cannon AFB 8 Jun 57. 

COCHRAN FIELD. Macon. Georgia. Activated 
5 .Aug 41. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated in Mar 45. 

COFFEYVILLE AAF. Coffeyville. Kansas. 
Activated 1 1 Nov 42. Conducted flying training until 
transfened to Third Air Force 31 May 44. 

COLEMAN AIRPORT. Coleman. Texas. 
Acln alcd Oct 4 1 . Conducted contract flying training 
luitil inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

COLUMBUS AFB. Columbus. Mississippi. 
Activated 23 Jul 41 as Columbus AAF. Conducted 
flying training and contract flying training until 
transferred to Air Technical Service Command on 6 
Jun 45. Reassigned to Air Training Command on 23 
Nov 45. Conducted flying training. Redesignated 
Columbus AFB on 24 Jun 48. Conducted contract 
flying training from 20 Dec 50 until transferred to 
Strategic Air Command on 1 Apr 55. Reassigned to 
Air Training Command on I Jul 69. Conducted 
flying training until the present. 

COLUMBUS, OH/0 I See Lockbournc AAF) 

CONN ALLY AFB. Waco, Texas. 
Connally AFB) 

(See James 

COOLIDGE AAF. Coolidge. Arizona. Acti\ atcd 
26 Sep 41. Conducted advanced two-engine flying 
training. Transferred to Air Transport Command 15 
May 44. AAF Training Command continued to use 
the field until 28 Aug 46. 

Activated 15 .Niig 40. Conducted contract 
' i! traininsz until inactivated 31 Oct 44. 

Georgia. Activated 12 Aug 40. Conducted advanced 
two-engine contract flying training until inactivated 
28 Dec 44. Transferred to the Corps of Engineers 30 
Jan 46. 

CORSICANA FIELD. Corsicana. Texas. 
Activated 1 Apr 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

COURTLAND AAF. Courtland. Alabama. 
Activated 19 Oct 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 30 Jun 45. 

CRAIG AFB. Selma. Alabama. Activated as 
Craig Field 27 Aug 40 and designated as advanced 
single-engine school 31 Dec 40. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated 31 Dec 45 and transferred to 
Air University 1 Feb 46. Transferred from Air 
University as Craig AFB 1 Sep 50. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated and closed 3 1 Aug 77. 

Activated 1 Apr 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 4 Aug 44. 

CURTIS FIELD. Brady. Texas. Activated 15 Dec 
42. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 30 Sep 45. 

DATELAN AAF. Aztec, Arizona. Activated 
15 Dec 42. Conducted flying training until 
transferred as a subpost of Williams Field 1 Oct 46. 

DECATUR AIRPORT. Decatur, Alabama. 
Activated 5 Oct 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 28 Dec 44. 

DEL RIO, TEXAS (See Laughlin AFB) 

.\iicrafl mechanics work on I.-4 aircraft at 
Dciitoii I t'xas. in October l')43. 

DEMING AAF. Deming. New Mexico. 
.•\ciivaied 15 Nov 42. Conducted bombardier 
training until transferred to Second Air Force 31 Dec 



Appendix C 

DENTON AIRPORT. DciiUm. Texas. Activated 
10 Jiin 42. (.'ondiicteii conlracl liaison pilot training 
until inacti\ated .^ Dec 43. 

DENVER, COLORADO (Sec I.owiy WH and 
Fort Logan hickll 

Louisiana. Leased and acti\ateil .^ Jun 4fi. 
Conducted tlying training milil lease canceled and 
returned to ov\ ner 1 Oct 49. 

DODGE CITY AAF. Dodge City. Kansas. 

.Acti\atcd 11 Dec 42. Conducted Hying training until 
inactivated }\ .lul 4,";. 

DORR FIELD. .Arcadia. Florida. .Activated 4 Oct 
41. Conducted contract Hying iraniing luitil 
inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

DOS PALOS AIRPORT. Dos Palos. California. 
■Actuated 24 Jun 43. Conducted contract Hying 
training until inactivated 28 Dec 44. 

DOTHAN, ALABAMA (See Napier Field) 

DOUGLAS AAF. Douglas, Arizona. Activated 
2 No\ 42. Conducted Hying training until inactivated 
31 Oct 45. 

DOUGLAS AIRPORT Douglas. Georgia. 
Activated 4 Oct 41. Conducted conlracl Hsing 
trainint; until inacti\ated 2<S Dec 44. 

EDWARD GARY AFB San Marcos. Texas. 
Acti\ated as .San .Marcos Field \5 Dec 42. 
Conducted navigator training until 30 Nov 45. 
Placed in inactive status. Activated in May 46. 
Conducted liaison and helicopter Hying and technical 
training until 1 Mar 49 when it became an auxiliary 
Held to Randolph AFB. Inactivated 31 Mar 49. 
Placed on active status 15 Jan 51 and redesignated 
,San Marcos AFB 1 Feb 51. Conducted Hying 
training. Redesignated Gary AFB on 10 May 53. 
Redesignated ifdward Gary AFB 1 Sep 55. 
Coiuluclcd I'Kiiig training until inaclisaled 14 Dec 
56. Transterred lo the Deparimenl ol the Aiiiiy on 
1 5 Dec 56. 

ELLINGTON AFB. Houston. Texas. Established 
1 No\ 17 as Ellington Field. Provided bombing 
instruction during World War 1. lnacti\c 1922-1940. 
.Activated 17 Aug 40. Conducted advanced twin- 
engine, navigator, and bombardment training until 
inactivated 15 .Apr 46. Transferretl lo .Air Delense 
Command 10 .Apr 47. Reassigned as Ellington .AFB 
31 .Mar 49. Coiuluclcd navigator training until 
iransterred lo Conlmenlal .Air Command on I Apr 5S. 

EL RENO, OKLAHOMA iScc Musian- Field) 



Oklahoma. (See Vance 

FALCON FIELD. .Mesa. An/ona. Activated 
12 Nov 42. Conducted contract living (raining for 
the Brilish until inactivated in .Aug 45. 

EAGLE PASS AAF. Eagle Pass. Texas. 
.Activated 30 Jun 42. Coiuluclcd Hying (raining un(il 
inactivated I May 45 






^^ ^ 

Sfc A«t* 

"^— -^ Ji 

FORT BROWN Brounsville. Texas. 
Transferred to ,A,AF Training Command 7 Jul 43. 
Coiuluclcd flexible gunnery training until inacdvated 
1 Feb 46. I'ranslerred to the Corps of l-.iigineers 25 
Apr 46. 


V ^ 

B-26S sil <.n a snow -covered aoron at the advanced twin-encine school at Dodce ( iiv \ M . 



Appendix C 

Washington. Transferred to AAF Training 

Command 14 Dec 46. Processing center for officers 
pending discharge. Transferred to Strategic Air 
Coniniand 16 Jul 47. 

FORT LOGAN FIELD. Denver. Colorado. 
Transferred to AAF and established Clerical School 
#1 and Administrative Inspector's School I Jul 42. 
Conducted technical training until transferred to Air 

Service Command 15 Apr 44 




Texas. Activated 1 Jun 42. Conducted contract 
flying training until inactivated 12 Mar 44. 

FORT SUMNER AAF. Fort Sumner, New 
Mexico. Activated 6 Jun 42. Conducted flying 
training until transferred to Second Air Force 16 Aug 

-i,t:» t;t f t.,.j.;,t 

Women .\iriorcc Service Pilots toned targets at 
Eagle Pass AAF, Texas, in 1944. 

FRESNO FIELD. Fresno. California. Activated 
29 October 42. Conducted basic military training 
until 1 Sep 43 when it inactivated and training 
transferred to Buckley AAF. 

GAINESVILLE AAF. Gainesville, Texas. 
Activated 20 Sep 41. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 31 Oct 46. Transferred to the Corps of 
Engineers 16 Au2 47. 

FORT" WORTH AAF. Fort Worth, Texas. 
.'Xctisatcd 30 Jun 42 as Tarrant AAF. Redesignated 
Fort Worth AAF 29 Jul 42. Conducted four-engine 
flying training until transferred to Second Air Force 
21 Nov 4>. Redesignated Carswell AFB 29 Jan 48. 

FORT WORTH, TEXAS {See Hicks Field) 

FOSTER AFB. Victoria, Texas. Activated as 
Foster licid 15 May 41. Conducted flying training 
until inactivated 31 Oct 45. Redesignated Foster 
AFB and acti\ated on 1 Sep 52. Conducted flving 
training until transferred to Tactical Air Command 1 
Jul 54. 

GARDEN CITY AAF. Garden City, Kansas. 
Activated 6 Feb 43. Conducted flying training until 
transferred to Air Service Command 15 Dec 44. 

GARDNER FIELD. Taft, California. Activated 
2 Jun 41. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 28 Feb 45. 

GARNER FIELD. Uvalde, Texas. Activated 4 
Oct 41. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 30 Jun 45. 

GARY AFB, San Marcos, Texas. 
Gary AFB) 

(See Edward 

Wyoming. Activated as Fort Francis E. Warren 1 Jan 
30. Transferred from the Department of Army on I 
Jun 47 and assigned U) ATC. Redesignated Francis 
E. Warren AFB 7 Oct 49. Conducted technical 
training until transferred to Strategic Air Command I 
Feb 58". 

GEIGER FIELD. Spokane, Washington. 
Transferred to AAF Training Command 9 May 46. 
Conducted aviation engineer training until 15 May 
47. Transferred to Strategic Air Command 15 Sep 



FREDERICK AAF. Frederick. Oklahoma. 
Activated 23 Sep 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 31 Oct 45. Transferred to the Coips of 
Engineers 21 Sep 46. 

FREEMAN AAF. Seymour. Indiana. Activated 1 
Dec 42 Coiklucicd flying training and helicopter 
training until inacti\ated 30 Apr 44. 

GEORGE FIELD. Lawrenceville, Illinois. 
Activated 10 Aug 42. Conducted two-engine flying 
training until transferred to Troop Carrier Command 
15 Aug 44. Placed in standby status I Sep 44 

GILA BEND AAF. Gila Bend. Arizona. 
Activated 22 Aug 41. Conducted flxed gunnery 
training until transferred to a subpost of Williams 
Field 15 Oct 46. Transferred to the Corps of 
Engineers 31 Jan 47. 


Appendix C 

GLENDALE, ARIZONA iSec I hundcibial iiL-kl 


Se\ iiioiir Jolinsdii lickl) 

GOODFELLOW AFB. San Angclo. Texas. 
Actnaled as the San Anyelo Air Corps Basic Flying 
School 17 Aug 40. Redesignated Goodt'ellow Field 
II Jun 41. Conducted Hying training until 
inactivated 1 May 47. Acti\ated 1 Dec 47. 
Redesignated Goodfelk)w AFB 1.^ Jan 4S. 
Conducted flying training until transterred to USAF 
Security Service 1 Oct 58. Reassigned to ATC I Jul 
78. Conducted technical training until the present. 

GOODWIN AIR FIELD. \i\ Dorado. Arkansas. 
Leased and activated 15 Mar 48. Conducted flying 
training until lease canceled and returned to owner 1 
Oct 49^ 

GRAHAM AS. Mananna. Florida. .Activated as 
Marianna .AAF 8 Aug 42. Conducted flying training 
and contract flv ing training until transterred to Third 
An Force 12 Oct 44. Redesignated as (irahani AB 
and activated 27 Jan 5.V Conducted flying training 
and contract fl>ing training until inactivated and 
returned to ci\ ilian control on .^ I .Aug ft 1 . 

GREENSBORO CENTER, (ireensboro. North 
Carolina. ,\cii\alcd 1 Mar 43. Conducted basic 
military training until Apr 44. Became overseas 
replacement depot until transterred to AAF Personnel 
Distribution Command I lul 44. TransfeiTcd from 
Strategic Air Command to Air Training Command .^0 
.Apr 46. Continued as an overseas replacement tlepot 
until transferred to .Air Dcteiisc Command 15 -Aug 

GREENVILLE AFB. Greenville. Mississippi. 
.Activated as Greenville .AAF 23 Jun 41. Conducted 
contract Hying training until inactivated in .Mar 45. 
Redesignated Greenville AFB and activated 1 Dec 
50. Conducted contract flying training until mid-Oct 
60 and technical training from Nov 60 until 
inactivated 1 Apr 65. Base returned lo civilian 
control 27 Oct 66. 


GREENWOOD AAF. Greenwood. Mississippi. 
Activated I Oct 42. Conducted flying training until 
Transferrctl to Air Transport Command 18 Jan 45. 

GRIDER FIELD Pine Blult. Arkansas. 

Acinaicd I Api 4k Conducted contract flying 
trainm'j until maclivaicd 16 Oct 44. 


Gullpoil, i\Iississip|)i. .Activated as an .An I oice 
installation 16 Jul 51. Headquarters. Technical 
Training Air Force until unit inactivated 1 Jun 58. 
Base transferred to Keesler AFB as Keeslcr Training 
Annex #3. Transferred to US Navy 3 1 Dec 72. 

GULFPORT AAF. Gullport. Mississippi. 
Activ ated 7 Jul 42. Conducted technical training and 
basic training until transferred to Third Air Force 31 
Mar 44 with joint use by Technical Training 
Commaiul tor marine training of Emergency Rescue 
School located at Keesler. Activated 16 Jul 51. 
Conducted flying training until transferred to the Air 
National Guard I Feb 54. 

GUNTER AFS Montgotiiery. .Alabama. 
.Activated as Army Air Corps Basic Flying School 27 
Aug 40. Redesignated Gunter Field 10 Feb 41. 
Conducted flying training until transterred to .A.AF 
School (later Air University) 13 Dec 45. 
Redesignated Gunter AFS 1 Jul 73. Reassigned, 
along with Air University, to ATC 15 May 78. 
Reassigned to Air University when it became a 
separate major command 1 Jul 83. Redesignated as 
Maxwell AFB. Gunter Annex 10 .Mar 92. 
Reassigned along with .Air University to AETC 1 Jul 

HAMPTON, VIRGIN A iSec Langlcy Fieldj 

HARRELL FIELD. Camden, Arkansas. 

.Aciivaicil 7 .Aug 42. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivaiei,l 15 .Apr 44. 

HARLINGEN AFB. Harlingen. Texas. Activated 
as Harlingen AAF 16 Jun 41. Conducted flexible 
gunnery training until 1 Oct 45. Redesiganied as a 
basic training center I Nov 45 and conducted basic 
training until inactivated 1 Feb 46. .Activated as 
Harlingen .AFB 17 Mar 52. Conducted flying 
training and navigator/observer training until 
inactivated I Jul 62. 

Missouri. .Activated l4Scp4ii. ( oiulucted conlraci 
thing training: until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

HATBOX FIELD. Muskogee. Oklahoma. 
Activated 16 .Sep 40. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 27 Jun 44. 

HELENA, ARKANSAS (See also Thompson- 
Robbins Field) 

HEMET AIRPORT llemel. California. 
Activated 14 Sep 40. L oiiducled contract flying 
training until inactivated 28 Dec 44. 


Appendix C 

HENDRICKS FIELD. Sebring. Florida 
Activated 23 Mar 42. Conducted four-engine 
flying and combat crew training until 
inactivated 31 Dec 45. 

HEREFORD AAF. Hereford. Arizona. 
Activated 2 No\ 42. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated 15 May 45. 
Transferred to Corps of Engineers 5 Oct 46. 

HICKS FIELD. Fort Worth. Texas. 
Activated 16 Aug 40. Conducted contract 
flying training imtil inactivated 27 Jun 44. 

HIGLEY FIELD. Chandler. Arizona. (See 
Williams AFB) 

A stone gate marks the entrance to administrative and school 
buildings at Harvey Parks Airport near Sikcston, Missouri. 

HOBBS AAF. Hobbs. New Mexico. 
Activated 2 Nov 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 30 Oct 45. 

HONDO AB. Hondo, Texas. Activated as Hondo 
Army air field 4 Jul 42. Conducted navigator, flying, 
and contract flying training until inactivated 31 Dec 
45. Redesignated Hondo AB and activated 5 Jun 51. 
Conducted contract flying training until inactivated 
and returned to ci\ilian control 31 Oct 5!S. 

HOUSTON, TEXAS {See Ellington AFB) 

IMMOKALEE AAF. Immokalee, Florida. 
Actisaled 5 Jul 42. Conducted flying training and 
flexible gunnery training until inactivated 30 Sep 45. 

INDEPENDENCE AAF. Independence. Kansas. 
Activated 12 Oct 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 1 Nov 45. 

JACKSON AAB. Jackson. Mississippi. 
Activated 1 May 42. Conducted specialized flying 
training for the Netherlands East Indies until 
transferred to Thirti Air Force I Jul 44. 

JACKSON AIRPORT. Jackson. Tennessee. 

Activated 5 Jul 42. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 27 Jun 44. 


Activated as Waco AAF 16 Sep 41. Conducted 
flying training until inactivated 15 Dec 45. 
Redesignated Waco AFB and activated I Aug 48. 
Redesignated Connally AFB 10 Jun 49. 
Redesignated James Connally AFB S Jan 51. 
Conducted flying training until transferred to Tactical 
Air Command I Jan 66. 

JEFFERSON BARRACKS. St Louis, Missouri. 
Actuated 3 Sep 40. Conducted basic military 
training until Nov 43. Overseas replacement depot 
established 8 Nov 43. Transferred to Se\enth Service 
Command 30 Apr 44. 

JONES FIELD. Bonham. Texas. Activated 4 Oct 
41. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

Texas. .4cti\ated 12 Nov 42. Conducted contract 

Basic trainees use a structure known as a 
"Jacob's Ladder" as a part of physical 
training at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. 

Appendix C 

\'\\ my [raiiiini: unlil M) Sep 45. 

KEARNS CENTER. Keaiiis. L!lah. Acti\ated 
1 May 42. Conducted basic military training and 
technical training until 30 Sep 43. Overseas 
replacement depot established 8 Nov 43. Transt'ened 
to .AAF Personnel Distribution Command I .lul 44. 
Transferred from Strategic Air Command to ,\ir 
Training Command 30 Apr 46. Continued as an 
over.seas replacement depot until inactixaied I.S .Aug 

KEESLER AFB. Bilo.xi. Mississippi. Activated 
12.lun 41 as Arms .\\r Corps Station No. S. 
Redesignated Keesler Field 2."^ .Aug 41. 
Redesignated Keesler AFB 13 Jan 4S. Conducted 
technical and tl\ing training to the present. 

KELLY AFB. San Antonio. Texas. Activated as 
Camp Kelly 7 Ma> 1917. Redesignated Kelly Field 
30 Jul 1917. Ciinducted Air Service mechanics 
training and pursuit, bomber, and observation flsing 
training until transferred to Air Service Command 1 1 
Mar 4.i Redesignated Kelly AFB 29 Jan 48. 

KING CITY, CALIFORNIA iSce also Palo Alio 

KINGMAN AAF Kingman. .Arizona. Activated 
16 Jan 43. Conducted n\ing training until 
inactivated I Aug 45. 

KINSTON AIR FIELD. Kmsion, North Carolina. 
(Sec SialluiL's ABi 

.\ retreat ccremonN takes place outsidi' ilu' Pine 
Needles lldlel at nollwond. North ( aroliiia. the 
.\AF 1'echiiical I raininj; ((iinniaiid lKa(l(|uarters. 

Indoctrination Division. .Air Training Command. 
1 6 Oct 46: Lackland AB. II Jul 47; and Lackland 
AFB. 13 Jan 48. Conducted basic military training 
for both officer and enlisted personnel, as well as. 
technical training--a mission that continues to the 

LAFAYETTE AIRPORT, l.atayetie. Louisiana. 
.Activated .5 Jul 42. Conducted contract living 
training until inactivated 24 Mar 44. 

LA JUNTA AAF. la Junia. Colorado. Activated 

2 Nov 42. C Onducied flvuig liaining until inactivated 
30 Jul 4.^. 

KIRTLAND AFB. Albuquerque. New Mexico. 
.Activated as Albuquerque AAF 8 Mar 41. 
Transferred to Army Air Forces Flying Training 
Command 6 Dec 41. Redesignated Kirtland Field 24 
Feb 42. Conducted flying and bombardier training 
until transferred to Second Air Force I Mar 45. 
Redesignated Kirtland AFB 13 Jan 48. 

KNOLLWOOD FIELD. Knollvvood. North 
Carolina. Iraiisferrcd in .Amiv Air Forces Technical 
Training Command on 10 Mar 42. Housed 
Headquarters. Technical Training Command until 
iransterred to Air Technical Service Command 
10 Aue43. 


l.akelaml. Florida. .Activaieil 14 Sep 40. Conducted 
conlract living training until in.ictivaied I Oct 4.S. 

LAMESA AIRPORT. Lamesa. Texas. Acti\ated 

10 Jun 42. Conducted basic glider training and 
contract liaison pilot training unlil inactivated 26 Feb 

LANCASTER AIRPORT. Lancaster. California. 
Activated 28 Jul 42. Conducted contract basic pilot 
training. Replaced by Oxnard's primary school 
which moved to Lancaster 27 Jun 44. Conducted 
contract Hying training until inactivated I Nov 45. 

LACKLAND AFB San Antonio Texas. 
Activated as the San Antonio .Aviation Cadet Center. 
26 Jun 42 and classification center and prellight 
school established. Transferred to AAF Personnel 
Distribution Command .30 Jun 4.S. Redesignated San 
Antonio District. AAF Personnel Distribution 
Conniiand. I Jul 45. Returned to Army Air Forces 
Training Command and redesignated AAF Military 
Iraining Center. I Feb 46. Redesignated 


LANGLEY FIELD. Hampton. Virginia. 
Transferred Ironi First Air Force to Army Air Forces 
Training Comntand l.*^ Sep 44. Conducted radar 
observer school until transferred to .Arni> Airways 


Appendix C 

Comnuinications System 
redesienaied Lungley AFB. 

1 Dec 4?. Later 

LAREDO AFB. Laredo. Texas. Activated as 
Laredo AAF I May 42. Conducted flexible gunnery 
and flying training until inactivated 15 Dec 45. 
Redesignated Laredo AFB and activated 2 Jun 52. 
Conducted flying training until inactivated 30 Sep 73. 

LAS VEGAS FIELD. Las Vegas. Nevada. 
Nellis AFB) 


LAUGHLIN AFB. Del Rio. Texas. Activated on 
26 Sep 42 as advanced flying school. Redesignated 
as bombardier school but never held that training. 
Established B-26 transition school 10 Nov 42 and 
designated Laughlin AAF 3 Mar 43. Redesignated 
Laughlin Field 1 1 Nov 43. Conducted flying training 
until transferred to Air Materiel Command 30 Oct 45 
and placed in inactive status. Transfen-ed to ATC 10 
Oct 51. Activated and redesignated as Laughlin AFB 
1 May 52. Conducted flying training until transferred 
to Strategic Air Command 1 Apr 57. Reassigned to 
ATC I Apr 62. Conducted flying trahiing to the 

Field 1 

LEMOORE AAF. Lemoore, California. 
Activated 20 Dec 41. Conducted flying training until 
transferred to Fourth Air force I .Km 44. 

LIBERAL AAF. Liberal. Kansas. Activated 
1 Jun 41. Iranslerred to AAF Training Command 
25 Apr 43. Conducted flying training and specialized 
four-engine flying training until inactivated 30 Sep 

45. Transferred to the Corps of Engineers 6 Oct 46. 

LINCOLN AAF. Lincoln, Nebraska. Activated 
in Jul 39. Conducted flying training, basic military 
training and technical training until transferred to 
Second Air Force 15 Apr 44. Transferred to AAF 
Training Command 15 Mar 45. Became a combat 
crew processing center until inactivated 15 Dec 45. 
Transferred to Corps of Engineers 23 Nov 46. 

LITTLE ROCK AFB. Little Rock, Arkansas (See 
also Adams Field). Activated Oct 85. Transferred to 
AETC on I Apr 97. Conducted flying training until 
the present. 

LOCKBOURNE AAF. Columbus, Ohio. 
Activated 23 Dec 42. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 2 Sep 45. 

LOVE FIELD. Dallas. Texas. Activated Jul 39. 
Conducted flying and technical training until 
inactivated in May 45. 

LOWRY AFB. Denver Colorado. Activated 
27 Aug 37 as Denver Branch, Air Coips Technical 
School. Redesignated Lowry Field 1 1 Mar 38. 
Redesignated Lowry AFB 24 Jun 48. Conducted 
technical training initil the present. Closed 1 Oct 94. 

LUBBOCK, TEXAS (See Reese AFB and South 
Plains AAF) 

LUKE AFB. Phoenix, Arizona. Activated as 
Litchfleld Park Air Base 15 Feb 41, Redesignated 
Luke Field 6 Jun 41. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 31 Oct 46. Transferred to the Corps of 
Engineers 1 Sep 47. Reassigned as a subinstallation 
of Williams Field 3 Dec 46-5 Mar 51. Redesignated 


Troops pass in review oi>. the fliuht line at Liberal .\.\F, ansas, between rows of B-24 "Liberators. 


Appendix C 

Matagorda Island, oil the Texas fiullcoast. was home for a pursuit <iunner> sehool in the earl\ 1940s. 

Luke AFB 10 Juii 49. Activated and assigned to Air 
Training Command 1 Jan 51. Conducted combat 
crew training until transferred lo Tactical Air 
Command 1 Jul 58. Transferred to AETC on I Jul 93. 

MACON, GEORGIA (See Cochran Field) 

MARFA AAF. .\larfa. Texas. Activated .5 Dec 
42. Conducted Hying training until inactivated 1 .Aug 

MARIANNA AAF. Manann.i. llorida. (See 
Graham .\B) 


MAJORS AAF. Greenv ille. Texas. Activated 26 
Jun 42. Conducted flying Iraiiung until transterred lo 
Second Air Force 30 Nov 44. 

MALDEN AB. Maiden. Missouri. Activated as 
Maiden .AAF (i Jan 43. Cimducled contract Hying 
training and Hying training until transferred to Troop 
Carrier Command 15 Jun 44. Activated as Maiden 
AB II Jul 51. Conducted contract Hying training 
until inactivated I Sep 60. 

MARANA AB. .Marana. Arizona. Activated as 
Marana AAF 29 Aug 42. Conducted contract flying 
training and Hying training until inactivated 12 Sep 
45. Activatetl as .Marana AB 1 Sep 51. Conducted 
contract Hvinu traiinn>j until inactivated 22 Oct 57. 

MATAGORDA ISLAND. Texas. Activated 15 

.\la) 41. Ciuniierv range loi bases in southern Texas 
until inactivated 31 Oct 45. 

MATAGORDA PENINSULA, lexas. Activated 
15 May 41. Bombing range for bases in southern 
Texas until inactivated 31 Oct 45. 

MATHER AFB. Sacramento. California. 
.Activated as Mather field 21 leh 19IS. Transferred 
from Air Force Combat Command to Army Air 
Forces Flying Training Command 23 Jan 42. 
Conducted navigation and living training until 
transferred to Air Transport Command I Oct 44. 
Reassigned to Army Air Forces Training Command 
20 Dec 45. Redesignated Mather AFB 13 Jan 48. 
Conducted navigation and Hying training to the 
present. Closed I Oct 93. 


Appendix C 


I mi !l7l 

Austin Hall housed Headquarters, Army Air Forces Eastern Flying Training Command at Maxwell Field, 
Alabama, in 1941. 

MAXWELL AFB. Montgomery, Alabama. 
Activated 9 Apr 1918 as Engine and Plane Repair 
Depot #3. Redesignated Maxwell Field 8 Nov 1922. 
Transferred from the Air Corps Tactical School to 
Southeast Air Corps Training Center 15 Jul 31. which 
later became AAF Training Command. Conducted 
flying training until transferred to AAF School (later 
redesignated Air University) 29 Nov 45. 
Redesignated Maxwell AFB 13 Jan 48. Transfeired 
to ATC 15 May 78. Conducted professional military 
education until Air University again became a 
separate major command on 1 Jul 83. Transferred to 
Air Education and Training Command 1 Jul 93 when 
Air Uni\ersity became a subordinate of this 
command. Conducted professional military education 
until the present. 

McBRIDE AIRPORT. McBride, Missouri. 
Actisalcd 28 Jan 42. Conducted contract tlying 
training until inactivated 24 Mar 44. 

McCONNELL AFB. Wichna. Kansas. 
Designated Wichita .AFB and activated 7 Jun 51. 
Redesignated McConncll AFB on 12 Apr 54. 
Conducted B-47 combat crew training until 
transferred to Strategic Air Command on 1 Jul 58. 

McCOY AFB. Orlando. Florida. 

(See Pinecastle 

MERCED AAF. Merced. California. Activated 
as Merced Army Flying School 20 Sep 41. 
Redesignated Merced AAF on 8 May 43. Conducted 
flying training and advanced flying training for 
Women Airforce Service Pilots until transferred to 

Continental Air Forces on 1 Jul 45. Redesignated 
Castle AFB 13 Jan 48. 

MESA AB. Chandler. Arizona. (See Williams 

MESA, ARIZONA (See Falcon Field) 

MIAMI AIRPORT. Miami. Oklahoma. Activated 
12 Nov 42. Conducted contract Hying training for 
the British until inactivated 30 Sep 45. 


Miami Beach. Florida. .Actuated 27 Mar 42. 
Conducted basic military until 1 Jul 44 and officer 
candidate training until inactivated 20 Aug 44. 

MIDLAND AAF. Midland. Texas. Activated 
2 Aug 41. Conducted multi-engine tJying training 
bombardier training until Sep 42 when it became a 
bombardier school only. Conducted bombardier 
training until inactivated 1 Jun 46. 

MINTER FIELD. Bakersfield. California. 
Activated 5 Jun 41. Conducted Hying training until 
inactivated 31 Jan 46. Transferred to the Corps of 
Engineers 21 Dec 46. 


MONROE, LOUISANA (See Selman Field) 

MOODY AFB. \ aldosta. Georgia. Activated as 
Moodv A.AF 26 Jun 41. Conducted Hying training 


Liiiiil transt'erred to First Air Force 1 Mas 45. 
Transferred lo Arnn Air Forces Training Command 
1 NoN 45. Conducted living training until transterred 
to Tactical Air Command 1 Sep 47. Redesignated 
Moody AFB 13 Jan 48. Transt'erred to Continental 
Air Command 1 Dec 4S. Transt'erred to Strategic .Air 
Command 1 Apr 3 1 . Transt'erred to ATC 1 Sep 5 1 . 
Conducted combat crew and Hying training until 
transferred to Tactical Air Command 1 Dec 75. 

MOORE AB. .Mission. Texas. .Activated as 
Moore Field 20 Sep 41. Conducted Using and 
technical training until inacti\ated 31 Oct 45. 
Activated 22 Jan 54. Redesignated Moore AB 1 Jul 
55. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated 31 Mar 61. Returned to ci\ilian control 
15 Jul 63. 

MOTON FIELD. Tuskegee. Alabama. Actisated 
23 .Aug 41. Conducted contract flying training until 
inacti\ated 31 Dec 45. 


MUSKOGEE, OKLAHOMA (Sec Hatbo.v Field) 

MUSTANG FIELD. El Reno. Oklahoma. 
Activated 16 Jan 43. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 28 Dec 44. 

NAPIER FIELD. Dothan. Alabama. Activated 
20 Dec 41. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 1 Nov 45. 

Appendix C 

Classification Center until inactivated I Apr 44. 

NELLIS AFB. I. as Vegas. Nevada. Activated as 
Las Vegas AAF 20 Dec 41. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated 31 Dec 46. Activated 
30 Aug 47 as a subinstallation of Mather AFB. 
Assigned as a subinstallation of Williams .AAF I Apr 
48 to provide advanced training tor fighter pilots. 
Redesignated Nellis AFB and activated 30 Apr 50. 
Conducted flying and combat crew training until 
transferred to Tactical Air Command 1 Jul 58. 

NEWBURGH, NEW VORKiSee Stewart Field) 

Louisiana. .Activated IS .Mar 45. Conducted .A.AF 
Tropical Weather School until transferred to AAF 

Weather Serv ice 1 Nov 45. 

NEWPORT AAF. Newport. .Arkansas. Activated 

I Nov 42. Conducted flv ing trairnng until transferred 
to the Navy Department 19 Aug 44. 

NOBLE AAF. Perrv. Oklahcniia. Activated 

I I Feb 42. Conducted fl) ing training until transferred 
to the Corps of Engineers 28 Oct 46. 

OCALA FIELD. Ocala. Florida. Activated in 
Nov 41. Conducted contract flv ing training until 

inactivated S Sep 44. 

Cimanon 1 iclili 

NAPLES AAF. Naples. Florida. Activated 5 Jul 
42. Conducted flying training and flexible gunnery 
training until inactivated 30 Sep 45. 

NASHVILLE AAC. Nashville. Tennessee. 
Activated 1 Jun 42. Functioned as a AAF 


The .Air C orps turned l(i civilian voiaiional schools 
in 1939 «o help train airplane nuihanics. Parks 
Air ( oljejie in Fast St Louis. Illinois, was one of 
seven such schools under contract to the Air Corps 
for that purpose. 

ONTARIO AIRPORT. Ontario. California. 

.Activated 14 Sep 40. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated in Dec 43. Activated Jun 44. 
Conducted contract flving training until inactivated 
16 (VI 44 


Oiaiigebuig. South Caroliii.i .Ai.livalcd 4 Oct 41. 
Conducted contract flying training until inactivated 
I Sep 45. 

ORLANDO, FLORIDA (See Pineca.stle AFB) 

OXNARD AIRPORT Oxnaid. California. 
Activated 12 Sep 40. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 27 Jun 44. 

PALO ALTO AIRPORT. King City. California. 

Activated 22 .M.u 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

PAMPA AAF. I'anipa. Texas. Activated 3 Aug 
42. Conducted flying training until transferred as a 
suhpost of Liberal. Kansas, on 28 Dec 44. 


Appendix C ^ 

Inactivated 30 Sep 45. Transterred to the Corps of 
Engineers 29 Jan 47. 


PARKS AFB. Pleasanton. California. Originally 
designated as Camp Parks. Redesignated Parks AFB 
and activated on 1 Aug 5 1 . Conducted basic training 
and air base ground defense training until transferred 
to Continental Air Command 1 Jan 57. 

PARKS AIRPORT. East St Louis. Illinois. 
.Actuated on 1 .Aug 39. Conducted contract flying 
training imtil inactivated 12 Mar 44. 

PECOS AAF. Pecos, Texas. Activated 28 Aug 
42. Conducted flying training until inactivated 31 
May 45. 

PERRIN AFB. Sherman. Texas. Activated as 
Perrin AAF 20 Sep 41. Conducted flying training 
until inactivated 31 Oct 46. Redesignated Perrin 
AFB and activated 1 Apr 48. Conducted combat 
crew and flying training until transferred to Air 
Defense Command 1 Jul 62. 


PINE BLUFF, ARKANSAS {Sec Grider Field) 

PINECASTLE AFB. Orlando, Florida. Activate 
10 Sep 51. Conducted combat crew training until 
transferred to Strategic Air Command I Jan 54. 

Later redesignated McCoy AFB. 

PITTSBURG AIRPORT. Pittsburg. Kansas 

Activated 25 May 42. Conducted contract liaison 
pilot training until inactivated 20 Oct 44. 



Oklahoma. Activated 12 Nov 42. Conducted contract 
flying training for the British luitil inactivated 15 Apr 

RANDOLPH AFB. San Antonio, Texas. 
Activated as Aviation Field, San Antonio, 18 Aug 
1928. Redesignated Randolph Field 27 Sep 28. 
Redesignated Randolph AFB 13 Jan 48. Conducted 
flying training, combat crew training, navigator 
training, and flying instructor training until the 


REESE AFB. Lubbock, Texas. Established on 
26Jun 41. Named Air Corps Advanced Flying 
School, Lubbock, 1 1 Aug 41. Redesignated Lubbock 
Army Flying School 6 Feb 42: Lubbock AAF 26 Apr 
43; and Lubbock AFB 13 Jan 48. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated 31 Dec 45. Activated 1 Aug 
49. Redesignated Reese AFB 19 Nov 49. Conducted 
flying training imtil inactivated 1 Oct 97. 

RIDDLE FIELD. Clewiston. Florida. Activated 
12 Nov 42. Conducted contract flvins: training until 

MacFarland Flying Service School pro\ Idcd advanced liaison traininj: at Pittsburg, Kansas, in 1944. 


Appendix C 

inactivated 3! Dec 45. 

ROBBINS FIELD. Jackson. Mississippi. 
Activated 14 Sep 40. Conducieii contract ri\int; 
training until inactivated 15 .^pr 44. 

SEQUOIA FIELD, \isulia. California. Aclivaied 
4 Oct 41. Conducted contract tlNinj; training until 
inactivated in Oct 44. 


ROSWELL AAF. Roswell. New Mexico. 
.Activated 20 -Sep 41. Conducted Hying and 
bombardier training until translerred to Second Air 
Force 1 No\ 45. Later redesignate^.! Walker .AFB. 

SAMPSON AFB. Geneva. New York. Activated 
15 Nov 50. Conducted basic militarv training until 
transfened on inactive status to Air Materiel 
Command I Oct 56. 

SAN ANGELO AAF. San Angelo. Texas. 
Activated I .lun 42. Conducted bombardier and 
specialized two- and four-engine pilot training until 
inactivated .^0 Nov 45. Transferred to the Corps of 
Engineers .^0 Jiin 46. 

SAN ANGELO, TEXAS iScc Goodtellow AFB) 

CENTER. San Antonio. Texas (See Lackland AFB) 

SAN MARCOS AFB. San Marcos, Texas. (See 
Edward Garv .AFB ) 

SANTA ANA AAF. Santa Ana. Calikunia. 
.Activated I Jan 42. Conducted aircrew classification 
and pictliglit training until inactivated 2 Sep 45. 


Calilornia. Activated 14 Sep 40, Conducted contract 
living training until inactiv ated 27 Jun 44. 

SCOTT AFB. Belleville. Illinois. Activated as 
Scott Field 20 Sep 1917. Transferred from Air Corps 
Technical Service 26 Mar 41. Conducted technical 
training until Oct 57. Redesignated Scott AFB l.'^ 
Jan 48. Headquarters Air Training Command from 
17 Oct 49 until transferred to Militarv Air Transport 
Service 1 Oct 57. 

SEYMOUR JOHNSON AFB (ioldsboro. North 
Carolina. .A^iivaicd as Scvnioui Johnson Field 12 
Jun 42. Conducted basic military and technical 
training until transferred to First .Air Force .^0 Apr -14. 
Overseas replacement depot established 8 Nov 4.^. 
.Aviation cadet pre-technical school continued to 
opeiate until Jun 44. Redesignated Seymour Johnson 
AFB I Jan 5.V 

SHAW AFB. Sumter. South Carolina. Activated 

as Shaw field 14 .Aug 41. Conducted living training 
until transferred to First Air Force 1 Apr 45. 
Redesignated Shaw AFB 1.^ Jan 48. 

SHEPPARD AFB. Wichita Falls. Texas. 
.Activated as Iccliiiical School at Wichita Falls II 
Feb 41. Redesignated Sheppard Field 15 Apr 41. 
Conducted basic militarv training, technical training, 
living training, glider pilot training, and was a 
replacement training center until inactivated 31 Aug 
46. Redesignated Sheppard .AFB and activated I 
.Aug 48. Conducted basic training 1948-49. technical 
training from 1949 to present, and living training 
1966 to the present. 




MISSOURI iS,w ll.uvev Parks 

SIOUX FALLS AAF. Sioux Falls. South Dakota. 
Activated II Jul 42. Conducted technical training 
until inactivated I Aug 45. 


Field #2 I 

SEBRING. FLORIDA (See Hendricks Field) 


SELMAN FIELD Monroe. Louisiana. Activated 
14 Aug 42. Conducted pretlight, navigation, and 
navigation instructor training until inactivated 31 
Mav 46. Transferred to the Corps of Engineers 31 
Jul 46. 

R-4 and U-d hiliiiiplirs IJv In^ilher at Sluppard 
licld. Icxas, in .luiie l'>45. 


Appendix C 

SMYRNA AAF. Sm\ina. Tennessee. Activated 
1 Jun 42. Conducted Hying training until inactivated 
31 Oct 45. Transferred to Tactical Air Command 31 
Mar 46. 

SOUTH PLAINS AAF. Lubbock. Texas. 
Activated 1 1 Sep 42. Conducted advanced glider 
training until inactivated and transferred to Air 
Service Command I May 45. 

SOUTHER FIELD. Americus. Georgia. 
Activated 21 Mar 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

SPENCE AB. Moultrie. Georgia. Activated as 
Spencc Field 12 Jul 41. Conducted contract flying 
training and flying training until inactivated 15 Dec 
45. Redesignated Spence AB and activated 15 May 
51. Conducted contract flying training until 
inactivated and returned to civilian control 31 Mar 

Wright Field and Cieiger Field) 

STALLINGS AB. Kinston. North Carolina. A 
US Navy pilot training base during World War II. 
Activated as Kinston Air Field on 17 Oct 51. 
Redesignated Stallings AB 28 Jun 53. Conducted 
flying training and contract flying training until 
inactivated 27 Nov 57. 

ST LOUIS, /W/SSOUR/( See Jetfei son Barracks) 

Florida. Activated 27 Jun 42. Conducted flying 
training until inactivated 31 Jul 43. 

STAMFORD, TEXAS {See Arledge Field) 

STEAD AFB. Reno. Nevada. Stead ANG Base 
redesignated Stead AFB 1 Aug 51. Transferred to 
ATC from Strategic Air Command I Sep 54. 
Conducted helicopter and liaison flying training and 
survival training until 15 Jun 66 when the base 
inactivated. Returned to civilian control 6 Nov 69. 

STEWART FIELD. New burgh. New York. 
Activated and established basic-advanced flying 
school 22 May 42. Conducted flying training and 
specialized flying training for US Military Academy 
cadets until inactivated 1 Jul 46. While the flying 
program was under the technical control of the 
Commanding General Training Command, the field 
belonged to the United States Military Academy. 
\Vc<st Point, New York. 

STOCKTON FIELD. Stockton. California. 
Activated 4 Jan 41. Conducted flying training until 
inactivated 1 Nov 45. 

STROTHER AAF. Winfield, Kansas. Activated 
12 Nov 42. Conducted flying training until 
transfened to Second Air Force 31 May 44. 

STUTTGART AAF. Stuttgart. Arkansas. 
Activated 15 Aug 42. Conducted flying training until 
transferred to Third Air Force 3 1 Jan 45. 

SWEETWATER, TEXAS (See Avenger Field) 

TAFT, CALIFORNIA (See Gardner Field) 

TARRANT AAF. Fort Worth. Texas. (See Fort 
Worth AAF) 

TEMPLE AAF. Temple Texas. Activated 2 Jul 
42. Conducted flying training until inactivated 
31 Oct 45. 

TERRELL, TEXAS (See Kaufman Municipal 

Arkansas. Activated 4 Oct 41. Conducted contract 
flying training until inactivated 4 Aug 44. 

THUNDERBIRD FIELD #7. Glendale. Arizona. 

Activated 12 Jul 41. Conducted contract flying 
training until inactivated 30 Jun 45. 

THUNDERBIRD FIELD #2, Scottsdale. 
Arizona. Activated 26 Jun 42. Conducted contract 
flying training until inactivated 16 Oct 44. 

TIFTON AAF. Tifton. Georgia. Activated 
1 2 August 40. Conducted advanced two-engine 
flying training until inactivated 28 Dec 44. 
Transferred to the Corps of Engineers 2 1 Sep 46. 

Wisconsin. Activated 30 Nov 42. Conducted 
technical training until transferred to Air Service 
Command 30 Apr 44. 

Activated 1 1 Jan 42. Conducted flying training until 
transferred to the Corps of Engineers 1 .Apr 46. 

TRUAX AAF. Madison. Wisconsin. .Activated 
7 Dec 41. Conducted technical training until 
inactivated 15 Dec 45. 


TUCSON AIRPORT. Tulmmi. Aii/ona. 
Actixatcd 2? Jim 42. Conduclcd conlracl Hviiii; 
training until in:icti\ated in Sep 44. 

TULARE AIRPORT. Tulare. California. 

Aeti\aled 22 .Mar 41. Conducted ct)nlract flying 
training until inacliNated 1 .Aug 4.^. 

Oklahoma. Acti\ated 1 Aug 39. Conducted contract 
tlying and technical training until inactivated 4 Aug 

Appendix C 

Tennessee, .\cli\ated ? Jul 42. Conducted contract 
rising training until inaciixaled 15 Apr 44. 

UVALDE. TEXAS i .See Garner Field) 


Texas. .Activated 2(i .Sep 42. Conducted flying 
training until transferred to the Corps of Engineers 1 1 

Jan 4fi. 


TURNER FIELD. Alhan>. Geiirgia. Activated 
12 Aug 40. Conducted navigator and advanced tvvo- 
en2ine flvini; trainint: until inactivated 1.^ .Aul' 4ft. 

The AT-7 was used as a navijiaior trainer at 
Turner Field. Georgia, durin" \\ orld \\ ar II. 

VANCE AFB. Enid. Oklahoma. Activated as Air 
Coips Basic Flying School. Enid. 20 Sep 41. 

Redesignated Enid .Army Flying School 1 I Feb 42: 
and Enid .A.AF 7 May 4.^. Conducted Hying training 
until inactivated ."^ 1 Jan 47. Redesignated Enid AFB 
and activated 1 .Aug 48. Redesignated Vance AFB 9 
Jul 49, Conducted living training until the present. 


Alabama. .Activated 1 Sep 40. Conducted contract 
tlviiig training until inactivated S Sep 44. 

VERNON AIRPORT. \ einon. Texas. Activated 
2.3 Sep 42. Conducted living training until 
inactivated .^1 Mar 45. Transferred to Corps of 
Engineers 5 Mav 45. 

Graaff Field) 

TUSKEGEE, ALABAMA (See Moton Field i 

VERNON. TEXAS (Sec Victory Field) 

VICTORIA, TEXAS (See Aloe AAF and Foster 

TUSKEGEE AAF. Tuskegee. Alabama. 
Activated 1 1 Jan 42. Conducted Hying training until 
transferred to the Corps of Engineers 14 .Apr 4ft. 

Nine Palms. California. Activated 1 Jan 42. 
Conducted contract glider training until 1ft Feb 43. 
Conducted contract living training from Mar 43 until 
inactivated 19 .Apr 44. 

TYNDALL AFB. Panama City. Florida. 
Established as Ivndall field 1ft Jun 41. Conducted 
flexible gunnery and living training until transferred 
to Continental Air F\)rces 28 Feb 46. Transferred to 
Tactical Air Command 21 Mar 46 and to Air 
University 15 May 46. Redesignated Tyndall AFB 
1 3 Jan 48. Transferred to ATC I Sep 50. Conducted 
combat crew training and flying training until 
transferred to Air Defense Command 1 Jul 57. 
Transferred to .Air pAlucation and Training Command 
I Jul 93. 


Victorville. California. .Activated 2ft Jun 41. 
Redesignateil Victorville AAF on 23 Apr 43. 
Coiulucted specialized single-engine Hying training. 
bombardier training, and beginning in 1945. radar 
aircrew training until transferred to Air Service 
Command on 1 Nov 45. Redesignated George AFB 
2 Jun 50. 

VICTORY FIELD \ cinon. Texas. Activated 
4 Oct 41. Conducted contract Hying training until 
inactivated 4 Aug 44. 


Activated 12 .\ug U). Conducted advanced Iwo- 
cngine Hying training until inactivated 28 Dec 44. 
Transferred to Tactical Air Command I Sep 47. 

VIS ALIA, CALIFORNIA iScc Sequoia Field) 

WACO AAF. Waco, Texas. (Sec also James 
Connally AFB) 


Appendix C 

P-40s await salvage at W ainut Ridge Arm> Air Field, Arkansas. 

WACO, TEXAS Air Training Command 
established HQ Flying Training Air Force 1 May 51. 
Served as headquarters until transferred to Tactical 
Air Command and the facilities used for HQ 
Eighteenth Air Force 13 Aug 57. (See also 
Blackland AAF and James Connelly AFB) 

WALNUT RIDGE AAF. Walnut Ridge, 
Arkansas. Actuated 15 Aug 42. Conducted tlying 
training until transferred to the Department of Navy 
20 Jul 44. 

WAR EAGLE FIELD. Lancaster. California. 
Actuated 28 Jul 42. Conducted contract tlying 
training until inactivated 1 Oct 45. 

WEBB AFB. Big Spring. Texas. Activated as 
Big Spring AAF 26 Jun 42. Conducted bombardier, 
tlying training, and glider training until inactivated 
30 No\ 45. Also trained Free French cadets during 
World War II. Activated as Big Spring AFB on 1 Jan 
52. Redesignated as Webb AFB 18 May 52. 
Conducted fl\ ing training until inactivated 30 Sep 77. 

WICHITA FALLS, 75X45 (See Sheppard AFB) 


WICKENBURG FIELD W ickcnhurg. Arizona. 
Acti\aled 3 Jun 42. Conducted contract Hying 
training until inactivated 19 .Apr 44. 

WILLIAMS AFB. Chandler. Arizona. Activated 
as Mesa Military AirpoH. 19 Jun 41. Redesignated 
Higley Field Oct 41 and Williams Field 24 Feb 42. 
Conducted tlying training, flexible gunnery training, 
and radar observer training. Redesignated Williams 
AFB 13 Jan 48. Conducted tlying training until 
transferred to Tactical Air Command 1 Jul 58. 
Transferred to ATC 1 Oct 60. Conducted tlying 
training until the present. Closed 1 Oct 93. 

Oklahoma. Activated 4 Oct 41. Conducted contract 
tlying training until inactivated 1 May 45. 


WOODRING FIELD. Hnid. Oklahoma. 
Activated 1 1 Feb 42. Conducted tlying training until 
transferred to the Corps of Engineers 2 Jul 46. 

WOODWARD FIELD. Camden. South Carolina. 
Activated 22 Mar 41 . Conducted tlying training until 
inactivated 4Aug 44. 

YUCCA AAF. ^ucca. .Arizona. .Aetixated 1 Dec 

41. Conducted flexible gunnery training until 
transferred to Arnn Di\ ision Engineers 23 Dec 45. 

YUMA AAF. \ uma. Arizona. Activated 15 Dec 

42. Conducted contract Hying training, flexible 
gunner\ training, and radar obser\er training for the 
last few months of operation until inactisated 1 No\ 


HQ Air Education and Traininfj Command Oftltial \\ inj; Imhiems 



^^o/c.v •'' 






Appendix D 










'^^ Wi^^^ 


Appendix D 














• •• 
• • 

( >^ 







Appendix D 



■ s>;^ 



• O;' 

'\,^ *" 







A-76 (also see Competitive Sourciiii; and 

Privati/ation): 2S1. 306 
Able Avionics: 271 
Able Chief: 209.271 
Accelerated Copilot Enrichment ( ACH) pnigram: 

204, 229, 273 
Acker, William P.. Maj Gen. USAF: 228. 232. 236 
Acquired Immune Deliciency .Syndrome: 24S 
Acrojets: .'i9 
.Advanced Instructional Deh\er\ and Lxaluation 

System (AIDES): 217 
Advanced Instructional Ssstem: 217 
Advanced Training S_\stem: 217. 263 
Aeronautical Division: 2 
.Aerospace Basic Course (see Schools. Air and Space 

Basic Course) 
Aerospace Expeditionary Force: 327. 328 
Aerospace Medical Center: 136-37 
Aerospace Studies Institute: 234 
AIDS (see Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) 
"Aim High." USAF slogan: 23 1.3 16 
Air alert force: 92 

.\ir and Space Basic Course School (see Schools) 
.Air and Space Expeditionary Force: 316. 327 
Air base ground defense (see Military training) 
Air Command and Staff College: 236. 238, 281. 289. 

293. 293. 300. 303. 308. 310. 31 1. 317, 323. 327. 

Air Corps Tactical School (see Schools) 
Air Corps Training Center (see Training Centers) 
Air Operatit)ns Center: 330 
Air National Guard (also see Instructor Force. Pilot): 

F-16 Formal Training Units transfer to AETC: 

A-4: 161 

A-6: 161 

A- 1 0:273 

A- 1 7: 13. 17 

A-20: 13. 17.23 

A-25: 13. 17.210 

A-26: 13. 17,21,23, 

A-29: 13. 17 

A-3.^: 13. 17 

A-.36: 13. 17.23 

AT-6 (also see T-6): 13. 17. 20. 23. 26. 28, 31, 34, 
4 1 . 47. 49. .53. 51. 83. 91.210. 340 

AT-7: 13. 17, 23, 31.41. 3.^^.5 

AT-8: 13. 17 

AT-9: 13. 17,20,23.26.28,29 

AT- 10: 13. 17,23,28.210 

AT-ll: 13. 17,23,25,31,38.41,210 

AT-I2: 13. 17 

AT- 17: 13, 17,23,28 

AT- 18: 13, 17,23 

AT-21: 13. 17 

(Aircraft, conid): 
AT-22: 13. 17 
.AT-23: 13. 17 
AT-24: 13. 17.26 
AT-38: 289.295.319 
Boeing 7.37; 187. 195.200 
B-l: 247.248.282 
B-17: 13. 17. 23. 26. 27. 31.35. .39. 41.47. 53, 55, 

57. 63. 79 
B-l 8: 13. 17.23 

B-24; 13. 17. 23. 26. 27. 3 1.. 39. 41.210. 326 
B-25: 13.17. 20. 23. 24. 26. 29. 3 1 . 39. 4 1 . 44. 47, 

52, 53, 55. 57. 63. 70. 71.79. 85. 87. 9 1 . 93, 
95.96.99. 101. 103. 109. 114. 115. 121. 126. 

B-26: 1 3. 1 7. 23. 3 1 . 39. 4 1 . 53. 57. 63. 7 1 . 79. 85. 

87. 89. 91. 93. 95. 210. 343. 348 
B-29: 1 7, 23, 26, 27, 3 1 , 37, 38. 39. 4 1 . 44. 47. 49. 

53. 63. 64. 69. 71. 75. 79. 82. 87. 89. 90. 91, 
93.95.96,99, 105,210 

B-32: 39 

B-.34: 17,23,27 

B-.36: 69 

B-4(): 13. 17.23.27 

B-47: 68. 71. 73. 75. 79. 85. 86. 87. 90. 93. 95. 99. 

103. 106. 109.350 
B-50: 53, 55, 57, 79. 87. 9 1 . 95 
B-52;69, 138. 192.229 
B-57: 68. 91.93.96 
BC-I: 13. 17 
BT-9: 13. 17.23.28 
BT-I2: 13. 17 

BT-I3: 13. 17. 20, 23, 28, .34. .36. 210 
BT-I4: 13. 17,23 
BT-15: 13. 17.23 
Cessna 172 (also see T-4 1 A): 292 
C-5: 281, 286, 287, 289, 295. 299. 303, 307. 311, 

C-I2: 289.291,295,313 

C- 1 7: 293, 299, 300, .303, 307. 3 1 1 . 3 1 7. 323. 327 
C-2I: 281. 285. 289. 291. 295. 299. .303. 307. 311. 

C-32: 13, 17 
C-45: 13, 17, 23, 31.41.47. .53, 57.63. 71.79. 87. 

99. 115. 121 
C-46: 23. 3 1.. 39. 4 1. 47 
C-47: 23. 3 1 . 39. 44. 47. 53. 57, 62, 63, 7 1 , 79. 87, 

99. 1 14. 1 15. 121. 129. 135, 143, 154. 157, 

163, 169, 170, 173. 178.205.210 
C-.50: 13. 17 
C..54: 41. 47. 53. 56. 57, 63, 71. 79. 96, 109, 1 15. 

121. 129. 1.35. 143. 1.54. 157. 161, 163. 169. 

173. 177. 181. 185. 189.210 
C-56: 13. 17 
C-60: 13. 17,2.3,31,210 


(Aircraft, conttl): 

C-64: 13. 17,23.31 

C-82: 47. ,^3 

C-118: 134. 143. 197 

C-n9:96, II?. 121.205 

C-123: II.?. 121. 129. 13?. 143. I?4. 1?7. 161. 

C-124; I 14. II? 
C-130: 274. 299. 303, 30?. 307. 311.313. 314. 


C-130J: 311,314 
C-131: 115, 121, 129, 13?, 143, 154, 157, 163, 

169, 173, 177, 181, 185, 189, 193, 197 
C- 141; 268, 281, 286, 287, 288, 289, 293. 294. 

295, 299, 303, 307, 311.317. 323, 325 
CG-4: 13, 17,22,23,31 
CH-3: 154. 157, 163, 169. 173. 177. 181 
CH-21: 143, 154, 163 
CH-53: 286 
CT-39: 257.261 
EB-66: 178 
EC-121R: 175 
F-2: 23, 47 

F-4: 146, 170. 171. 187. 199.202.237 
F-5: 161,204,205 
F-6: 23 
F-7:23. 31 
F-9: 23,31 
F-10:23, 47, 70 
F-15: 267, 281, 286, 287, 289. 291. 292. 294. 29?. 

299. 303, 307. 311.317. 323. 326. 327. 329 

F-15E: 286, 287, 289, 291, 295, 297 
F-16: 206. 262, 273, 281, 284, 286, 287. 289. 

295. 299, 301, 303, 307, 311,312, 313, 317. 

319. 323, 32?, 326, 327, 329 

Mishaps at Luke AFB: 313 
F/A-22: 260, 325, 329, 330 
F-5 1: 41, 53. 57. 63. 65, 69, 71. 76. 79. 85. 93. 99 
F-80: 41, 49, 53, 57, 63, 64. 65. 71. 76. 78. 79. 85. 

87, 93. 99 
F-84: 63, 68. 71. 76, 79, 85, 87, 93, 99. 103. 109, 

F-86: 63. 68. 7 1 . 75. 76. 79. 84. 85. 87. 89. 90. 92. 

93,99, 103, 109. 111. II?. 117. 121. 129. 132, 

13?, 138 
F-89: 68. 7 1 , 75, 76. 79. 84, 85, 86. 87. 90. 93. 99, 

103, 109. III. II?. 121. 129, 13? 
F-94: 68, 71, 7?, 79, 84, 87, 90, 93, 99, 103, I I 1 
F-lOO: 68, 93, 95, 99, 103, 109, 1 17, 129 
F-102: 129, 132, 135. 138 
F- 105: 271 

F-111: 178. 199.216.228 
F-117: 282 
FW-190: 34 

H-5: 31. 53. 57. 63. 71. 79. 87. 93. 118 

H-13: 53, 57, 63. 71, 79, 87, 93, 99, 103, 109. 
11?. 120. 121 

103. 109. 11?. 119. 120, 

(Aircraft, contd): 

H-19:79. 8?, 87.93,99. 

121, 129, 13? 
H-21:93, 103, 109, 11?. 119, 120, 121, 129, 135 
H-23: 79, 99 

H-43: 129, 133, 135, 142, 175 
H-60: 328 

HC-130: 281. 286, 289, 295, 323, 327 
HH-43: 143, 154, 1?7. 167. 169. 173. 177. 181 
HH-60: 299. 307, 311.317. 323. 327 
HU-IA: 176 
JN-4: 1 
JT-33: 143 

KC-97; 103. 10?. 106. 109, 112, 145 
KC-135: 281. 286. 287. 289. 292-293, 295, 303, 

L-1: 13. 17 
L-2: 13. 17.23 
L-3: 13. 17,23 

L-4; 13, 17,,53,342 
L-5: 13, 17,,49,53,57,63,71,79, 

L-13;57, 63, 71,79, 87 
L-16:53, 57,63, 71,79, 87 
L-17: 87 
L-19: 87, 93,99 
L-21:79. 87. 93.99 
MC-130: 281. 284. 286. 289. 295. 299. 303. .307. 

311.317. 323.327 
lVIH-53: 28 1 . 286, 289, 295, 299, 303, 307. 311. 

MH-60: 281,285,286,289,295 
NCH-53: 281.286 
NT-29: 143 

0-46; 13. 17 

0-47: 13, 17.23 

0-52: 13. 17 

OA-9: 13. 17 

OA-10: 13, 17,23,31.39.41 

OA-14: 13. 17,23 

F-35: 13, 17 

P-36: 13, 17 

P-38: 13. 17. 


P-39:13. 17. 23.26.35 

P-40: 12. 13. 17,23,26,31, 



, 356 

P-47: 13, 17.23.35,39,41, 




P-51:35,4I.44. 47. 49. .50. 


P-61: 23.31 

P-63: 23.31 

p.80:4l.44. 47.49 

PA-18: 96,99 

PT-13:?, 13. 




PT-15: 13, 17 

PT-17:20, 28, .34. 36. .^9 

PT-18: 13. 17.23 

PT-19: 13. 17.23,28,29.31 

PT-20: 28 

PT-22: 13. 17 

PT-23: 13, 17 


(Aircraft, contd): 
PT-27: 13. 17 
R-4: 23. 31.353 
R-6:31.47. 353 
RA-24: 13. 17.23 
RA-28: 13. 17 
RA-33: 13. 17 
RB-25: 57 
RC-45: 53 
RF-4: 146. 178 
RP-63: 31.38-34 
RP-322: 13. 17.23 
Tornado: 228 
T-1: 267. 277. 278-279. 281. 285. 286. 287. 289. 

291. 295. 299. 301, 303. 307. 311.317. 323, 

T-3 (also see Flight .Screening, enhanced): 276, 

277. 281. 289. 291. 292. 295. 299. 301, 305, 

T-6: 47. 49, 53, 63, 71. 79. 85, 87, 93, 99, 101 
T-6A Texan II: 281. 295. 319. 323. 324-325. 329 
T-28: 63. 65. 71. 79. 85. 87. 93. 95, 96, 99, 101, 

103, 106, 109, 115, 119, 121, 125, 129. 135. 

143. 144. 145. 154. 157. 163. 169. 17(1. 

177. 181. 185, 189, 194,205 
T-29: 63. 65. 71. 79. 87. 90, 91, 93, 95, 99, 

106, 109, 115, 121. 129, 135, 143, 152. 

157. 160. 161. 163. 169. 173, 177, 181 

187, 189, 193, 195. 200. 201. 203. 208 
T-33: 57. 63. 7 1 . 79. 85. 87. 93. 95. 96. 99. 

103. 106. 109, 114, 115, 121, 123, 129, 

135. 137. 143. 151. 1.^4. 155. 157. 163. 


Final delixered: 123 
T-34: 63. 7 1 , 79, 87, 9 1 , 93. 95. 96. 99. 1 03. 

115. 12(J. 121. 125. 129 
T-37:95. I(J3. 109. 111. 115. 120. 121. 125. 

132. 135, 143, 153, 154, 157, 163, 168, 169, 

170. 173. 174. 177. 181. 182. 185, 187. 189. 

192, 193, 195, 197, 199. 200, 201. 203, 204. 

205, 207. 211,215,218,219, 223, 227. 228. 

231, 233, 235, 241. 245.247, 249, 253. 2.56. 

257, 260. 261. 265. 268. 269. 273, 275. 277. 

279. 281. 287. 289. 292. 293. 295. 299. 303. 


Final delivered: 182 
T-38: 135. 137. 143. 151. 1.54. 157. 161, 

168, 169. 170, 173. 174. 177. 181. 185 

190. 192. 193, 195, 197, 199, 200, 201,219.223 

227. 231. 241. 245. 247. 249. 253, 257 

261. 265, 268, 269, 273, 275, 277, 279 

289, 295, 299. 301-302. 303, .305, 307, 311. 


Avionics Upgrade Program: 299. 301-302, 329 

Final delivered: 192 

T-.38C: 326.327.329 













(Aircraft, contd): 

T-39: 135, 137. 143. 1.54. 157. 163, 169, 173, 

177. 181. 185. 189. 195. 

211. 2.\5. 241. 245. 249, 253, 257, 261, 265, 

T-41: 135, 154, 157, 159, 160, 163, 169, 170, 173, 

174, 177, 181, 185, 189, 193, 195. 197,201, 

207. 2 1 1 , 2 1 5. 2 1 9, 223, 227, 23 1 , 235. 24 1 , 

245. 249, 257, 267, 269. 275. 276, 277. 281, 

289, 292 
T-43: 173, 187, 193, 195, 197. 200. 201. 203, 

207, 208. 2 II . 2 1 3, 2 1 5, 2 19, 223, 227. 229, 

231, 2.35, 241, 245, 249, 253. 257, 261, 265, 

269. 275, 281, 286, 289, 295, 299. .303. 307, 

31 1,317, 323,327 
T-44A: 287 

T-46: 231,233,245,247 
TB-25: 23, 26, 53. 63 
TB-26: 53.210 
TB-32: 23,26,31 
TC-47: 57 

TC-54:9I, 121, 126, 143, 152 
TF-5 1 : 57, 65 
TF-102: 129, 132, 135 
TH-1: 169, 171, 173, 175, 176, 177, 181, 185, 

189, 193. 1.215.219 
TH-53: 28 1 , 289, 295. 299. 303. 307. 311,317, 

323. 324. 325. 327 
TH-57: 3.30 
U-2:137, 143, 151 

U-3:115, 135. 143. 154. 157. 163. 169 
U- 17: 205 
UC-36: 13. 17 
UC-40: 13. 17 
UC-6I: 13. 17 
UC-67: 13. 17 
UC-78: 13. 17.23 

1'H-1N:281.286. 289. 295 
UH-19: 143. 1.^4. 157. 163. 169. 171. 175 
UH-60: 3.^0 

UV-I8:219. 223, 227, 232 
VC-45: 115 
VC-47: 115. 143 
VC-.54: 1 15. 143 
VT-29: 143 
Wright Type B: I 
Air defense: 86.92. 108. 144. 145, 326 
"Air Force-A Great Way of Life." USAF slogan: 

Air Force bands: 185. 186 
AETC: 291 
ATC: 273 

Band of the West: 291..M)3 
5()2d: 273 
505th: 273 
539th: 273 
Air Force Flight Standards Agency: 277 
Air Force Food Service School (see Schools) 


Air Force Institute of Advanced Distributed 

Learning: 318 
Air Force Institute of Technology: 238, 288 
Air Force Military Personnel Center (also see Air 

Force Personnel Center): 152, 199, 273 
Air Force Officer Accession and Training Scheiols 

(see Schools) 
Air Force Officer Orientation School (see Schools) 
Air Force Officer Training (see Schools) 
Air Force Personnel Center: 33 1 
Air Force Quality Center: 284-85 
Air Force Quality Institute: 285, 305 
Air Force Recruiting Service: 122, 128, 153. 158, 

162, 164, 176, 191. 193, 219, 221, 240, 244, 256, 

264, 280, 296, 302, 303, 316. 31 1 
Air Force Reserve: 154. 160, 245, 274, 298, 302, 

305, 325, 338 

also see Instructor Force, Pilots 
Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps: 43. 76. 

134, 141, 192, 236-37, 239. 250. 255, 256, 280, 


Name Change: 246 

Reassigned from AU to HQ ATC: 237 

(also see Air Force Officer Accession and 
Training School) 
Air Force Senior Non-commissioned Officer 

Academy: 234, 238, 284, 298 
Air Force Specialty Code: 66, 183, 238, 252, 256, 

273, 294, 294, 320-21, 330, 331 
Air Installation Compatible Use Zone: 192 
Air Operations Center: 330 
Airlift support consolidated: 202 
Airman Education and Commissioning Program: 

134, 149 
Airman Qualifying Examination: 176 
Air National Guard: 287, 298, 302, 305, 312, 313. 

314, 325, 326, 339, 341, 345, 354 
Air Police (also see Security Police, Security Forces): 

64.65.70, 152, 168 
Air Reserve Component: 298. 305. 325 
Air Service: 2. 7. 347 

Air Service Communications School (see Schools) 
Air Service Mechanics School (see Schools) 
Air Service Technical School (see Schools) 
Airspace concerns: 8. 15. 151-52, 1.54, 164. 175. 325 
Air Tactical School (see Schools) 
Air traffic controller (see Technical Training. Types 

of courses ) 
Air traffic controllers' strike: 230 
Air Training Communications Division: 250, 266, 

Air Training Intnrmation Systems Division: 250, 251 
Air Univcrsits (also see Commands): 281. 282. 284. 

293, 296, 301 , 302, .305, 306. 330 
Air University Center for Aerospace Doctrine. 

Research, and Education: 234. 238. 285. 301 

renamed College of Aerospace Doctrine. 
Research, and Education: 285 
Air Univers'v Library: 301 

Air University Office of Academic Support: 301 

Air War College: 236. 238. 310 

All-volunteer force: 189. 193. 195 

Altitude chamber: 124. 155 

AN/AFG-30 radar: 1 1 3 

Aptitude testing: 19 

Arab-Israeli contlict. 1973: 196 

Arctic Indoctrination School (see Schools) 

Area positive control environment: 151-52 

Armed Forces Air Intelligence Training Center (see 

Training centers) 
Armed Forces Special Weapons Project: 97 
Army Air Corps: 2, 292 
Army Air Forces: 8. 12. 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 25. 

26, 27. 29, 31, 33. 37, 38, 39. 41, 42, 43, 44. 45. 

47,48.51.55. 148. 162, 166,210,270,292,319, 

Army Air Forces base units: 25, 40, 43 
Army Air Forces Instructors School (Central) (see 

Army Air Forces patch: 19 
Army Air Forces Pilot Instructors School (see 

Army Air Forces Pilot School (Instrument) (see 

Army Corps of Engineers: 3, 34 1 , 342, 343, 344, 346, 

348, 350. 351, 353, 354, 355, 356 
Army Ground Force Schools (see Schools) 
Army aviation training: 105 
Arnold, Henry H. (Hap), Maj Gen: 5. 6. II. 12. 14. 

21,22. 148,209.210 
Arnold Plan: 1 1 
Ashy, Joseph W., Lt Gen: 239, 266, 267. 272. 273. 

276. 280. 333 
Assistant Chief of Staff. Commissioning Programs: 

235, 255 
Assistant Chief of Staff for Technical Training 

Operations: 208,212 
Assistant Chief of Staff for Technical Training 

Support: 208.212 
Associate of Applied Science degree: 209 
ATC Civilian Automated Training Office: 255 
ATC Operations Center: 250 
Atlantic City. New Jersey: 8. 9. 10. 339 
Australia: 12 
Aviation badge: 275 
Aviation Cadet (see also Flying Cadet): 1. 5. 19. 28. 

35,50,51,59,76,86, 107, 110, 115, 121, 140-41. 

148, 160, 335, 353 

Aviation Cadet patch: 19 

A\ iation Cadet selection team: 85 
Aviation Career Plan: 5 1 . 56 
Aviation Engineer Training Center (see Training 

centers ) 
Aviation Leadership Program (ALP): 256, 257 
Aviation Medicine, School of (see Schools) 
Aviation Section: 2 

Avionics Upgrade Program (see Aircraft, T-38) 
Baker. E. J.. Col: 237 


Baker. Thomas A.. Maj Gen: 254. 2.'SS 
Balanced Budget Act (also see Granini-RLidman- 

Hollings): 24? 
Balfour, MAY., one of original nine primary school 

contractors: 6 
Balloons: 1.341 
Bands (see Air Force bands) 
Barcus. Glenn O., Maj Gen. USAF: 88. 94. 333 
Bare base concept: 183. 302 
Barry. Marvin J.. Maj Gen. USAF: 324 
Base closure: 3 I 

1989 commission: Mi. 261. 2(iS. 285. 286 

1991 commission: 269.286 

1995 commission: 298. 295. M)5 
Base operating support (see also Contract base 

support): 169 
Bases (see Military installations) 
Base structure: 47-48. 68. 71. 127. 273 
Basic military training (also see Military Training): 

9-10, 40. 46. 54, 56. 64. 73-74, 76-77, 87, 92, 102. 

112, 133. 139. 157, 162. 169. 173. 174. 188.204, 

226, 229, 234, 236, 240. 248. 264, 265, 277, 288, 

293, 297, 306, 323. 335-38, 344, 345. 347. 353 

Attrition in: 297 

Biennial review of: 288 

Coeducational, introduction of: 56 

Courses for officers: 1 13, 122, 335, ."^47 

Gender Integrated Training: 306 

Integration with recruiting and technical training: 

Split phase training: 157. 160. 162 

Warrior Week: 302, 308-9. 316 
Basic training center: 8, 9, 10, 17. 19, 25, 345, 350 
Bay of Pigs: 152 
Beaghen.T. W..2Lt. USAF: 111 
Beech Aircraft Corporation: 279, 295, 297 
Belgium: 65, 228 
Bell Helicopter Corporation: 174 
Berlin Airlift: 53. 54 
Berlin Wall crisis: 133. 135. 136 
Berlin. Germany: 35 
Big Spring. Texas: 73. 82. 340, 356 
Blood donor centers: 274 
Boeing .Mrcraft Company: 73, 155, 187. 195 
Boles. Billy J.. Gen, USAF: 296. .^01 . 304 
Bomarc: 152 

Bombardment training (see Training, bombardment) 
Boom Bucket (see TE-105A Election Seat Trainer) 
Branch Level Training Management System: 217 
Brandt. Carl A.. Maj Gen. U.SAF: 1 10, 1 16, 122. 130 
Breedlove, James M., Maj Gen, USAF: 199 
Briggs, James E.. Lt Gen, USAF: 122, 130, 136. 143. 

Bright Spark: 209 

British Flying Training School program: I I 
Brooke General Hospital: 70 

Brooke Army Medical Center: 253. 256. 264 
Budget (cuts) reductions: 51. 156. 180. 245. 251. 

295. 298 

Burge, Vernon I... Cpl. US Army: 19 

Burns. Robert W.. Maj Gen. USAF: 54. 59. 64. 72. 
Bush. George H. W.. Presidcni ol the rniieti Slates: 

Busy Plotter: 229 

C-8 synthetic trainer: 50 

Cadou study: 212 

Camera gun: 27. 39 

Canada: 1. 140.228 

Cannon. John K.. l.i Gen. USAF: 42. 47. 54. 333 

Captivair trainer: 48. 49 

Career Education Certificate: 191 

Career field training management plan: 278 

Career specialty code (also see Air Force specialty 

code): 66. 244 
Career Trainer Force: 273 
Carson. Charles W.. Jr.. Maj Cien. USAF: 1S2 
Carter. Jimnis (James Earl). Presidcni of the United 

States: 212.280 
Centers (see Training centers) 
Central Instructors School isee Schools) 
Centur\ Problem: 95 
Cheney. Richard B.: 264 
China:' 12. 26 

Civil Aeronautics Authority: 6 
Civil Air Patrol (see USAF Civil An Pairol) 
Ci\ il Engineer: 290 
Civ ilian .Automated Training Otf ice (see .ATC 

Civilian Automated Training Office) 
Civilian hiring freeze: 109. 257 
Ci\ ilian mechanics schools: 8 
Civilian trade schools: 7 
Civiliani/ation: 70 
Clark, Harold I... I.t (later Brig Gen), Army Air 

Corps: 3. 4 
Cleveland. Charles G., Maj Gen, USAF: 220, 224. 

228. 238 
Closed circuit television: 179 
Cochran. Jackie: 209 
Coeducation: 56 
College for Enlisted Professional Military Education: 

28 1 . 284. 289, 295, .^00, 303, 309, 3 12,31 7, 323. 

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 

Education: 2.34. 281. 285. 289. 295. 296. .3(X). 

.^()l..3()3. .W9. 312. 317. 323. 327 
College training detachments: 25 
Colorado Springs. Colorado: 97. 198. 243. 2.54. 277. 

Combat Controller (see Technical training. Types of 

Combat search and rescue (see Search and rescue) 
Combat Wing Organization: 328 
Commanilani of Troops: 1 86 
Command Readiness Exercise System; 234